A review of hydrologica agricultural and ecological

Can hydrologic and crop models coexist in agro-hydrology?

Coupling hydrologic and crop models is becoming an increasingly important approach in the development of agro-hydrologic theme. Scientists and decision makers working to address issues in the areas of resource conservation and agricultural productivity are interested in the complementary processing of the two coupled systems.

Does agricultural hydrological modification increase the risk of ecological regime shifts?

A rapidly growing body of evidence suggests that agricultural modification of the quality and quantity of hydrological flows can increase the risk of ecological regime shifts 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17. Ecological dynamics are defined by both internal dynamics (such as vegetation growth) and external forces (such as precipitation and droughts).

Why should ecologists care about water and agriculture?

As global demands for agriculture and water continue to grow, it is increasingly urgent for ecologists to develop new ways of anticipating, analyzing and managing nonlinear changes across scales in human-dominated landscapes. Human transformation of global water flows has dramatically impacted ecosystems and the services they generate.

Are hydrologic and crop systems complementary?

Introduction Hydrologic and crop growth numerical modeling has progressed over the last decades, and the scientific modeling community has recognized the complementary nature of various aspects of hydrologic and crop systems.


What is the purpose of the study on coupled hydrologic and crop growth models?

The study provides useful examples for practical information and purposes of this new tendency in model development. This study can be of interest for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers involved in agro-hydrological studies and projects. Particularly, this study may help understanding the potential benefit raising from incorporating crop models in hydrological simulation for water resources conservation, sustainability, and performance improvement of crop and irrigation systems.


What is interoperable model?

In order to be coupled, models must be interoperable, a term often used but lacking a single and precise definition. For instance, Wileden and Kaplan (1999) defined interoperable as the capability of two or more programs to share and process information irrespective of their implementation of language and platform.


What is environmental modeling?

The concept of environmental modeling deals with the relations among water, climate, soil, and plants ( Iacobellis et al., 2002; White et al., 2011b ), and includes temporal and spatial features ( Meiyappan et al., 2014 ). The behavior of each feature is controlled by its own components ( Jajarmizadeh et al., 2012 ). Accordingly, models are a simplified representations of the real processes ( Anothai et al., 2008 ). Models can be either: physical (physical representation of the original system, reproduced by scaled parameters) electrical analogue (electrical circuit similar to the investigated system, composed of electrical component) or mathematical (mathematical/stochastic equations that describe physical characteristics of the system) ( Gutzler et al., 2015 ). The physical and analogue models have been very important in the past ( Refsgaard, 1996 ). Nowadays, the mathematical group of models is by far the most easily and universally applicable, the most widespread and rapidly developing with regards to scientific basis and application ( van Kraalingen et al., 2003 ).


What are the factors that affect the use of water in agriculture?

Agricultural water use for crops relies on several factors, such as: climatic conditions, topography, lithology, soil, management practices, type of crop , etc. Knowledge of these parameters allows estimating crop-water requirement and establishing cropping management procedures.


Can a model be meaningfully coupled?

Models and their respective data must be interoperable with both spatial and temporal scales. If a scale difference cannot be resolved, then the models cannot be meaningfully coupled. Although the models may share information, if the models’ scales are different, the results from the coupled system are meaningless.


How does drought affect agriculture?

Second, hydrological drought characterized by deficit of river discharge and groundwater follows agricultural drought. However, contributions of vegetation dynamics to these processes at basin scale have not been quantified. To address this issue, we develop an eco‐hydrological model that can calculate river discharge, groundwater, energy flux, and vegetation dynamics as diagnostic variables at basin scale within a distributed hydrological modeling framework. The model is applied to drought analysis in the Medjerda River basin. From model inputs and outputs, we calculate drought indices for different drought types. The model shows reliable accuracy in reproducing observed river discharge in long‐term (19 year) simulation. Moreover, the drought index calculated from the model‐estimated annual peak of leaf area index correlates well (correlation coefficient r = 0.89) with the drought index from nationwide annual crop production, which demonstrates that the modeled leaf area index is capable of representing agricultural droughts related to historical food shortages. We show that vegetation dynamics have a more rapid response to meteorological droughts than river discharge and groundwater dynamics in the Medjerda basin because vegetation dynamics are sensitive to soil moisture in surface layers, whereas soil moisture in deeper layers strongly contributes to streamflow and groundwater level. Our modeling framework can contribute to analyze drought progress, although analyses for other climate conditions are needed.


What is the Medjerda River basin?

The Medjerda River basin (Figure 2 a) covers approximately 24,000 km 2, of which 16,300 km 2 is in Tunisia. The rainy season is from December through May. This basin is very important to the national economy and food security. Major agricultural products include wheat, barley, olive, tomato, and others. In Tunisia, crop production greatly fluctuates. For example, annual total crop production in the country in 1985 exceeded two million tons, but was only 0.6 million ton the following year. Because of this strong fluctuation in response to climate variability, we chose this basin to apply our method. Recently, Tunisia experienced severe droughts in 1982, 1987–1989, 1993–1995, and 1999–2002 [ FAO, 2008 ]. Moreover, the IPCC AR4 indicates that the area affected by drought will increase in North Africa. Analyzing several types of droughts in past, present, and future is important for water resource management in this basin.


What is a review of a food and environmental study?

Review of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Studies is a scientific peer-reviewed journal encouraging new perspectives for research and analysis in economics and sociology on the topics of production, agricultural markets and trade , agricultural and food industry production, food consumption, …


What is agri food justice?

Agri-food justice associates interacting material and immaterial phenomena, such as ecosystems, workers, farm production methods, supply chains, public policy, land, bodies, etc. It is this matrix of objects, phenomena and relations (or non-relations) that the articles will help to elucidate in an innovative way.

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