A permanent agriculture


Definition : Permanent agriculture is defined as an integrated and progressive production system inspired by natural ecosystems. It is also an ethical way of thinking and a philosophy.


What is the definition of permanent agriculture?

In his 1964 book Water for Every Farm, the Australian agronomist and engineer P. A. Yeomans advanced a definition of permanent agriculture as one that can be sustained indefinitely.

What can we learn from the principles of permanent agriculture?

When we look at the great soils of the world, we can see these principles of permanent agriculture in action. The prairies have the grasses and clovers that together structure the soil and incorporate nitrogen. The grass roots finely divide the soil particles and then decay after the tops are grazed.

What is permaculture?

Permaculture is a set of design principles centered on whole systems thinking, simulating, or directly utilizing the patterns and resilient features observed in natural ecosystems.

What is the relationship between agroecology and permaculture?

It shares many practices with agroforestry and agroecology, emphasizing their social, cultural, and economic contexts. Permaculture has been implemented and gained widespread visibility throughout the world as an agricultural and architectural design system and as a guiding life principle or philosophy.


What is permanent agriculture?

Permanent agriculture is defined as an integrated and progressive production system inspired by natural ecosystems. It is also an ethical way of thinking and a philosophy. It is built around ‘the triple-win solutions’ which are taking care of the Earth, taking care of people and sharing resources fairly.

What are the two types of permanent agriculture?

Agriculture is divided into two different types, including industrialized agriculture and subsistence agriculture.

What are the characteristics of permanent agriculture?

In permanent agriculture, people use difference method of cultivation such as crop rotation, mixed farming, livestock farming , mechanisation, intensive and extensive cultivation etc.

What are the examples of permanent crops?

By definition, a permanent crop is one produced from plants that last for many seasons, rather than being replanted after each harvest. Permanent crops are perennial trees, bushes, or vine crops like citrus, apples, blueberries, nuts, or grapes.

What is permanent crop production?

A permanent crop is one produced from plants which last for many seasons, rather than being replanted after each harvest. Traditionally, “arable land” included any land suitable for the growing of crops, even if it was actually being used for the production of permanent crops such as grapes or peaches.

When was the permanency in agriculture?

Indian agriculture began by 9000 BCE on north-west India as a result of early cultivation of plants, and domestication of crops and animals.

What is land permanent?

Arable land is the land under temporary crops, temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens and land temporarily fallow (for less than five years); and land under permanent crops is the land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after …

Which are the types of agriculture?

Top 12 Types of AgricultureSubsistence Farming:Intensive Subsistence Farming (with or without Rice as a dominant crop):Mediterranean Farming:Commercial Grain Agriculture:Arable Farming:Shifting Cultivation:Nomadic Herding:Rudimentary Sedentary Tillage:More items…•

What is permaculture and agroforestry?

Real-world permaculture is an approach to designing perennial agricultural systems that mimic the complex interrelationships found in nature. Many of the concepts were practiced by native people and early civilizations before agriculture discovered and became addicted to cheap fossil fuels. In this detailed, instructional online workshop, you will learn from Wisconsin farmer and best-selling author Mark Shepard how to build proven permaculture systems that improve soil health, crop yield, field biodiversity and natural pest and weed suppression. View course details and free preview here.

Why is ash important for farming?

Using ash on the farm is important because it contains the other mineral elements necessary for plant growth; calcium, silica, potassium, magne­sium, phosphorus and the trace ele­ments. Slash and burn agriculture worked because of the release of these minerals through combustion. We also get minerals from limestone or phosphate mines.

What animals do farms need?

All farms need cattle, sheep, goats or another species of four-stomached cud chewers. You’ll notice that the rise of civilizations is connected to the domestication of livestock. They go hand in hand. We either wander nomadically, following large herds of herbivores, or we tame them and settle down.

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What are the environmental concerns associated with annual row crop production?

Environmental concerns associated with annual row crop grain production – including soil erosion, soil carbon loss, intensive use of chemicals and petroleum, limited arable land, among others – could be addressed by converting conventional livestock production to an organic pasture based system. The inclusion of tree crops would further enhance the opportunity for feeding pasture- raised livestock by providing shelter and alternative feed sources. Biodiversity is an essential aspect of an organic farm plan. The idea of including tree crops and other perennials into the vision of an organic farm as a “living system” is very much compatible with the goals and philosophy of organic farming. Before modern no-till farming systems were developed, tree crops and pasture systems were found to provide similar benefits for controlling soil erosion and conserving soil carbon. For example, J. Russell Smith’s Tree Crops: A Permanent Agriculture (Smith, 1950) and pioneered tree crop agriculture as the alternative to annual row crops for protecting soils from erosion while producing livestock feed such as acorns, nuts, and fodder. A survey of Mid-Atlantic USA soils under pasture found 60% higher soil organic matter content than cultivated fields. Because United States Department of Agriculture’s National Organic Program (USDA-NOP) standards require dairy cattle consume pasture forage and limited grain (7 C.F.R. pt. 206), organic milk contains higher concentrations of omega-3 and fewer omega-6 fatty acids than conventional milk. Organic standards also state “the producer must not use lumber treated with arsenate or other prohibited materials for new [fence posts] installations or replacement purposes in contact with soil or livestock.” Black locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia ) is a fast growing renewable alternative to treated lumber with many attributes compatible with organic farming. This versatile tree fixes nitrogen (N), provides flowers for honey bees and other pollinators, and produces a highly durable dense wood ideal for fence posts useable for up to 50 year.

Who published Farmers of Forty Centuries?

King after visiting China, Korea, and Japan for studying traditional fertilization, tillage, and general farming practices, published a book i.e. ”Farmers of Forty Centuries”. In the later years his book became an important reference for the introduction of new and improved methods (Paull, 2006). Masanobu Fukuoka devoted his 60 years for developing a radical no-till organic method for growing grain and other crops, now commonly known as nature farming or Fukuoka farming. …

What are the benefits of carbon sequestering agriculture?

These crops offer multiple benefits: once established they are no-till, require minimal fossil fuel inputs, and offer long-lived productivity. Systems using these crops include traditional orchards, multi-layer food forests and forest gardens, and herbaceous perennial farming from asparagus and globe artichokes to perennial grain polycultures. While some perennial fruit and nut crops are well known, perennial vegetables are still a fairly new concept for much of the world, and perennial staple crops providing our daily carbohydrates and protein are sadly a rarity. I have been researching the many fascinating perennial staple crops of the world — you can read my article on this here. Though getting people to adopt new foods can be challenging, these crops allow us to eat directly from carbon-sequestering plants.

Is a tree more efficient than an annual crop?

Trees are fundamentally more efficient than annual crops, with greater net primary productivity. They are larger, leaf out earlier, and start the growing season ready to grow in contrast to annual crops. There is a bigger carbon “pie” to be divided among wood, soil carbon, and food for people than annuals can provide. What can science tell us about the carbon sequestering capacity of permanent agriculture strategies like agroforestry, silvopasture, and food forestry?

What is permaculture in agriculture?

Permaculture is an approach to land management and philosophy that adopts arrangements observed in flourishing natural ecosystems. It includes a set of design principles derived using whole systems thinking. It uses these principles in fields such as regenerative agriculture, rewilding, and community resilience. Permaculture originally came from “permanent agriculture”, but was later adjusted to mean “permanent culture”, incorporating social aspects as inspired by Masanobu Fukuoka ‘s natural farming. The term was coined by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren in 1978, who formulated the concept in opposition to Western industrialized methods and in congruence with Indigenous or traditional knowledge.

Why is permaculture important?

Permaculture has been implemented and gained widespread visibility throughout the world as an agricultural and architectural design system and as a guiding life principle or philosophy. Much of its success has been attributed to the role of Indigenous knowledge and traditions, in which the practice itself is rooted.

How high can a permaculture tree grow?

Holzer used the method in connection with Hügelkultur berms. He has grown fruiting trees at altitudes (approximately 9,000 feet (2,700 m)) far above their normal altitude, temperature, and snow load ranges. The Hügelkultur berms kept or generated enough heat to allow the roots to survive during alpine winter conditions. The point of having unpruned branches, he notes, was that the longer (more naturally formed) branches bend over under the snow load until they touched the ground, thus forming a natural arch against snow loads that would break a shorter, pruned, branch.

What is cell grazing?

Cell grazing is a system of grazing in which herds or flocks are regularly and systematically moved to fresh range with the intent to maximize forage quality and quantity. Sepp Holzer and Joel Salatin have shown how grazing can start ecological succession or prepare ground for planting. Allan Savory ‘s holistic management technique has been likened to “a permaculture approach to rangeland management “. One variation is conservation grazing, were the primary purpose of the animals is to benefit the environment and the animals are not necessarily used for meat, milk or fiber. Sheep can replace lawn mowers. Goats and sheep can eat invasive plants.

What is mulching in gardening?

These include absorbing rainfall, reducing evaporation, providing nutrients, increasing soil organic matter, creating habitat for soil organisms, suppressing weed growth and seed germination, moderating diurnal temperature swings, protecting against frost, and reducing erosion. Sheet mulching is a gardening technique that attempts to mimic natural forest processes. Sheet mulching mimics the leaf cover that is found on forest floors. When deployed properly and in combination with other permaculture principles, it can generate healthy, productive and low maintenance ecosystems.

When did Permaculture Institute get a trademark?

In 2000, Mollison’s U.S.-based Permaculture Institute sought a service mark (a form of trademark) for the word permaculture when used in educational services such as conducting classes, seminars, or workshops.

Why do plants need to be grown?

Plants may be grown for food production, drawing nutrients from deep in the soil through tap roots, balancing nitrogen levels in the soil ( legumes ), for attracting beneficial insects to the garden, and repelling undesirable insects or pests.


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