Jamun is a popular fruit in India and is grown throughout India. This article is about Jamun Farming determining the process, yield and conditions for the growth of Jamun.
Jamun tree is a tall, evergreen tree which is native to India. Jamun tree lays Jamun fruits, which are very nutritious and also sold at good prices. Jamun is one among the hardly cultivated fruit but it has a good scope after cultivation.
Jamun fruits are rich in iron and are helpful to heart and liver patients. Also, Jamun is known to be effective against diabetes and its powder is widely used to control diabetes.
It is grown all across India and due to its tall size; it is also used as a windbreaker or avenue tree.
Conditions for Jamun Cultivation:
• Climate Conditions:
Since Jamun is a strong and sturdy fruit, it can grow in adverse climate and soil conditions. It is grown in Tropical and subtropical climates. Jamun tree requires dry weather during the time of flowering and fruit set. However, early rains are beneficial for better development and ripening of fruits.
• Soil conditions:
Jamun tree can be grown on a large variety of soils such as
1) Calcareous Soils
2) Saline-Sodic Soils
3) Deep loam soils
4) Well-drained soils etc
• pH value of soil:
Jamun tree is best suited when the soil pH value is from 6 to 8.
Jamun is an evergreen crop i.e. it can grow in each and every season.
Major Jamun Production in India:
India is in second place in all over the world. In India, Maharashtra is the highest producer of Jamun. And which followed up by the stats Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, etc.
Propagation of Jamun tree:
Jamun tree can propagate both by seeds and vegetative methods. Due to the existence of more than one embryo i.e. polyembryony, it comes through seeds.
Seed propagation is highly preferred, though vegetative method followed in some cases have attained success too. Seedling trees start to bear after approximately 9 to 10 years.
However, seed propagation is not much advice as it takes a very long time to bear fruits.
The seeds haven’t any dormancy. New seeds may be seeded. It takes 10 to 15 days for Germination to takes place. Seedlings are prepared for transplantation for the utilization as rootstock within the following spring (February to March) or monsoon i.e. August to September.
Planting of the Jamun:
Jamun is an evergreen tree and may be planted each in spring i.e. February-March and also the monsoon season i.e. July-August. The monsoon season is taken into account as better because the trees planted in February- March got to experience a really hot and dry amount in May and June and usually suffer from mortalities from the unfavorable atmospheric condition.
Prior to planting, the sphere is correctly cleared and plowed. Pits of 1 x 1 x 1m are dug at the gap of 10m each way. Before the onset of monsoon, the digging of pits has to be completed. Pits are filled with 75% of topsoil and 25% of manure.
• Fertilizer Application:
An annual dose of regarding 19Kg Farm Yard Manure throughout the pre-beating time and 75Kg per tree bearing trees is taken into account. On the ideal soils, the trees have an inclination for a lot of vegetative growth with the result that fruiting is delayed.
Once the trees show such an inclination, they must not be provided with any manure and chemical and irrigation should incline meagrely and withheld in September-October and once more in February-March. This helps in fruit bud formation, efflorescence and in fruit set.
Irrigation ought to incline simply once manuring. Young plants need 6-8 irrigations for higher growth. In bearing trees, irrigation ought to incline from September to October for higher fruit bud formation and should to May and June for the higher development of fruits. Ordinarily, 5-6 irrigations are needed.
Flowering starts throughout March and continues up to April in north Indian conditions. Fruits ripen from June to July or with the onset of rains. It takes 3 to 5 months to ripen once full bloom.
Fruits change their color from being green in the beginning to deep red or bluish-black in the end. This is often a non-climacteric fruit; therefore, it doesn’t ripen once harvested.
Among the pests, whitefly, and leaf feeding caterpillar cause huge harm to the tree.
• Whitefly (Dialeurodes eugenia): It highly damages the Jamun tree across India. Affected fruits get a wormy look on the surface. Whitefly will be controlled by using the following ways:
i) Maintain hygienic conditions around the tree.
ii) Pluck all affected fruits and kill them.
iii) Digging the soil around the tree so as to destroy the pupae hibernating in the soil.
• Leaf feeding caterpillar (Carea subtillis):
This caterpillar is only found in regions around Coimbatore. The insect damages the leaves and can also destroy the tree. It will be controlled by spraying medicines that are Rogor and Malathion.
• Other infecting pests:
Besides the mentioned insects, the Jamun crop is seriously destroyed by pests like squirrels and birds like crows and parrots. You can get rid of them by flinging stones or by beating the drums.
The common yield of full-grown budded and seedling trees are 50-70kg and 80-100kg /plant /year.
The concept of Jamun Cultivation is not as that much widespread due to the lack of awareness and knowledge. If you would be able to collect proper information and perfectly implement all the steps of Jamun cultivation then you would be able to generate a huge amount through the marketing.
The demand for this fruit is very high in the market and will be increased in the upcoming years for sure.