A brief introduction of agriculture


Introduction to Agriculture

  • Agriculture. The word agriculture is derived from a Latin word- ager or agri meaning soil, and ‘culture’ meaning…
  • Subsistence Farming. Subsistence Farming – This is farming which is done for consumption of the farm owners, can be…
  • Commercial Farming. When farmers grow crops and rear animals for economic activity, it becomes Commercial…

Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the soil, growing crops and raising livestock. It includes the preparation of plant and animal products for people to use and their distribution to markets. Agriculture provides most of the world’s food and fabrics.May 19, 2022


What are the basics of Agriculture?

Basics of Agriculture. Agriculture includes, on the one hand, the cultivation of plants, vegetables, fruits, and flowers, and on the other – livestock and fishing. 1000 BC earlier humans have started agricultural practices.Early humans have an addiction to eat raw fruits, roots, and animals for meat to fulfill food needs.

What is the foundation of Agriculture?

WWF works in collaboration with a wide range of players to:

  • Convene multi-stakeholder roundtables that define and measurably reduce the impacts of growing priority commodities
  • Identify and implement better management practices that protect the environment and producers’ bottom line
  • Create financial incentives to encourage biodiversity conservation
  • Improve agricultural policies

More items…

What is the evolution of Agriculture?

Since the beginning of agriculture, ways have been sought to facilitate and speed up the work of farmers in the field. That is why agriculture evolves hand in hand with technology, and technical advances are constant throughout history. These advances have been immense and have completely changed the efficiency of the farm.

What are the four types of Agriculture?

  • Scale
  • Type of crop
  • Livestock combinations
  • Intensity
  • Means of distribution of farm produce
  • Level of mechanization

What is brief history of agriculture?

The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago.

Who introduced agriculture?

Egyptians were among the first peoples to practice agriculture on a large scale, starting in the pre-dynastic period from the end of the Paleolithic into the Neolithic, between around 10,000 BC and 4000 BC.

Why was the introduction of agriculture important?

Humans invented agriculture. Farming enabled people to grow all the food they needed in one place, with a much smaller group of people. This led to massive population growth, creating cities and trade.

Why agriculture is Important Write a short paragraph?

Agriculture plays a very vital role in our life. Without agriculture, the existence of human beings is not possible as it is the main source of our food supply to sustain on the earth and it also helps to grow our economy across the world.

When was agriculture introduced?

approximately 10,000 years agoAgricultural communities developed approximately 10,000 years ago when humans began to domesticate plants and animals. By establishing domesticity, families and larger groups were able to build communities and transition from a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle dependent on foraging and hunting for survival.

What is agriculture PDF?

Agriculture is an applied science which encompasses all aspects of crop production including horticulture, livestock rearing, fisheries, forestry, etc. Agriculture is defined as an art, science and business of producing crops and livestock for economic purposes.

Why is agriculture important important?

It’s the source of our food supply. Arguably the most important aspect of agriculture is that it’s the source of the world’s food supply. No matter where or what you are eating, the ingredients in your meals came from somewhere. All roads lead to agriculture.

What are the types of agriculture?

Top 12 Types of AgricultureSubsistence Farming: … Intensive Subsistence Farming (with or without Rice as a dominant crop): … Mediterranean Farming: … Commercial Grain Agriculture: … Arable Farming: … Shifting Cultivation: … Nomadic Herding: … Rudimentary Sedentary Tillage:More items…•

Where did agriculture started?

Multiple Origins of Agriculture Some of the earliest archeological evidence for agriculture comes from the Yellow River region of China, where the people raised rice and millet some fifteen thousand years ago.

What is agriculture short essay?

Agriculture is the main occupation in India. Two-third of population is dependent on agriculture directly or indirectly. It is not merely a source of livelihood but a way of life. It is the main source of food, fodder and fuel. It is the basic foundation of economic development.

What is agriculture essay?

Agriculture can be broadly termed as the scientific process of farming, that is, growing crops and raising livestock. It involves producing plant and animal-based products for the consumption of mankind. From the food on your plate to the clothes that you wear, all are end products of the agricultural system.

What is agriculture explain in 100 words?

Agriculture describes the practice of growing crops or raising animals. Someone who works as a farmer is in the agriculture industry. The Latin root of agriculture is agri, or “field,” plus cultura, “cultivation.” Cultivating a piece of land, or planting and growing food plants on it, is largely what agriculture means.

How did farming start?

The three field crop rotation system was replaced with a four field system and sweeping enclosure acts regulated land management, selective cross-breeding began on an industrial scale to increase crop size as well as yields creating several cultivars in the process. Animal husbandry also improved, leading to a greater surplus than had been permissible under the old system. It is said that these changes permitted the industrial revolution and even greater concentration of urban development, fueling the empire. How so? More crops for fewer workers, better methods of keeping and replacing nutrients in the soil meant that more people could work in industry. When the Corn Laws in England were repealed, it began the global food economy; about the same time, Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution put agriculture on the modern path of a science as we began to understand the development of crops.

What is agriculture in the US?

Agriculture is defined as the cultivation and exploitation of animals, plants (including fungi) and other forms of organic life for human use including food, fiber, medicines, fuel and anything else. It is, and has been since there was an agricultural market, one of the largest employers of people; in the USA today, agriculture represents 20% of the US economy (1). Before organised agriculture, it is believed that the food supply could provide for just 4 million people globally (21).

What were the crops of Mesoamerica?

In Mesoamerica and South America, with the Inca, the Maya, Olmecs and the Aztecs, relatively early development of agriculture permitted the building of enormous cities that impressed the European colonizers; it was quickly identified that these civilizations had an impressive agriculture-based economy that stood on a par with Europe, challenging what was then understood about the development of civilization. In Mesoamerica it was corn and in South America it was the humble potato (18) – today the staple crop of most people in the western world, along with coca and the domestication of animal species such as llama and alpaca.

What did hunter-gatherers do?

For most of our existence, humans were hunter-gatherers. This means that people lived a nomadic lifestyle, moving with the seasons to follow the food supply. As the glaciers retreated and plant life patterns and growth areas changed in response, it meant that the need to move so often became slightly less essential – though undoubtedly the lifestyle carried on for thousands of years as people sought to maximize their resource acquisition (4, p574-5). Hunter-gatherer societies would have known which crops were best to exploit with each season.

What was the Middle East’s agricultural revolution?

The Middle East continued to see much innovation in the agricultural industries, something that historians refer to as The Arab Agricultural Revolution (10). This was thanks to the diversity of the local topographies, the crops grown in the Middle East and Indus Valley that European societies coveted, and later acted as a trade bridge between Far East and Europe (11).

What is the early civilization?

Early Civilization. Early civilization can be considered a boom time in agricultural science and technology. Around 5500 BC (7, p26-28), the Sumerian civilization of the Middle East and other early pre Greco-Roman civilizations understood the need for a specialized agricultural workforce for their societies to thrive.

When did agriculture start in North America?

It is likely that agriculture came to the North America relatively late, perhaps between 2500 and 2000 BC and we see it extensively with such civilizations as the Hohokam, the Anasazi and ancient Pueblos (17), possibly developing in Mesoamerica around 6000 BC with the domestication of maize.

What is an introduction to agriculture?

These notes are series of lectures delivered by teachers of Agronomy of the University of Agriculture Peshawar Pakistan. These notes will also be helpful for those who are aspirant to pass CSS , FPSC or any other competitive exams about agriculture conducted in Pakistan.

Where does the word “agriculture” come from?

The word agriculture is derived from the Latin word ager ………….its m ean soil and cultural means cultivation. Simply

What is sustainable agriculture?

Sustainable agriculture seeks to improve the entire food and agricultural sy stem by balancing production and. consumption. For example, a farmer practicing sustainable agriculture m ay use the manure from the animals to fertilize the fields.

What are some animal products that are considered to be a food?

ducks, and turkeys; animal products such as milk, cheese, and eggs; and nuts an d oils. Fruits, vegetables, and olives are also

What animals are used to grow crops?

Animals including horses, oxen, llamas, alpacas, and dogs , however, are still used to cultivate fields, harves t crops, and transport farm products to markets in. many parts of the world. Airplanes and helicopters are employ ed in agriculture for seeding, spraying operations for insect and.

Why are our lands so small?

Our lands are so small because of small holdings and because of population we in Pakistan grow more crops in one year.

Which organization regulates the food industry?

international concern. It is regulated by the World Trade Organization. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United

What is the origin of agriculture?

The word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, “field”, and cultūra, ” cultivation ” or “growing”. While agriculture usually refers to human activities, certain species of ant, termite and beetle have been cultivating crops for up to 60 million years.

When did agriculture start?

The scientific study of agriculture began in the 18th century, when Johann Friedrich Mayer conducted experiments on the use of gypsum (hydrated calcium sulphate) as a fertilizer. Research became more systematic when in 1843, John Lawes and Henry Gilbert began a set of long-term agronomy field experiments at Rothamsted Research Station in England; some of them, such as the Park Grass Experiment, are still running. In America, the Hatch Act of 1887 provided funding for what it was the first to call “agricultural science”, driven by farmers’ interest in fertilizers. In agricultural entomology, the USDA began to research biological control in 1881; it instituted its first large program in 1905, searching Europe and Japan for natural enemies of the gypsy moth and brown-tail moth, establishing parasitoids (such as solitary wasps) and predators of both pests in the USA.

How does livestock affect the environment?

A senior UN official, Henning Steinfeld, said that “Livestock are one of the most significant contributors to today’s most serious environmental problems”. Livestock production occupies 70% of all land used for agriculture, or 30% of the land surface of the planet. It is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases, responsible for 18% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO 2 equivalents. By comparison, all transportation emits 13.5% of the CO 2. It produces 65% of human-related nitrous oxide (which has 296 times the global warming potential of CO 2) and 37% of all human-induced methane (which is 23 times as warming as CO 2 .) It also generates 64% of the ammonia emission. Livestock expansion is cited as a key factor driving deforestation; in the Amazon basin 70% of previously forested area is now occupied by pastures and the remainder used for feedcrops. Through deforestation and land degradation, livestock is also driving reductions in biodiversity. Furthermore, the UNEP states that ” methane emissions from global livestock are projected to increase by 60 per cent by 2030 under current practices and consumption patterns.”

What is the basis of pastoral agriculture for several Arctic and Subarctic peoples?

Reindeer herds form the basis of pastoral agriculture for several Arctic and Subarctic peoples.

How does agriculture increase yield?

Agriculture seeks to increase yield and to reduce costs. Yield increases with inputs such as fertilisers and removal of pathogens , predators, and competitors (such as weeds). Costs decrease with increasing scale of farm units, such as making fields larger; this means removing hedges, ditches and other areas of habitat.

What was the Arab agricultural revolution?

The Arab Agricultural Revolution, starting in Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain), transformed agriculture with improved techniques and the diffusion of crop plants.

How many people were employed in agriculture in the 21st century?

At the start of the 21st century, some one billion people, or over 1/3 of the available work force, were employed in agriculture. It constitutes approximately 70% of the global employment of children, and in many countries employs the largest percentage of women of any industry.

What is the science of agriculture?

Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the soil, growing crops and raising livestock. It includes the preparation of plant and animal products for people to use and their distribution to markets. Agriculture provides most of the world’s food and fabrics. Cotton, wool, and leather are all agricultural products.

Where did agriculture originate?

The earliest civilizations based on intensive agriculture arose near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Mesopotamia (now Iraq and Iran) and along the Nile River in Egypt. Improved Technology. For thousands of years, agricultural development was very slow. One of the earliest agricultural tools was fire.

How do farmers protect their crops from pests?

Traditionally, farmers have used a variety of methods to protect their crops from pests and diseases. They have put herb-based poisons on crops, handpicked insects off plants, bred strong varieties of crops, and rotated crops to control insects. Now, almost all farmers, especially in developed countries, rely on chemicals to control pests. The definition of “pest” ranges from insects to animals such as rabbits and mice, as well as weeds and disease-causing organisms—bacteria, viruses, and fungi. With the use of chemicals, crop losses and prices have declined dramatically.

What animals did people domesticate?

People also domesticated cattle and pigs. Most of these animals had once been hunted for hides and meat. Now many of them are also sources of milk, cheese, and butter. Eventually, people used domesticated animals such as oxen for plowing, pulling, and transportation. Agriculture enabled people to produce surplus food.

How did agriculture help people?

Agriculture enabled people to produce surplus food. They could use this extra food when crops failed or trade it for other goods. Food surpluses allowed people to work at other tasks unrelated to farming. Agriculture kept formerly nomadic people near their fields and led to the development of permanent villages.

What tools did people use to make food?

Over time, improved farming tools of bone, stone, bronze, and iron were developed. New methods of storage evolved. People began stockpiling foods in jars and clay-lined pits for use in times of scarcity. They also began making clay pots and other vessels for carrying and cooking food.

How did agriculture contribute to the rise of civilizations?

Start of Agriculture. Over centuries, the growth of agriculture contributed to the rise of civilizations. Before agriculture became widespread, people spent most of their lives searching for food—hunting wild animals and gathering wild plants.

What are the issues facing agriculture?

It concludes by looking at some of the controversial issues facing contemporary agriculture: its sustainability; its impact on wildlife and landscape; issues of animal welfare; and the effect of climate change and the development of genetically modified organisms on farmers.

Why is soil important to farmers?

Beginning with the most basic resource, the soil, it shows why it is important, and how farmers can increase its productivity, before turning to the plants and animals that grow on it , and tracing the connections between their biology and the various ways in which farmers work with them.

Why did the first arable farmers grow useful plants?

The planned cultivation of useful plants probably didn’t stem from any conscious desire to create a better society , but was born of necessity, as the high population density meant that hunting grounds were depleted. Archaeological findings show that the first arable farmers were smaller and less long-lived than the neighbouring clans of hunter-gatherers. Indeed illness and malnutrition were widespread among the farmers.

What is our relationship to arable farming?

Our relationship to arable farming is a strenuous symbiosis. Credit: DmitriMaruta / iStock

Will agriculture be more complex?

The agricultural systems of the future will be more complex and diverse. We will have to manage them more specifically due to rising disease pressure. And yes, the use of chemicals, soil erosion and compaction, and over-exploitation of water and land must all be reduced!



Early Civilization

Early to Modern Civilization

  • The Middle East continued to see much innovation in the agricultural industries, something that historians refer to as The Arab Agricultural Revolution (10). This was thanks to the diversity of the local topographies, the crops grown in the Middle East and Indus Valley that European societies coveted, and later acted as a trade bridge between Far East and Europe (11). In Europe, little cha…

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The Americas

  • Mass agricultural practices were not particularly present in North America until the arrival of the European colonists. It’s certainly not true that the Native Americans had no agriculture; indeed, there is evidence for some limited agricultural practices (16) but it was not universal across the tribes. Some were completely nomadic and some were largely static – these were not geographi…

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Modern Farming

  • Modern farming began around the 18thcentury in what is generally referred to as “The British Agricultural Revolution” when several advances and changes were made to farming in a short space of time that saw massive increases in yield and a more efficient process. The three field crop rotation system was replaced with a four field system and sweepin…

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The Ecological Age

  • “Sustainability” is the buzzword today as we look to balance several conflicting needs – to protect the environment and to instigate practices that protects it while providing for the growing needs of the future population growth. Today, our food supply feeds 7 billion people and there is still enough surplus for more going forward (20). We know though that some of these practices hav…

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Agriculture or farming is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farm…


The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centers of origin. Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. In the Paleolithic levant, 23,000 years a…

Etymology and scope

The word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager ‘field’ and cultūra ‘cultivation’ or ‘growing’. While agriculture usually refers to human activities, certain species of ant, termite and beetle have been cultivating crops for up to 60 million years. Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to “produce commodities which maintain life, including food, fiber, forest products, horticultural crops, and t…


Pastoralism involves managing domesticated animals. In nomadic pastoralism, herds of livestock are moved from place to place in search of pasture, fodder, and water. This type of farming is practised in arid and semi-arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia and some parts of India.
In shifting cultivation, a small area of forest is cleared by cutting and burning th…

Contemporary agriculture

From the twentieth century, intensive agriculture increased productivity. It substituted synthetic fertilizers and pesticides for labour, but caused increased water pollution, and often involved farm subsidies. In recent years there has been a backlash against the environmental effects of conventional agriculture, resulting in the organic, regenerative, and sustainable agriculture movements. O…


Overall production varies by country as listed.
Cropping systems vary among farms depending on the available resources and constraints; geography and climate of the farm; government policy; economic, social and political pressures; and the philosophy and culture of the farmer.
Shifting cultivation (or slash and burn) is a system in which forests are burnt, r…

Crop alteration and biotechnology

Crop alteration has been practiced by humankind for thousands of years, since the beginning of civilization. Altering crops through breeding practices changes the genetic make-up of a plant to develop crops with more beneficial characteristics for humans, for example, larger fruits or seeds, drought-tolerance, or resistance to pests. Significant advances in plant breeding ensue…

Environmental impact

Agriculture is both a cause of and sensitive to environmental degradation, such as biodiversity loss, desertification, soil degradation and global warming, which cause decrease in crop yield. Agriculture is one of the most important drivers of environmental pressures, particularly habitat change, climate change, water use and toxic emissions. Agriculture is the main source of toxins released into the …

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