A developing nation needs more of industry or agriculture discuss


How does agriculture ensure economic growth of developing countries?

Furthermore, agriculture also ensures economic growth of developing countries. Agriculture is a fundamental source of income for developing nation that exists on this globe. Not only because of it provides food for our daily life, but mostly all the industries in the country depend on agriculture both directly and indirectly.

What is the difference between the developed and developing world agriculture?

The average size of cultivational holding is small in the developing world whereas that is big in the developed world 3. A part of agriculture is not commercialized in the developing world. This could be for subsistence with a focus on food crops.

Can a nation grow efficiently with a stable agricultural base?

None of the nation that consists of huge amount of hungry people can grow efficiently with a stable agricultural base because hungry people can do nothing towards helping to develop their country. Food security prevents starvation which often been considered as one of the serious problems that being faced by the small developing countries.

What are the basic requirements for the development of Agriculture?

The development of agriculture requires roads, market yards, storage, transportation railways, postal services and many others for an infrastructure creating demand for industrial products and the development of commercial sector. 7. Relief from Shortage of Capital:


How has agriculture changed in the last two decades?

The structure of agricultural production in developing countries has radically changed in the last two decades. Since the late 60s and 70s, the World Bank and its various agricultural research institutes have actively promoted the adoption of industrial (high chemical input) agricultural methods such as the Green Revolution ‘miracle’ seeds, promising landfall yields. These high technology methods were expected to benefit all farmers, including the poor. Since yields would increase, incomes were also expected to increase.

What is industrial agriculture?

Industrial agriculture generally means the dependence of food production on high inputs — chemical fertilizers, pesticides, water, as well as the increasing use of machines. Industrial farming entails extracting maximum output from the land in the shortest possible time.

What is the South Centre’s main objective?

An important objective of the South Centre under programme on international trade and development issues is to provide short and timely analytical inputs on selected key issues under negotiations in the WTO. The publication of concise analytical papers under the T.R.A.D.E. occasional paper series is an attempt to achieve this objective. These occasional papers will provide brief analyses of chosen topics to assist developing country negotiations but will not aim to offer exhaustive treatment of each and every aspect of the issue.

Why do farmers have a cost squeeze?

As costs of production increase, farmers experience a cost-price squeeze. In this process, only the larger farms can survive. The market is such that the costs for small farmers to use the high input system are larger than for big farmers. Poor farmers cannot afford to buy fertilizer and inputs in volume.

Why are modern varieties more efficient than traditional varieties?

According to analysts Lappe, Collins and Rosset,1the main reason why ‘modern varieties’ produce more than traditional varieties is that they are more responsive to controlled irrigation and petrochemical fertilizers, hence allowing for much more efficient conversion of industrial inputs into food. Other researchers such as Palmer of the UNRISD has termed them ‘high-responses varieties (HRVs), rather than high yielding seeds. In the absence of the fertilizers and irrigation, the new seeds in fact have lower yields than indigenous varieties.2

How did the Green Revolution affect hunger?

Did the Green Revolution reduce hunger? Comparing the number of hungry people in the world in 1970 versus 1990 (spanning the two decades of major Green Revolution advances), a first glance seems to indicate significant progress. The total food available per person in the world rose by 11 per cent. The number of chronically undernourished fell from 942 million to 786 million, a 16 per cent drop.5

How many countries have been forced to take on structural adjustment packages since the 1980s?

Since the 1980s, close to 100 countries have been forced to take on structural adjustment packages. The policies included on the one hand forced liberalization, and on the other, the conversion of domestic agricultural production for exports.

What is the role of agriculture?

Role of Agriculture: To begin with the concept of priority or preference of one sector and one technology over another is a slippery one. For instance, A. W. Lewis once remarked that “Agriculture has been the weakest link in the development chain.”. On the other hand, there is another argument that suggests that agricultural productivity …

How does agriculture contribute to economic growth?

The market contribution of agriculture to economic growth refers to the fact that the demand from agriculture acts as the source of autonomous demand for industrial goods. As a result of agricultural progress there occurs a market extension for industrial goods. Agriculture thus has linkages with the industrial sector—there is a complementarity between the two sectors.

Why is industrialization important?

Industrialisation offers substantial benefits that are crucial for structural transformation of LDCs. The concept of big push or balanced growth reflects deliberate industrialisation of these economies. Those who favour in giving a special priority to industry over agriculture put arguments like:

How does agriculture help rural communities?

Any effort for rural development would help in reducing the rural-urban gaps. Agricultura l development thus helps in improving social welfare, particularly in the rural areas. In the process, the rural masses enjoy a better way of living.

What is the precondition for rapid industrial growth?

A pre­condition for rapid industrial growth is a rapidly expanding agricultural sector. Dr Bright Singh asserts that increase in agricultural production and the rise in farm incomes together with industria­lisation and urbanisation lead to an increased demand for industrial products. Thus, a sluggish growth in agriculture acts as a drag on industrial development.

How does the agricultural sector provide capital?

In addition, agricultural sector provides funds for capital formation through (i) transfer of labour and capital from farm sector to the non-farm sectors, (ii) export of surplus agricultural products, (iii) turning the terms of trade against agriculture by imposing price controls on agricultural goods by taxation or by using multiple exchange rates against agriculture, etc.

Why is industrial growth cyclical?

Industrial growth more or less guarantees income stability and revenue stability to the government. Industry is also subject to cyclical ups and downs but not so like agriculture. Again, because of interdependence between agriculture and industry, the industrial output may exhibit cyclical variability.

What is the development of agriculture?

The development of agriculture requires roads, market yards, storage, transportation railways, postal services and many others for an infrastructure creating demand for industrial products and the development of commercial sector.

Why is agriculture important for the economy?

If agriculture fails to meet the rising demand of food products, it is found to affect adversely the growth rate of the economy. Raising supply of food by agricultura l sector has, therefore, great importance for economic growth of a country.

How does rural economy affect social welfare?

The rising agricultural surplus caused by increasing agricultural production and productivity tends to improve social welfare, particularly in rural areas. The living standard of rural masses rises and they start consuming nutritious diet including eggs, milk, ghee and fruits. They lead a comfortable life having all modern amenities—a better house, motor-cycle, radio, television and use of better clothes.

Why is the progress in agriculture important?

The progress in agricultural sector provides surplus for increasing the exports of agricultural products. In the earlier stages of development, an increase in the exports earning is more desirable because of the greater strains on the foreign exchange situation needed for the financing of imports of basic and essential capital goods.

What is the role of agriculture in the economy?

Agricultural sector plays a strategic role in the process of economic development of a country. It has already made a significant contribution to the economic prosperity of advanced countries and its role in the economic development of less developed countries is of vital importance. ADVERTISEMENTS: In other words, where per capita real income is …

How can agriculture reduce inequality?

In a country which is predominantly agricultural and overpopulated, there is greater inequality of income between the rural and urban areas of the country. To reduce this inequality of income, it is necessary to accord higher priority to agriculture. The prosperity of agriculture would raise the income of the majority of the rural population and thus the disparity in income may be reduced to a certain extent.

Why is increased agricultural output important?

It is seen that increased agricultural output and productivity tend to contribute substantially to an overall economic development of the country, it will be rational and appropriate to place greater emphasis on further development of the agricultural sector.

Why is agriculture dependent on industry?

Agriculture is also dependent on industry for the supply of materials for building up social and economic overheads in the agricultural sector. Further, many raw materials and inputs used in industrial production, e.g., cotton, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, etc., is supplied by the agricultural sector. Such production linkages demonstrate …

Why is agriculture no longer a pride of place?

That is why agricul­tural land is now being forcibly taken away for industrial development, infrastructural develop­ments, and so on.

How does agricultural production affect the economy?

As agricultural production and productivity rises above the subsistence requirement, the volume of marketable surplus increases which provides sinews of industrialisation, particularly in the rural sector. Again, the rising volume of savings and capital formation consequent upon rising farm incomes give strong stimulus to demand for manufactured goods. Investment in one sector pulls investment of other sectors up thereby accelerating overall growth rate of the economy.

What are the linkages between the two sectors?

Demand linkages between the two sectors suggest that demand for one sector’s product pulls demand for another sector in an upward direction. Urbanisation and industrialisation are synonymous. Under the impact of Green Revolution, agricul­turists now experience rising rural incomes which has brought a change in the pattern of tastes and preferences of rural people. Increased rural income has resulted in an entry of industrial consumer goods, like TV, refrigerator, modem, car, footwear, refined sugar, edible oils, motorbikes, etc.

What are the three most important linkages in an underdeveloped economy?

The three most important linkages are : production linkages, demand linkages,

What happens to the agricultural sector as non-farm income increases?

Similarly, the rise in non-farm incomes leads to an increase in the demand for various agricultural products. In the process, agricultural sector becomes diversified, modernised.

Why is self-reliant agriculture important?

A self-reliant agriculture capable of exporting surplus food-grains helps in saving scarce foreign exchange resources of the country. Now these resources can be better utilised for importing capital goods and crucial raw materials needed for industrialisation effort.

Why did certain countries industrialise and become richly endowed with capital and technology and therefore move towards a higher?

Why did certain countries industrialise and become richly endowed with capital and technology and therefore move towards a higher standard of living? The answer is, in England by the 1780s traders and merchants became very powerful due to the development of overseas trade, following the colonisation of North America and Bengal province in India. The other crucial factor which contributed to the industrial revolution in England was agrarian changes i.e. in the form of new crops, the adoption of new methods of agricultural production, and ‘Enclosures Acts’ of Parliament, where the landlords were given possession of land by depriving the peasants of their traditional common lands. The ‘enclosed lands’ were cultivated as much larger units and by using new production techniques; this also cleared the way for increased commercialisation of agriculture. The increased agricultural surplus was sold in the market and those peasants and tenants who lost their traditional means of support were expelled from the land and forced to find employment outside in the cities, i.e. as Karl Marx described it ‘by selling their labour’ i.e. labour itself became a commodity.

Why is the division of the world into rich and poor countries important?

The division of the world into rich and poor countries is, I think, considerably important because it creates misunderstandings and prejudice about the poor countries. In fact, the division of the world into rich and poor countries as exist today is a recent phenomenon in our long human history.

How did China achieve domestic industrialization?

During the 1980s, China focused on domestic industrialisation and to achieve this, the state intervention was seen a pre-condition, as was adopted a few decades earlier by Japan and South Korea. The government opened-up a few coastal areas for foreign investments in joint ventures in industries, where the focus was to encourage the transfer of technology, skills, know-how and exports. Moreover, rural reforms rapidly increased rural productivity and output. As Hazwan (2020:16) observes: “the productivity in the agricultural sector and the subsequent reallocation of labour to the non-state sector developed the rural economy. However, the productivity gains made began to level of as TFP (total factor productivity) rates remained constant between 4 to 5% during the 1990s…. the rural sector contributed to the economy more than the urban sector before it exhausted its productivity gains.” China’s cheap and abundant labour along with high domestic saving rates and also in the early 1990s China became one of the largest inflows of foreign capital in the developing world. The overseas investment initially has enabled the economy to benefit from capital accumulation through overseas investment and thus was able to absorb superior and deploy foreign technology and management skills, which resulted in rapid growth rates. Hazwan (2020:18) concludes: “many foreign firms have viewed China as a source of economical labour, while China has recognised the value of foreign firms, benefiting from capital inflow, managerial knowledge and superior foreign technology that can be absorbed, allowing the economy to benefit more than through simple capital formation… specialising in labour intensive and light manufacturing goods… .”

What is the trade theory of comparative advantage?

The well-known, Ricardo’s trade theory of ‘comparative advantage’ is the primarily cost-based theory, but it ignores the historical development of industries in the developed countries. His trade theory explains very little about the factors behind the successful move towards industrialisation by some latecomer countries (Siddiqui, 2018d; see 2017c). More recent trade theories, for example, Krugman (1979) and Findlay (1978) acknowledge the important role of technological transfers in order to achieve higher incomes. They note that those developing countries, which have successfully been able to establish industries and advancements in technology thus catch-up with developed countries by adopting the latter’s technology. This is the same argument put forward by Vernon’s life cycle model (1966), which emphasises that the cost of production is a critical factor behind the choice of production moving to developing countries. It is claimed that the industries would shift at the later stages of the product life, from developed to developing countries, and then the developing countries could gain access to advanced technologies and know-how. As a result, this could trigger a process of expansion of manufacturing.

How did capitalism develop in Britain?

Historically, the development of capitalism in Britain from the early 18th century as the merchant and bank capital had invested heavily in colonial and overseas operations, including slavery, which was backed by the state and the navy . And by the end of the 18th century, industries began to develop, and industrial capital emerged, which was detached from the City of London based on nexus of merchants, bankers, and aristocrats. However, this had disadvantaged manufacturing ever since and the bankers and traders were unwilling to lend to manufactures and these financiers always had been interested in overseas. In contrast to Germany and Japan, where there has been a close relationship between banks and industry. However, in Britain, the industries have had to rely their financial needs on the stock exchange and have had to pay high dividends to shareholders. From the late 19th century the rentiers and speculative capital were reinforced by the development of large urban property estates on high commercial rents and they were closely connected to banks. Also, the exchange rate and monetary policy have been geared in the interests of financial capital. In fact, the exchange rate has been kept at a high level for manufactured exports and interest rates tend to be set high, which produced a chronic deflationary bias, which undermines productive investments (Siddiqui, 2018a; 2015a).

What was the economic growth of East Asia in 1960?

The faster economic growth of Asia was the result of the considerable structural transformation as is clear from Asia’s share in world industrial production (See Figure 3), increasing 10 times from a minuscule 4% to over 40% during the same period. (Siddiqui, 2021c) The transformation of East Asia from the most backward and impoverished region, to the growth locomotive of the world economy within forty years is unprecedented in human history and in fact, a positive development for other late-comer industrialising countries.

What percentage of British capital was invested in foreign companies in 1900?

In 1900, nearly 50% of the total British capital was invested abroad, which still continues. As Norfield notes: “in 2013, Britain had the second-largest stock of foreign direct investments [after the US]… Among the top 500 global corporations in 2011…the UK was in second place behind the US, with 34 companies…Of the world’s top 100 non-financial corporations in 2013, ranked by the value of their foreign assets, 23 were US companies, 16 were British and 11 were French, while Germany and Japan each had ten.” (Cited in Calinicos, 2016) After, World War I, despite Britain’s imperial decline, but still it was able to maintain the power of the City of London. And after World War II, the country created tax havens for rich foreigners.

Why is agriculture important in developing countries?

It is not only important to developing countries but developed country too. It importance is ranges from providing employment to economic development of country.

Which region will be developed in the next decade?

The only region that can go developed in the next decade is Eastern Europe.

What is dependent employment?

Dependence: Employment for unskilled labour in such economies that lack education, science and technology and thus achieve incompetence in manufacturing and are unable to bring to market internationally competitive goods and services.

Which country is the most prosperous in the world?

Leaving Uzbekistan and Tajikistan which are poor, the rest of the region is relatively well-off for developing countries and equivalent to world average. Russia is the most prosperous with close to 30K per capita income. All of countries came out of Soviet Union (except Mongolia which not formal in the union but a satellite state of USSR) in 1990s and have performed relatively well in terms of growth with only Tajikistan being significantly slower than world average.

Is the Middle East rich?

But on the positive side many countries are still richer than world average and China.

Is Pakistan a poor country?

The region is relatively poor and none of the countries are above world average but have grown much faster than global average (except Pakistan). Going fast but a long way to go…

Can a country feed itself?

No country is sound that cannot feed itself. Of course it is permissible to trade one food item for another produced in a different country as long as the traded commodity is produced in sufficient quantity.

How does agriculture help in developing countries?

In developing countries, agricultural jobs help reduce high rates of unemployment. When it comes to reducing poverty, evidence shows that focusing on agriculture is significantly more effective than investing in other areas. #5. It’s crucial to a country’s development.

Why is agriculture important?

Here are ten reasons why agriculture is important: #1. It’s the main source of raw materials. Many raw materials, whether it’s cotton, sugar, wood, or palm oil, come from agriculture. These materials are essential to major industries in ways many people aren’t even aware of, such as the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, diesel fuel, plastic, …

How does agriculture help the environment?

It can help heal the environment. Agriculture possesses the power to harm or heal. When farmers prioritize biodiversity on their land, it benefits the earth. Having more biodiversity results in healthier soil, less erosion, better water conservation, and healthier pollinators.

What happens to agriculture when it suffers?

Countries with plenty of those supplies export them and trade for materials they don’t have. If a country’s agriculture suffers for some reason, prices can go up and it disrupts the flow of trade.

Why is economic development important?

When trade, national revenue, and employment are combined in a positive way, a country enjoys reduced poverty and boosted economic growth.

Is agriculture a source of employment?

The agricultural industry is still one of the biggest sources of employment and in many areas, it’s actually booming. Whether it’s working as a farmer, harvester , technician for farm equipment, scientist, and so on, there are plenty of jobs available in this field. In developing countries, agricultural jobs help reduce high rates of unemployment. When it comes to reducing poverty, evidence shows that focusing on agriculture is significantly more effective than investing in other areas.

Do developing countries depend on agriculture?

Speaking of trade, developing countries still get most of their national income from agricultural exports. While developed countries don’t depend on agriculture as much as they used to, their economies would definitely take a hit if all exports suddenly stopped.

What are the differences between developed and developing countries?

What are the main differences between the agriculture industry of developed and developing nations? 1 A much higher share of population working in agriculture in developing countries, whereas that share is very small in the developed world 2 The average size of cultivational holding is small in the developing world whereas that is big in the developed world 3 A part of agriculture is not commercialized in the developing world. This could be for subsistence with a focus on food crops. Agriculture is highly commercialized in the developed world 4 The use of capital (including machines) is less in the developing world, whereas agriculture in the developed world is capita

Is technology available anywhere in the world?

Now any technological product or service is equally available any where in the world , be it a developing or developed country. What matters is affordability and Economic index of a nation

Is agriculture completed in developed countries?

In Developed agricultural nations, industry has been completed. Developing nations have not as yet been able to industrialize or create adequate agricultual industries


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