A sexual propagation in agriculture


Sexual propagation involves the floral parts of a plant. Asexual propagation involves taking a part of one parent plant and causing it to regenerate itself into a new plant. Genetically it is identical to its one parent. Asexual propagation involves the vegetative parts of a plant: stems, roots, or leaves.


What is sexual propagation?

The descriptive word “sexual” is attached to this type of propagation because the union of the male and female sexual gametes (the process is called fertilization) is a requisite in the production of the seed or in the development of a new plant from a spore. The certainty of sex in plants was established by Camerarius in 1694 (Poehlman, 1977).

What are the methods of asexual propagation?

Asexual propagation produces a genetically identical plant to the parent plant. Various asexual propagation methods exist such as growth from tubers, bulbs, rhizomes, and stolons, taking stem cuttings, leaf cuttings, cane cuttings, grafting, division, layering, and tissue culture.

What is seed propagation?

The phenomenon of propation of more than one seedling from a single seed, produce true to type, nuclear embryonic seedling which could be used as rootstock for uniform performance. E.g. Mango, varieties. Olour and bappakal. It is also common in citrus and jamun. 5.

Can sexually-reproducing plants become asexual reproducers?

An HHMI scientist has moved a step closer to turning sexually-reproducing plants into asexual reproducers, a finding that could have profound implications for agriculture. Arabidopsis thaliana, a small flowering mustard plant, normally reproduces sexually.


What is asexual propagation in agriculture?

Asexual propagation, sometimes referred to as vegetative propagation, involves taking vegetative parts of a plant (stems, roots, and/or leaves) and causing them to regenerate into a new plant or, in some cases, several plants. With few exceptions, the resulting plant is genetically identical to the parent plant.

What is propagation in agriculture?

Plant propagation is the process by which new plants grow from a variety of sources: seeds, cuttings, and other plant parts. Plant propagation can also refer to the man-made or natural dispersal of seeds.

What are the types of asexual propagation?

The major methods of asexual propagation are cuttings, layering, budding and grafting. Cuttings involve rooting a severed piece of the parent plant; layering involves rooting a part of the parent and then severing it; and budding and grafting is joining two plant parts from different varieties.

What are the 2 types of propagation?

While there are many types of plant propagation techniques, there are two categories into which they generally fall: sexual and asexual. Sexual propagation involves the use of floral parts to create a new plant from two parents. Asexual propagation involves the vegetative parts to create a new plant using one parent.


Sexual plant propagation encompasses topics and concepts such as pollination, seed production, and planting. Sexual plant propagation produces plants that are genetically different from the two parent plants. In the area of pollination, discuss different types of pollinators, such as wind, water, insects, animals, and people.

Teaching Methods

Lecture Discussion, Paired or Small Group Discussion, Demonstration, Field Trip, Resource People, Experiment, Supervised Study

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Plant Propagation Methods

In general, there are two methods of propagating plants: sexual and asexual.

Seed Propagation and Spore Propagation Compared

Seed propagation is applied in the spermatophytes or seed-bearing plants which include the gymnosperms (naked-seed plants) and the angiosperms (enclosed-seed plants or true-flowering plants). Plants that are propagated from spore belong to the fern family and allies, including mosses.

Why is it important to have continuous water supply for seed germination?

Even though seeds have great absorbing power due to the nature of the seed coat, the amount of available water in the substrate affects the uptake of water. An adequate, continuous supply of water is important to ensure germination. Once the germination process has begun, a dry period can cause the death of the embryo.

How to scarify seeds?

Seed scarification involves breaking, scratching, or softening the seed coat so that water can enter and begin the germination process. There are several methods of scarifying seeds. In acid scarification, seeds are put in a glass container and covered with concentrated sulfuric acid. The seeds are gently stirred and allowed to soak from 10 minutes to several hours, depending on the hardness of the seed coat. When the seed coat has become thin, the seeds can be removed, washed, and planted. Another scarification method is mechanical. Seeds are filed with a metal file, rubbed with sandpaper, or cracked with a hammer to weaken the seed coat. Hot water scarification involves putting the seed into hot water (170 to 212 degrees F). The seeds are allowed to soak in the water, as it cools, for 12 to 24 hours and then planted. A fourth method is one of warm, moist scarification. In this case, seeds are stored in nonsterile, warm, damp containers where the seed coat will be broken down by decay over several months.

How long before transplanting seeds?

The proper time for sowing seeds for transplants depends upon when plants may safely be moved out-of-doors in your area. This period may range from 4 to 12 weeks prior to transplanting, depending upon the speed of germination, the rate of growth, and the cultural conditions provided. A common mistake is to sow the seeds too early and then attempt to hold the seedlings back under poor light or improper temperature ranges. This usually results in tall, weak, spindly plants which do not perform well in the garden.

What temperature should tomato seeds be germination?

For example, tomato seed has a minimum germination temperature of 50 degrees F. and a maximum temperature of 95 degrees, but an optimum germination temperature of about 80 degrees. Where germination temperatures are listed, they are usually the optimum temperatures unless otherwise specified.

What is the rootstock of a plant?

It consists of a piece of shoot with dormant buds that will produce the stem and branches. The rootstock, or stock, provides the new plant’s root system and sometimes the lower part of the stem. The cambium is a layer of cells located between the wood and bark of a stem from which new bark and wood cells originate.

Why is layering important in plant propagation?

This method of vegetative propagation, called layering, promotes a high success rate because it prevents the water stress and carbohydrate shortage that plague cuttings.

What is sexual propagation?

Sexual Propagation. Sexual propagation involves the union of the pollen (male) with the egg (female) to produce a seed. The seed is made up of three parts: the outer seed coat, which protects the seed; the endosperm, which is a food reserve; and the embryo, which is the young plant itself.

How to soften hard shelled seeds?

Pouring boiling water over seeds and getting it to cool gradually for about 12 to#N#Hour to soften dry and hard shelled seeds. E.g. Coffee, chicku, canna , Babul, Chillar,etc.This will lasten the process of germination.

Why do you soak seeds in water?

The purpose of soaking seeds in water is to modify hard seed coats, to remove inhibitors to soften seed and to reduce the time of germination. The time of soaking seeds in cold water depend upon the hardness of the seed coat. E. g Gulmohar, peas, beans, cassia tree etc.

How long does it take to soak a seed?

After treatment seeds are thoroughly washed in clean water to make them free of acid and then re sown immediately. i.e. the seeds of ber, cotton, Asparagus are treated with 50% concentrated H2so4. The seeds are soaked in acid for 3 to 5 minutes.

Why won’t my seed germinate?

It is term used to describe a seed that will not germinate because of any condition associated either with the seed itself or with existing environmental factors such as temperature and moisture.

When do seeds develop?

Seed develops along with the fruit and reaches, full size and maturity when the fruit ripens. Hence seed should be extracted only from ripe fruit. Seeds gathered from immature fruit may not germinate to under favorable conditions and may loose viability more quickly than fully matured seeds.

What is the term for the joining of separate plant parts together?

Grafting – the joining of separate plant parts together, such that they form a union and grow as one plant.

What happens when you remove bark from a phloem?

This leaves the central cylinder of xylem and upward water flow unaffected.

What is asexual propagation?

An asexual propagation technique where small pieces of excised tissue or individual cells are placed in sterile in vitro culture containing all the nutrients, carbohydrates and hormones needed for growth. The tissue grows rapidly and can be induced to produce large numbers of new plants. Hormones are used to cause the tissue to grow into callus masses, roots or shoots. Sometimes called micropropagation.

Can a monocot cut the phloem?

Monocots have scattered vascular bundles, therefore, it is not possible to cut the phloem and not the xylem. As a compromise, a slit is cut about 1/3 way into the stem. This cuts enough of the vascular bundles to disrupt sufficient phloem translocation while still allowing sufficient water flow in the xylem.

Can chimeras be propagated true to type?

If you take leaf cuttings from variegated plants, such as these variegated Peperomia (GWG), the plantlets that form are never true-to-type to the parent variegation. The reason is simple. The adventitious shoots that form will have the properties of the region of the leaf from which they regenerate. The same would happen with a root cutting. For this reason, chimeras are never propagated true-to-type by cutting types or methods that require adventitious shoot formation.


Sexual Propagation

  • Sexual plant propagation encompasses topics and concepts such as pollination, seed production, and planting. Sexual plant propagation produces plants that are genetically different from the two parent plants. In the area of pollination, discuss different types of pollinators, such as wind, water, insects, animals, and people. A discussion of seeds …

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Methods of Breaking Dormancy

Starting Seeds

Asexual Propagation



  • One of the functions of dormancy is to prevent a seed from germinating before it is surrounded by a favorable environment. In some trees and shrubs, seed dormancy is difficult to break, even when the environment is ideal. Various treatments are performed on the seed to break dormancy and begin germination. Scarification Seed scarification involves breaking, scratching, or softenin…

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  • Substrate
    A wide range of materials can be used to start seeds, from plain vermiculite or mixtures of soilless substrates to the various amended soil mixes. With experience, you will learn to determine what works best for the seeds that you are starting. When choosing a substrate its im…
  • Containers
    Flats and trays can be purchased or you can make your own containers for starting seeds by recycling such things as cottage cheese containers, the bottoms of milk cartons or bleach containers, and pie pans, as long as good drainage is provided. At least one company has devel…

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