A review on uav-based applications for precision agriculture

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According to Tsouros et al., the most common UAV precision agriculture applications in literature are: ‘weed mapping and management’, ‘vegetation growth monitoring and yield estimation’, ‘vegetation health monitoring and disease detection’, ‘irrigation management’ and ‘crop spraying’…….

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What are the applications of UAV in precision agriculture?

2.1. Types of UA V Applications in Precision Agriculture detection of diseases, etc. Using the information acquired by the UAVs several decisions can be made to handle the problem (s) detected and/or optimize harvesting by estimating the yield. .

What are UA vs in precision agriculture?

UA Vs in all kinds of applications, but especially in Precision Agriculture. One reason for this is the fact that they present lower cost compared to the other types of UA Vs. In addition, this type of UA Vs is suitable when the monitored crops are not very lar ge, which is usually the case.

Do agricultural UAVs have high impact factors?

In recent years, articles related to agricultural UAVs have been presented in journals with high impact factors. Most precision agriculture applications with UAVs occur in outdoor environments where GPS access is available, which provides more reliable control of the UAV in both manual and autonomous flights.

Why are there so many new UAV review papers?

Since then, the increasing number of publications and the growing specialization of UAV solutions have triggered new review papers focused on specific applications, onboard hardware or data processing strategies exploiting UAV data. Examples of reviews on specific applications are given in.

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What is UAV how it is used in precision farming?

In precision agriculture, drones have a range of uses from soil and crop field analysis to planting and pesticide spraying. Drones can be used with different imaging technologies like hyperspectral, multispectral, thermal etc.


What are the applications of UAV?

Some of the most common commercial applications and uses for UAV Drones are:Aerial Photography & Videography.Real estate photography.Mapping & Surveying.Asset Inspection.Payload carrying.Agriculture.Bird Control.Crop spraying.More items…


What are the applications of drone in agriculture?

The major applications of drone in agriculture are irrigation, crop monitoring, soil and field analysis and bird control.


What technology does precision agriculture use?

Three common precision agricultural information technologies are global positioning system (GPS) guidance systems, GPS yield and soil monitors/maps, and variable-rate input application technologies (VRT).


What are UAV platforms?

UAV Platform Our drones are semi-small, portable and hand-launched solutions, capable of generating reliable and high precision data and situational awareness. All our UAV solutions are extremely user-friendly both when operating and deploying the aircraft.


How does UAV work?

Drones use their rotors—which consist of a propeller attached to a motor—to hover, meaning the downward thrust of the drone is equal to the gravitational pull working against it; climb, when pilots increase the speed until the rotors produce an upward force greater than gravity; and descend, when pilots perform the …


What is the future of drones in agriculture?

The future of drones in agriculture is also promising, as drones are being developed to act as mechanical pollinators and to incorporate smart applications, making drones a promising and affordable technology to address the challenge of growing food insecurity.


How are drones used in modern agriculture?

Drones can be used for targeted input application, timely diagnosis of nutrient deficiency, crop health monitoring, rapid assessment of crop yield and crop losses. Crop nutrient spraying through drones facilitates rapid application and can be used to treat large areas quickly.


What are the disadvantages of drones in agriculture?

Drawbacks or disadvantages of Agriculture Drones ➨It requires basic knowledge and skills to operate the agriculture drones. ➨Most of the drones have less flight time and covers less area. Drones having long flight time and long range are costlier. Drones having more features are also more expensive.


Which is one of the most important technique in precision farming?

Question 02. Which is one of the most important technique in precision farming? (b). Satellite navigation.


What is the future of precision agriculture?

In the future, precision agriculture will reduce the competitive advantage of these large rectangular fields, and other factors such as reliability of rainfall and distance to market may be more important in the choice of where to produce agricultural products.


What is the most widely used precision farming system in agriculture?

Global positioning systems It’s safe to say that the invention of the Global Positioning System has laid the foundation of modern-day precision agricultur and still is one of the most widely used field management and precision farming technologies.


How does drone imaging help in agriculture?

Drone imaging has been shown to have increasing value in monitoring and analysing different kinds of processes related to agriculture and forestry. In long-term monitoring and observation tasks, huge amounts of image data are produced and stored. Environmental drone image datasets may have value beyond the studies that produced the data. A collection of image datasets from multiple data producers can, for example, provide more diverse training input for a machine learning model for vegetation classification, compared with a single dataset limited in time and location. To ensure reproducible research, research data such as image datasets should be published in usable and undegraded form, with sufficient metadata. Timely storage in a stable research data repository is recommended, to avoid loss of data. This work presents research datasets of 2020 drone images acquired from agricultural and forestry research sites of Häme University of Applied Sciences, and from Hämeenlinna urban areas. Those images that do not contain personal data are made freely available under a Creative Commons Attribution license. For images containing personal data, such as images of private homes, privacy preserving forms of data sharing may be possible in the future.


What are the applications of IoT in agriculture?

Emerging technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT) can provide significant potential in Smart Farming and Precision Agriculture applications, enabling the acquisition of real-time environmental data. IoT devices such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be exploited in a variety of applications related to crops management, by capturing high spatial and temporal resolution images. These technologies are expected to revolutionize agriculture, enabling decision-making in days instead of weeks, promising significant reduction in cost and increase in the yield. Such decisions enable the effective application of farm inputs, supporting the four pillars of precision agriculture, i.e., apply the right practice, at the right place, at the right time and with the right quantity. However, the actual proliferation and exploitation of UAVs in Smart Farming has not been as robust as expected mainly due to the challenges confronted when selecting and deploying the relevant technologies, including the data acquisition and image processing methods. The main problem is that still there is no standardized workflow for the use of UAVs in such applications, as it is a relatively new area. In this article, we review the most recent applications of UAVs for Precision Agriculture. We discuss the most common applications, the types of UAVs exploited and then we focus on the data acquisition methods and technologies, appointing the benefits and drawbacks of each one. We also point out the most popular processing methods of aerial imagery and discuss the outcomes of each method and the potential applications of each one in the farming operations.


How do weeds affect agriculture?

Weeds are amongst the most impacting abiotic factors in agriculture, causing important yield loss worldwide. Integrated Weed Management coupled with the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (drones), allows for Site-Specific Weed Management, which is a highly efficient methodology as well as beneficial to the environment. The identification of weed patches in a cultivated field can be achieved by combining image acquisition by drones and further processing by machine learning techniques. Specific algorithms can be trained to manage weeds removal by Autonomous Weeding Robot systems via herbicide spray or mechanical procedures. However, scientific and technical understanding of the specific goals and available technology is necessary to rapidly advance in this field. In this review, we provide an overview of precision weed control with a focus on the potential and practical use of the most advanced sensors available in the market. Much effort is needed to fully understand weed population dynamics and their competition with crops so as to implement this approach in real agricultural contexts.


What is the agro-industrial sector?

The agro-industrial sector consumes a significant amount of natural resources for farming and meat production. By 2050, population growth is expected, generating more demand and, consequently, more consumption of scarce resources. This challenging scenario is a concern of the European Commission, revealed in the Green Deal commitment and by the United Nations’ 12th goal of sustainable development. Thus, organizations must increase productivity and be more sustainable as soon as possible. Internet of Things (IoT) is introduced as a solution to facilitate agro-food companies to be more eco-efficient, mainly facing difficulties on farms, such as food loss and waste, best efficiency in management of resources, and production. The deployment of this technology depends on the stage of maturity and potential of implementation. To assess and characterize companies, with respect of IoT implementation, a survey was applied in 21 micro, small and medium agro-food companies, belonging to milk, honey, olive oil, jams, fruticulture, bakery and pastry, meat, coffee, and wine sectors, in the central region of Portugal. As results, this paper reveals the stage of maturity, level of sophistication, potential, opportunities, solutions, and barriers for implementation of IoT. Additionally, suggestions and recommendations to improve practices are discussed.


How effective is a UAV in large areas?

Although the use of a single UAV has been demonstrated as a very promising means to enhance and optimise the PA processes, its application in large areas is not very effective, since due to the limited energy resources, it is not capable of covering the whole targeted area [13], [179]. In particular, the maximum area that a single UAV can cover depends on its technical characteristics and payload [13]. Hence, for large-scale applications such as big farms and forests, a collaborative group of UAVs called swarm can be adopted, thus forming research directions in a field named Flying Ad hoc [180], [181], [182], [183] Network (FANET) [184], [185], [186]. An Ad-hoc network consists of several nodes that can communicate with each other directly, without requiring any existing infrastructure or a centralised access point. Accordingly, FANET is an Ad-hoc network where the nodes are UAVs. Typically, a UAV from the FANET is connected with a ground-based station, while the other UAVs form a multi-hop communication where each node operates as a hop count or relay [187]. The quality of this communication can depend on many factors such as UAV mobility, bandwidth availability, environmental and geographical constraints, as well as the synchronisation complexity among UAVs. According to [188], in order to deploy a FANET, the following parameters should be taken into account: a) UAV mobility, b) localisation, c) energy resources, d) radio propagation model, e) topographical attributes and changes, f) UAV density, g) Paparazzi mobility model, h) pheromone-based model, i) random waypoint mobility model and j) mobility models. Although FANET can provide multiple benefits concerning large-scale PA applications, this field is characterised by certain issues. First, most of the existing software applications are designed to manage and control only a single UAV. Moreover, even if there are some applications that can handle a FANET, their functionality is limited, since they cannot handle efficiently the failure of a UAV or the addition of a new target area. Finally, a new set of regulations and rules, especially devoted to FNET has to be determined.


What is a UAV?

UAV is a type of aircraft having the ability to fly autonomously without the presence of a pilot. Commonly, the flight mission of UAV is predefined, or a pilot can control its motion and direction through remote teleoperation commands from a ground station [55].


How heavy is a UAV?

For instance, the Dutch Human Environment and Transport Inspectorate distinguish UAVs as light and heavy [62]. In particular, if a UAV exceeds the weight of 150 kg, then it is characterised as heavy. Otherwise, it is specified as light. Custer et al. [64] provide a more specific separation, taking into consideration the UAV type based on its aerodynamic characteristics. In particular, they consider that the fixed-wing UAVs whose weight is between 20 kg and 150 kg can be characterised as large. On the other side, if a fixed-wing UAV does not exceed 20 kg, then it can be characterised as small. Similarly, the rotary-wing UAVs whose size ranges from 25 kg to 100 kg, are considered as large. Accordingly, if a rotary-wing UAV does not exceed 25 kg, then it is small. Moreover, they consider that the small UAVs can be distinguished further, extracting a new subcategory called mini. As mini UAVs are those whose weight ranges from some grams to several kilograms.


What is the use of UAVs in PA?

Besides the crop monitoring process, another possible use of UAV in PA is the crop spraying [12]. This process was first introduced in the 1980s in Japan, by combining uncrewed helicopters with small pesticide tanks [1]. Today’s UAVs can carry large tanks whose capacity may overcome 10 litres.


What is the difference between an autonomous and an automatic UAV?

Due to the absence of the pilot, each UAV is characterised by a rate of autonomy [62]. At this point, the difference between an automatic and autonomous system has to be clarified. The functionality of an automatic system is based on the operator who has preprogrammed the system to perform a specific operation without deviating in any way [62]. On the other side, an autonomous system is characterised by the existence of specific rules that can provide a kind of adjustment in various situations. This freedom does not exist in the automatic systems [62]. Being in the IoT era, modern UAV systems are characterised by a level of autonomy. According to the United States Department of Defence [62], [63], there are four types of autonomy. The first type, named human-operated system defines that the system operator is responsible for controlling all operations of the unmanned system. The second type called human deligated system is characterised by a higher level of autonomy compared to the first one, by maintaining the ability to take autonomously some restricted decisions. The third level is named human supervised system and can take various decisions based on the directions of the system operator. Specifically, in this case, both the system operator and the unmanned system can perform various actions based on the data received. Finally, the last level is named fully autonomous systems and is responsible for all its operations. In this case, the unmanned system receives data from the system operator and interpret it into specific tasks. Surely, in the case of an emergency, the system operator has the ability to intervene in the function of the unmanned system.


What fuel is used in a UAV?

UAV types based on power source. Finally, UAVs can also be categorised based on the fuel utilised for their flight. There are four main fuels for a UAV: a) kerosene, b) battery cells, c) fuel cells and d) solar cells [62]. Kerosene is usually employed by large fixed-wing UAVs appropriate for military purposes.


How does ICT help agriculture?

The role of ICT services has evolved significantly and rapidly in both scope and scale. By extending broadband connectivity, deploying IoT applications and taking full advantage of big data analytics, innovative applications and devices underpin what we now call digital society . This momentum offers great capabilities to enhance and optimise the procedures of the agriculture sector, by adapting and applying these technologies as PA solutions. PA becomes more crucial, as we look for means to solve the challenges faced by agriculture such as the restricted availability of arable lands, the increasing need for freshwater and the disastrous consequences of climate change. The use of UAVs for enhancing the cultivation processes is auspicious since they can perform monitoring and spraying missions, thereby optimising the efficiency of the pesticides and fertilisers, detecting timely possible pests and diseases as well as facilitating the spraying procedure.


What are UAVs used for in farming?

Farming technology with UAVs has never been more advanced, allowing farmers to precisely analyze and ensure the health and projected growth of their crops and livestock. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are now often seen whipping through the air above fields of cotton, wheat, sorghum, and other crops. They have rapidly become a common and much …


How many acres can a UAV survey?

A UAV can typically survey up to 1,500 acres a day. To map entire fields, images are automatically triggered along a preplanned flight path, geotagged, and later stitched together by commercial software on a local computer or through cloud-based services.


What is NDVI in agriculture?

Multispectral cameras on UAVs collect the bands used to generate the most common plant stress metric, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Agronomists can use this data to determine the photosynthetic activity of large acreages of cropland, allowing farmers to determine such important characteristics of their fields as seed emergence rates and areas where pest or disease pressure might be occurring. Hand-held NDVI meters are used to ground-truth the NDVI values collected using UAVs.


How long does it take to fly a UAV over a field?

They may also indicate patterns of damage, from weather or a mechanical application, that cannot be seen from the ground. A 15-minute UAV flight over some fields can accomplish as much as three or four hours of walking through them.


How does precision agriculture work?

Therefore, precision agriculture, which optimizes inputs to match these variations, requires sub-inch resolution to, say, identify dry spots or distinguish weeds from cotton plants. Such resolution cannot be achieved with aerial imagery, let alone satellite imagery, the two types of remote sensing data that farmers have been using for decades, but can be easily achieved by UAVs, which can fly as low to the ground as needed. The ground pixel size of UAV imagery is typically 3 in. x 3 in. or smaller, compared to 3 ft. x 3 ft. for imagery from manned aircraft and 30 ft. x 30 ft. for satellite imagery.


What is autonomous operation?

autonomous operation—making their own decision to safely initiate a mission given local weather conditions such as wind, rain and lightning; taking off and flying fields as often as needed; then landing and docking to download the data they collected and recharge their batteries


Why is cellular coverage important in rural areas?

greater cellular coverage in rural areas, to enable farmers to download data from anywhere on their property.


Why are precision agriculture technologies important?

Conclusion In the past decade latest technologies are included into the precision agriculture to improve the productivity of the crop. These technologies are useful where human interventions are not possible for spraying of chemicals on crops and scarcity of the labor. It also helps the spraying job easy and faster.


How many rotors are there in an agricultural UAV?

Droplets movement and deposition of an eight-rotor agricultural UAV in downwash flow field.


How many cases of ill effected when spraying pesticides in the crop filed manually?

The WHO (World Health Organization) estimated as one million cases of ill effected, when spraying the pesticides in the crop filed manually. The Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) – aircrafts are used to spray the pesticides to avoid the health problems of humans when they spray manually.


What is the main board in a UAV?

Methodology The flight controller is the main board in the UAV is embedded with the most advanced firmware and responsible for the actual flight. Flight controller controls lot of things simultaneously during the flight or UAV. It built with a micro controller and communicates to the four brushless motors.


How does precision agriculture affect crop productivity?

The agriculture fields faces dramatic losses due to the diseases. These diseases came from the pests and insets, which reduces the productivity of the crops. Pesticides and fertilizers are used to kill the insects and pests in order to enhance the crop quality. The WHO (World Health Organization) estimated as one million cases of ill effected, when spraying the pesticides in the crop filed manually. The Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) – aircrafts are used to spray the pesticides to avoid the health problems of humans when they spray manually. UAVs can be used easily, where the equipment and labors difficulty to operate. This paper reviews briefly the implementation of UAVs for crop monitoring and pesticide spraying.


What is the use of unmanned aerial vehicles?

The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for remote sensing and mapping.


What is quadcopter spray?

Quadcopter-A Smarter Way of Pesticide Spraying.

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