What is biodynamic agriculture?
Biodynamic agriculture is a form of alternative agriculture very similar to organic farming, but it includes various esoteric concepts drawn from the ideas of Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925). Initially developed in 1924, it was the first of the organic agriculture movements.
What percentage of the US population is employed in agriculture?
In 1870, almost 50 percent of the U.S. population was employed in agriculture. As of 2008, less than 2 percent of the population is directly employed in agriculture. In 2012, there were 3.2 million farmers, ranchers and other agricultural managers and an estimated 757,900 agricultural workers were legally employed in the US.
Which US states have the most agricultural land?
Alabama, at 1.6 million acres, Washington, at 1.5 million acres, and Michigan, at 1.3 million acres, round out the top five, according to the Midwest Center’s analysis. ^ “Latest U.S. Agricultural Trade Data.” Archived 2019-10-13 at the Wayback Machine USDA Economic Research Service. Ed. Stephen MacDonald. USDA, 6 Sept. 2018.
How many countries use biodynamic farming?
As of 2020, biodynamic techniques were used on 251,842 hectares in 55 countries, led by Germany, Australia and France. Germany accounts for 41.8% of the global total; the remainder average 1750 ha per country. Biodynamic methods of cultivating grapevines have been taken up by several notable vineyards.
Why are Steiner’s statements not provable?
According to Kirchmann, many of Steiner’s statements are not provable because scientifically clear hypotheses cannot be made from his descriptions. Kirchmann asserted that when methods of biodynamic agriculture were tested scientifically, the results were unconvincing. Further, in a 2004 overview of biodynamic agriculture, Linda Chalker-Scott, a researcher at Washington State University, characterized biodynamics as pseudoscience, writing that Steiner did not use scientific methods to formulate his theory of biodynamics, and that the later addition of valid organic farming techniques has “muddled the discussion” of Steiner’s original idea. Based on the scant scientific testing of biodynamics, Chalker-Scott concluded “no evidence exists” that homeopathic preparations improve the soil.
What did Steiner propose?
Steiner emphasized that the methods he proposed should be tested experimentally. For this purpose, Steiner established a research group, the “Agricultural Experimental Circle of Anthroposophical Farmers and Gardeners of the General Anthroposophical Society”. Between 1924 and 1939, this research group attracted about 800 members from around the world, including Europe, the Americas and Australasia. Another group, the “Association for Research in Anthroposophical Agriculture” ( Versuchsring anthroposophischer Landwirte ), directed by the German agronomist Erhard Bartsch, was formed to test the effects of biodynamic methods on the life and health of soil, plants and animals; the group published a monthly journal, Demeter. Bartsch was also instrumental in developing a sales organisation for biodynamic products, Demeter, which still exists today. The Research Association was renamed the Imperial Association for Biodynamic Agriculture ( Reichsverband für biologisch-dynamische Wirtschaftsweise) in 1933. It was dissolved by the National Socialist regime in 1941. In 1931 the association had 250 members in Germany, 109 in Switzerland, 104 in other European countries and 24 outside Europe. The oldest biodynamic farms are the Wurzerhof in Austria and Marienhöhe in Germany.
How many biodynamic organizations are there in Canada?
In Canada, there are currently three biodynamic organizations, The Society for Biodynamic Farming and Gardening in Ontario, The Biodynamic Agricultural Society of British Columbia and the Association de Biodynamie du Québec that are members of Demeter Canada.
What is the missing link between organic farming and biodynamic farming?
The conference has been described as the ‘missing link’ between biodynamic agriculture and organic farming because, in the year after Betteshanger, Northbourne published his manifesto of organic farming, Look to the Land, in which he coined the term ‘organic farming’ and praised the methods of Rudolf Steiner.
How does biodynamic agriculture differ from organic agriculture?
Biodynamic agriculture differs from many forms of organic agriculture in its spiritual, mystical, and astrological orientation . It shares a spiritual focus, as well as its view toward improving humanity, with the ” nature farming ” movement in Japan. : 5 Important features include the use of livestock manures to sustain plant growth (recycling of nutrients), maintenance and improvement of soil quality, and the health and well-being of crops and animals. Cover crops, green manures and crop rotations are used extensively and the farms to foster the diversity of plant and animal life, and to enhance the biological cycles and the biological activity of the soil.
Why is biodynamic agriculture considered a pseudoscience?
Biodynamic agriculture lacks strong scientific evidence for its efficacy and has been labeled a pseudoscience because of its reliance upon esoteric knowledge and mystical beliefs. As of 2020, biodynamic techniques were used on 251,842 hectares in 55 countries, led by Germany, Australia and France.
What is a social 3folding?
v. t. e. World map of biodynamic agriculture (hectares) Biodynamic agriculture is a form of alternative agriculture very similar to organic farming, but it includes various esoteric concepts drawn from the ideas of Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925). Initially developed in 1924, it was the first of the organic agriculture movements.
How many countries are there in the world for biodynamic agriculture?
world map of biodynamic agriculture is presented. The map accounts for 55 countries and a world total of 251,842 certified biodynamic hectares. Biodynamic farming is the progenitor of organic agriculture. Ground-zero for biodynamics and organics is the Agriculture Course presented in the summer of 1924 by Dr Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) to a group of 111 farmers and others at Koberwitz, Germany (now Kobierzyce, Poland). Rudolf Steiner called for a natural agriculture rejecting the prevailing thrust for the chemicalization of agriculture, evidenced, at the time, particularly by the uptake of synthetic fertilisers. Steiner’s “hints” have evolved into a suite of farming practices now called ‘biodynamic’ (BD) agriculture. One BD practitioner, Lord Northbourne, coined the term ‘organic farming’ (in 1940) and presented his manifesto of organic agriculture, Look to the Land, which has spawned the international alternative agriculture movement of organic farming. Germany leads the world with 84,426 BD hectares, followed by Australia with 49,797 BD ha, and France with 14,629 BD ha. Steiner’s particularised form of organic agriculture, viz. biodynamic farming, is a subset (of 30.0% and 0.35% respectively) of the 186 countries which account for a global total of 71,514,583 certified organic hectares. A table of countries and associated BD hectares is included. All hectare data reported in the present paper are for certified operations. The map presented is an area cartogram. The size and scope of the uncertified biodynamics and organics sectors remain undetermined.
Is Demeter International a biodynamics certifier?
Demeter International have provided most of the data used in this study. Demeter International is the world’s leading biodynamics certifier, however, for historical reasons its collations of global biodynamics statistics lack Australian data, and are therefore incomp lete. The Demeter name and logo date back in Europe to 1928 for biodynamics enterprise . However, in Australia, the Demeter name and logo were appropriated by Alex Podolinski (1925-2019) when he registered and trademarked them in 1968 without acknowledgement or permission of the originating European entity. This was despite the practice of biodynamics dating from 1928 in Australia by Ernesto Genoni (1885-1975), and the Demeter name being used for decades in Australia, since 1934, by Ernesto Genoni and Ileen Macpherson (1898-1984) [5, 18, 19].
What are some of the most important developments in agriculture?
The mechanization of farming and intensive farming have been major themes in U.S. history, including John Deere ‘s steel plow, Cyrus McCormick ‘s mechanical reaper, Eli Whitney ‘s cotton gin, and the widespread success of the Fordson tractor and the combine harvester. Modern agriculture in the U.S. ranges from hobby farms and small-scale producers to large commercial farms covering thousands of acres of cropland or rangeland .
How many farms are there in the US?
Agriculture is a major industry in the United States, which is a net exporter of food. As of the 2017 census of agriculture, there were 2.04 million farms, covering an area of 900 million acres (1,400,000 sq mi), an average of 441 acres (178 hectares) per farm.
How did the practices associated with keeping livestock contribute to the deterioration of the forests and fields?
The practices associated with keeping livestock also contributed to the deterioration of the forests and fields. Colonists would cut down the trees and then allow their cattle and livestock to graze freely in the forest and never plant more trees. The animals trampled and tore up the ground so much as to cause long-term destruction and damage.
What were the crops grown in the early colonial South?
Warmer regions saw plantings of cotton and herds of beef cattle. In the early colonial south, raising tobacco and cotton was common, especially through the use of slave labor until the Civil War. In the northeast, slaves were used in agriculture until the early 19th century.
How did European agriculture affect New England?
European agricultural practices greatly affected the New England landscape. Colonists brought livestock over from Europe which caused many changes to the land. Grazing animals required a lot of land and food and the act of grazing itself destroyed native grasses, which were being replaced by European species. New species of weeds were introduced and began to thrive as they were capable of withstanding the grazing of animals, whereas native species could not.
What are some of the agricultural products that were grown in the United States in 1921?
Main article: History of agriculture in the United States. Cotton farming on a Southern plantation in 1921. Corn, turkeys, tomatoes, potatoes, peanuts, and sunflower seeds constitute some of the major holdovers from the agricultural endowment of the Americas .
Why is agriculture dangerous?
Agriculture ranks among the most hazardous industries due to the use of chemicals and risk of injury. Farmers are at high risk for fatal and nonfatal injuries (general traumatic injury and musculoskeletal injury ), work-related lung diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, skin diseases, chemical-related illnesses, and certain cancers associated with chemical use and prolonged sun exposure. In an average year, 516 workers die doing farm work in the U.S. (1992–2005). Every day, about 243 agricultural workers suffer lost-work-time injuries, and about 5% of these result in permanent impairment. Tractor overturns are the leading cause of agriculture-related fatal injuries, and account for over 90 deaths every year. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommends the use of roll over protection structures on tractors to reduce the risk of overturn-related fatal injuries.
What are the two groups of biological rational methods?
The second group includes naturally occurring bio chemical’s that are harmful to the pest yet often are harmless to other living organisms.
What are the pests in a garden?
In the plant world, pests refer to harmful organisms that latch on to plants, rendering them unsuitable for harvest. While most of these organisms tend to be insects, some fungi or plants can also be classified as pests. Every garden is prone to pests. Some organisms are harmless but the majorities are detrimental to a plant’s roots, leaves, and overall health. This is why it is important to carefully prune plants and adopt the necessary precautions for proper pest control.
What is the importance of plant based medicine in India?
This is primarily due to the fact that these systems of medicine, being largely plant based, are generally safe, efficacious and affordable . The increasing demand of natural/herbal products world over, therefore, creates a need not only for conserving medicinal plants in-situ but also their cultivation outside the forest areas in public and private lands. Forests have been the main source of the raw material used in the manufacture of Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani medicines. But concerned has been raised that unsustainable collection from the wild has resulted in a large number of species entering the red data book. The Department of AYUSH, through the schemes of the National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB), has launched major initiatives to promote cultivation of medicinal plants and thereby integrate medicinal plants into the farming systems. The major challenges facing growth and outreach of the traditional/herbal medicinal products are their quality, safety and efficacy. This inter-alias is dependent on the quality of the raw material used in the manufacture of the finished product. The National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB), Department of AYUSH has prepared India specific guidelines on Good Agriculture Practices (GAPs) on the pattern of Good Agriculture and Field Collection Practices (GACPs) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for medicinal plants. In the preparation of this standard assistance has been taken from Good Agriculture and Collection Practices (GACPs) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2003 and Good Agricultural Practices enunciated by the GLOBALGAP Secretariat which is being implemented in over 80 countries. The requirements given in this standard are subject to the following statutory and regulatory provisions-
What is biodynamic agriculture?
Initially developed in 1924, it was the first of the organic agriculture movements. It treats soil fertility, plant growth, and livestock care as ecologically interrelated tasks, emphasizing spiritual and mystical perspectives.
What is biodynamics in agriculture?
According to the Biodynamic Association, the largest and oldest North American non-profit for sustainable agriculture, biodynamics is a “holistic, ecological and ethical approach to farming, gardening, food and nutrition.”. In that sense, it’s very similar to organic farming – no chemicals, pesticides, genetically modified organisms, …
Who is the founder of biodynamic farming?
But beyond organic farming, biodynamic agriculture is rooted in the esoteric ideas of philosopher Rudolf Steiner, who originated the concepts that farmers have been adapting since the early 1900s. Think of biodynamic farming as “organic plus” or “super organic” – not only does it require strict adherence to healthy farming practices, …
What is super soil?
One Gun Ranch uses “Super (ior)” soil, a soil grown in nutrient-filled compost, and offers customizable Farm Boxes which contain this Super (ior) soil and vegetables, salad mixes and herbs, that can be grown in your home, with or without a backyard.
Who certifies biodynamic farms?
Anything labeled biodynamic must be approved by Demeter, the world’s only certifier of biodynamic farms and products. It’s all very complex, but we hope this eco-friendly philosophy encourages you to learn more and embark on your own agritourism adventure.
Is Alice Bamford a biodynamic farm?
For more than eight years, Alice Bamford and Ann Eysenring have transformed this ranch into a certified-biodynamic farm replete with rescue animals (every animal from the dogs, horses and alpacas to the pigs and sheep has a name), raised vegetable beds and herb gardens, and communal outdoor dining areas.
Is biodynamic farming the same as organic farming?
In that sense, it’s very similar to organic farming – no chemicals, pesticides, genetically modified organisms, antibiotics or growth hormones are used in crops or livestock. There are even organic/biodynamic wines. But beyond organic farming, biodynamic agriculture is rooted in the esoteric ideas of philosopher Rudolf Steiner, …
What is the biggest crop in the United States?
Sorghum, barley, and oats are also used for feed. The nation’s biggest crop is corn , and the United States is the world’s largest producer. 5 The 90-million acre “corn belt” is mostly in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. 6 Corn is also used for cereal, alcohol, and corn syrup.
Why are antibiotics used in agriculture?
To prevent illnesses from these cramped conditions, animals are fed antibiotics. In 1951, the Federal Drug Administration approved antibiotic use because it also increases weight gain of the animals. 19 Some scientists estimate that 80% of all antibiotics sold are used in agriculture.
How do farmers protect the water table?
In drought-prone areas, sustainable farmers only grow plants that don’t use much water. They protect the water table from pesticides, nitrates, and salt. Farmers protect wildlife areas in watersheds or marshes by not planting in these areas.
What is the most important source of revenue for agriculture?
Half of U.S. agriculture revenue is from meat production. 4 Most of this is cattle, dairy, poultry, hogs, and eggs. A smaller proportion is bison, rabbits, sheep, goats, and ostriches.
How much revenue does agriculture generate?
In the United States, agriculture generated $374 billion in revenue in 2018, when adjusted for inflation. Around 75% of this income was from meat and feed for the animals that produce it. 4 By comparison, just 17% of U.S. agricultural receipts were from non-meat food for people. This includes fruits, nuts, vegetables, wheat, and rice. The remaining 10% of receipts were from cotton, tobacco, and miscellaneous products.
Why do farmers buy futures?
To lower the risk, farmers can buy futures contracts that promise to sell at an agreed-upon price on a specific date. Farmers take their chances on what the price will be when it’s time to harvest. Either way, they are betting that their costs will be lower than their future revenue. Small farmers aren’t as sophisticated as corporations in using the futures market to offset risk. This gives the large corporations another advantage over small farmers.
How much does a large farm make?
U.S. agriculture is dominated by the 3% of farms that are large or very large. Large farms have an income of $1 million or more . 1 These large farms are successful because they focus on one crop. This practice is called monoculture, and it’s very cost-effective. 3
What is the main driver of agricultural growth?
Productivity growth is still the major driver of U.S. agricultural growth. Technological developments in agriculture have been influential in driving changes in the farm sector. Innovations in animal and crop genetics, chemicals, equipment, and farm organization have enabled continuing output growth without adding much to inputs.
What was the impact of agriculture on the 20th century?
American agriculture and rural life underwent a tremendous transformation in the 20th century. Early 20th century agriculture was labor intensive, and it took place on many small, diversified farms in rural areas where more than half the U.S. population lived.
What is net farm income?
Net farm income (NFI) reflects income after expenses from production in the current year and is calculated by subtracting farm expenses from gross farm income. NFI considers both cash and noncash income and expenses. Inflation-adjusted net farm income is forecast to increase by 15.3 percent in 2021 to $113.0 billion—the highest since 2013. Inflation-adjusted farm production expenses are projected to increase by 3.5 percent in 2021.
What is gross cash farm income?
Gross cash farm income (GCFI) includes income from commodity cash receipts, farm-related income, and Government payments. Family farms (where the majority of the business is owned by the operator and individuals related to the operator) of various types together accounted for nearly 98 percent of U.S. farms in 2019. Small family farms (less than $350,000 in GCFI) accounted for 90 percent of all U.S. farms. Large-scale family farms ($1 million or more in GCFI) make up about 3 percent of farms but 44 percent of the value of production.
How much will the farm income be in 2021?
Gross cash farm income is forecast at $451 billion in 2021, versus $341 billion (inflation-adjusted 2021 dollars) in 2001, with the increase across time largely because of higher cash receipts. If forecasts are realized, gross cash farm income would fall 1.8 percent in 2021, after increasing 4.6 percent in 2020.
What percentage of farms are small family farms?
Small family farms (less than $350,000 in GCFI) accounted for 90 percent of all U.S. farms. Large-scale family farms ($1 million or more in GCFI) make up about 3 percent of farms but 44 percent of the value of production.
How many farms were there in 1935?
The number of U.S. farms continues to decline slowly. After peaking at 6.8 million farms in 1935, the number of U.S. farms fell sharply until the early 1970s. Rapidly falling farm numbers during the earlier period reflected growing productivity in agriculture and increased nonfarm employment opportunities.
How much land was cropland in 2012?
Of the 915 million acres of land in farms in 2012, 45.4 per- cent was permanent pasture, 42.6 percent was cropland, and 8.4 percent was woodland. The remaining 3.6 per- cent was land in farmsteads, buildings, livestock facilities, etc. Although the amount of cropland overall was down 4 percent,the amount of cropland harvested was nearly 2 percent more in 2012 than 2007. (Table 2)
How many states have farms increased in 2012?
The decline in farms and farmland from 2007 to 2012 was not uniform across the country. The number of farms actually increased in sixteen states, and the amount of farmland increased in nineteen.
What is the USDA census?
The Census of Agriculture is the leading source of facts and figures about American agriculture. USDA’s National Agricultur- al Statistics Service (NASS) conducts the census once every five years, and conducted the 2012 Census of Agriculture in early 2013 based on 2012 end-of-year data. The 2012 Census results are now available, providing informa- tion at national, state, and county levels about what agricultural products were raised in the United States in 2012, where, how, and by whom. Census data are available in multiple formats to help all users, professional and casual, find and use exactly what they need. Available tools include:
What is a principal operator?
The principal farm operator is the person making the day- to-day decisions for the farm or ranch operation, whether the person owns or rents the land they operate. Operators can be full owners (own all the land they farm), part own- ers (rent some farmland but own some as well), or tenants (rent all the land they farm). Only 25 percent of principal operators were part owners of their farms in 2012, but they controlled more than 50 percent of all farmland. Theirs were the largest farms, in terms of both acres operated and the value of agriculture sales. (Table 4) Table 4
What percentage of land was farmland in 2012?
In 2012, just over 40 percent of all U.S. land was farmland. The amount of land in farms essentially held steady between 2007, when the last agriculture census was conducted, and 2012. In that same fi ve-year period, however, the number of farms in the United States declined, and average farm size increased.
United States Agriculture Production in 2018
In 2018: 1. It was by far the largest world producer of maize(392 million tons). The country has been the world leader in maize production for decades and only recently China, with 257.3 million tonnes produced this year, has been approaching North American production; 2. It was the largest world producer of soy(123.6 million tons), a position that they held for many years, but recently, t…
Major Agricultural Products
Tonnes of United States agriculture production, as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO) of the U.N. in 2003 and 2013 (ranked roughly in order of value): Other crops appearing in the top 20 at some point in the last 40 years were: tobacco, barley, and oats, and, rarely: peanuts, almonds, and sunflower seeds. Alfalfa and haywould both be in the top ten in 20…
Farm Type Or Majority Enterprise Type
Farm type is based on which commodities are the majority crops grown on a farm. Nine common types include: 1. Cash grains includes corn, soybeans and other grains (wheat, oats, barley, sorghum), dry edible beans, peas, and rice. 2. Tobacco 3. Cotton 4. Other field crops includes peanuts, potatoes, sunflowers, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, broomcorn, popcorn, sugar beets, mi…
Agriculture in the United States is primarily governed by periodically renewed U.S. farm bills. Governance is both a federal and a local responsibility with the United States Department of Agriculture being the federal department responsible. Government aid includes research into crop types and regional suitability as well as many kinds of subsidies, some price supports and loan …
In 1870, almost 50 percent of the U.S. population was employed in agriculture. As of 2008[update], less than 2 percent of the population is directly employed in agriculture. In 2012, there were 3.2 million farmers, ranchers and other agricultural managers and an estimated 757,900 agricultural workers were legally employed in the US. Animal breeders accounted for 11…
Occupational Safety and Health
Agriculture ranks among the most hazardous industries due to the use of chemicals and risk of injury. Farmers are at high risk for fatal and nonfatal injuries (general traumatic injury and musculoskeletal injury), work-related lung diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, skin diseases, chemical-related illnesses, and certain cancers associated with chemical use and prolonged su…
The number of women working in agriculture has risen and the 2002 census of agriculture recorded a 40% increase in the number of female farm workers.Inequality and respect are common issues for these workers, as many have reported that they are not being respected, listened to, or taken seriously due to traditional views of women as housewives and caretakers. …
Historically, farmland has been owned by small property owners, but as of 2017 institutional investors, including foreign corporations, had been purchasing farmland. In 2013 the largest producer of pork, Smithfield Foods, was bought by a company from China. As of 2017, only about 4% of farms have sales over $1m, but these farms yield two-thirds of total output.Some of thes…
Land Ownership Laws
As of 2019, six states—Hawaii, Iowa, Minnesota, Mississippi, North Dakota, and Oklahoma—have laws banning foreign ownership of farmland. Missouri, Ohio, and Oklahoma are looking to introduce bills banning foreign ownership as of 2019. The state with the most foreign ownership as of 2019 is Maine, which has 3.1 million acres that are foreign-controlled, followed closely by …