Apple Farming & Cultivation Techniques In India

Apple Farming | Cultivation About Apple Fruit  Tree Farming Process Profit 

Apples are the oldest commercial fruit that is grown every corner of the world. After Banana farming, Orange farming, Apple farming | Cultivation top the list of commercial farming. So, growing apple trees is a good idea, rather than going for any other commercial farming. So, friends, today, we are going to learn step by step, Apple farming in detailed, along with health benefits of apple.

The scientific name of apple¬†is “Malus”.¬†

There are lots of health benefits of eating apples, because of which an apple a day is suggested by numbers of people. Basically, Apples were founded in the Europe and in the Western Asia, which spread to the whole world and also become popular at every corner of the world. Appletrees, grown with the help of Apple seed are bigger in size in comparison to the trees, grown by rootstock (grafting on roots).

Apple farming, growing apples

How amazing is it? In the world, there are more than 7500 types of apple varieties or cultivars are present. Apple trees are a deciduous tree, reaching a height of 18 feet tallness. However, the wild apples can grow up to more than 35 feet tallness. It is easy to maintain the shape and the size of an apple by selecting good rootstock and performing trimming (Pruning) of the apple tree. All like other commercial farming, agroclimatic condition, soil fertility and good orchard management skills are the key factors, which directly impact on the fruit production of apple cultivation.

Apples can be eaten as raw as well as a vital ingredient in numbers of sweets like apple crisp, apple crumbles, apple cake, and apple pie. Apart from this, apples are also used in many beverages (Juices & Ciders). With the help of various apples farming technique, it is able to perform Organic apple farming in some regions and for obtaining more apple production, one may go for high-density apple plantation in his/her orchard to earn more profit.

Benefits of Apples

Are apples bad for you?¬†Then why, “An apple a Day, keeps the doctor away”? So, let us learn what are the health benefits of apples in the following section.

Health Benefits of Apple

  1. Benefits of Green Apples: Apples are known for their great health benefits but green apple is significant of all the apple varieties. As green apple contain a higher level of minerals, vitamins,  proteins, and fiber among them all. All these green apple nutrition are well known for their health benefits such as fighting against digestive disorders, managing glucose levels, improving your taste, low-level cholesterol, etc
  2. Are Apples Good for Weight Loss? Guys, A medium size apple contains about 95 calories along with lots of water and high fiber content. Since foods which have low energy quantities are helpful in promoting fullness and also reduced the calorie intake. FInally, this all leads to weight loss. So, eating an apple a day also helps in weight loss.
  3. Benefits of Apple for Skin: Apples contains Copper and vitamin C, which is good for skin health.
  4. Apples are helpful in preventing certain cancers also good for the brain health.
  5. Eating an apple a day is also helpful in healing Anemia.

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However, note that eating apples in more quantities is bad for you as apples are high in sugar content and cyanide, which are the main cause of teeth erosion.

Top 10 Apple Producing Countries

Following are the top 10 countries, who top the apple fruit production all over the World.

  1. China
  2. USA
  3. Turkey
  4. Poland
  5. Iran
  6. Italy
  7. France
  8. India
  9. Russia
  10. Brazil.

Other Names of Apple in Different Local Languages

Sev (Hindi, India), Seb or ō≥ŘĆō® (Urdu), p√≠nggu«í (Chinese),¬†ŗ§łŗ•ćŗ§Įŗ§ĺŗ§Č or syńĀ‚Äôu (Nepali),¬†Ringo or „āä„āď„ĀĒ (Japanese),¬†Appel (Afrikaans, Dutch),¬†őúőģőĽőŅ (Greek),¬†Manzana (Spanish),¬†–Į–Ī–Ľ–ĺ–ļ–ĺ (Russian),¬†ō™ŔĀōßō≠ (Arabic),¬†Apfel (German),¬†Elma (Turkish),¬†Sńęb (Persian),¬†√ļll (Irish),¬†JabŇāko (Polish),¬†Jabuka ( Bosnian),¬†√¶ble(Danish),¬†Yabluko (Ukrainian),¬†ŔĀōß—Ź–Ī—ä–Ľ–ļ–į ( Bulgarian),¬†Eple (Norwegian),¬†◊™◊§◊ē◊ó (Hebrew),¬†Mansanas (Filipino),¬†Jablko (Slovak),¬†MńÉr (Romanian),¬†Alim (Mongolian),¬†žā¨Í≥ľ (Korean),¬†P√≠nggu«í (Cantonese),¬†√§ppel (Swedish),¬†Omena (Finnish), ‘Ĺ’∂’Ī’ł÷Ä (Armenian),¬†Alma (Hungarian), √ēUN (Estonian), Aipple (Scottish),¬†Olma (Uzbek), Jabuka (Croatian),¬†Pomme (French),¬†Phoxngkor (Taiwanese),¬†ŗ∂áŗ∂īŗ∂Ĺŗ∑ä (Sinhalese),¬†Afal (Welsh), Mansanas (Cebuano),¬†Mela (Italian),¬†Epal (Malay),¬†Tuffieha (Maltese),¬†Tufaax (Somali),¬†Jablko (Czech),¬†T√°o t√Ęy (Vietnamese),¬†Jabolko (Slovenian),¬†ńÄbols (Latvian), Jabuka (Serbian), Moll√ę (Albanian), Ma√ß√£ (Portuguese), Chomphu (Thai), ŠěĒŠüČŠüĄŠěė (Cambodian), Jabolka (Macedonian), Vashli (Georgian), etc

Apple | Varieties

Do you know how many types of apples are there? NO, Don’t worry, here is answer!! All over the world, there are about more than 7500 cultivar or varieties of the Apple that are grown as commercial apple farming. However,¬†Golden Delicious,¬†Red Delicious,¬†Northern Spy,¬†Cortland,¬†Winesap,¬†Pink Lady,¬†Empire,¬†Macoun,¬†Gala,¬†Ida Red,¬†Fuji,¬†McIntosh are some most popular apple varieties¬†that are grown as commercial apple farming.

Apple Varities

Agro-Climatic Condition For Apple Farming

Agroclimatic condition surrounding your apple farm is a key factor, that impacts the growth and development of your apples and also on the production. Apple plants¬†are tedious in nature that requires about more than 1000 chilling hours, below 7 ¬įC for the best growth and higher production of fruits. However, this may vary depending on the apples varieties or cultivar. Note that extreme coldness can lead to complete damage of your apple crop. Along with good temp, sufficient sunshine is also responsible for healthy fruit growth and also to catch up an attractive color.

Growing apples, up to 2500 mean sea level height is supposed to be beneficial for earning good profit. An apple orchard requires an avg. temp of 20 to 26¬†¬įC during y the growth development period along with 100 to 120 cm annual rainfall. It is notable that fog or heavy rainfall during fruit maturity period is the main cause of improper fruit growth. Also, not that apple farming should be avoided in such area where heavy winds¬†are expected.

Land Selection and its Preparation in Apples Farming

Growing apples

A proper site selection for cultivating apple is an important task. If climate supports a well, then with good farm management skill, anyone can produce quality apples in high quantities. So, with the help of agroclimatic condition for select a proper site for profitable apple farming.

Soil Requirement

Apple can be cultivated in all types of soil. However, a loamy soil, rich in all essential organic matter along with well-drainage power is considered as the best soil for apple farming. Also, it should have pH, ranging between 5.5 to 6.8 with proper aeration.

It is a good thing to go for at least one soil test to find out the suitability and soil fertility for apple farming. It will also help you in determining any deficiency of micronutrients in your soil if present. So that, you can supplement them at the time of land preparation for obtaining higher fruit production.

Land Preparation

For commercial apple farming, cultivate apples on well-drained soil with decent layout proposed. Give a deep plow for leveling it. Weeds from the preceding crop should be removed, if present.

Growing | Planting Apples

Propagation Method

Generally, Apples are propagated with the help of tongue grafting and Budding methods. But, take care while selection planting material of planting apples. It should be from the genuine and registered nurseries in your local. They should be transplanted properly when these nursery grown seedlings become ready or suitable for transplantation in your apple orchard.

But, if you are not interested in grafting and budding method, then you can growing apple by using seeds. Learn below how to germinate apple seeds? in few steps.

how to germinate apple seeds.

  1. Collect various seeds from unmarked ripe apple.
  2. Fold these collected seeds inside a moistened bedding like a paper towel
  3. Then after, store these prepare plastic bags into a cooler drawer of freezer for about 30 to 50 days to chill stratify to breaks their regular dormancy
  4. Then after, prepare a pot for individual apple seeds.
  5. Prepare that pot for good germination by providing good moisture content and essential organic matter.
  6. Sow these chilled seeds into those prepared pots for germination.
  7. When seedling appears, move your pot to the sunny and open area so that it can grow well
  8. Water it regularly for good development of Apple plant.

Growing Apples | Planting Season

Usually, apples are planted in the winter season, mostly in the month of January and February Since apples thrive their best in the cool region at chilling temp. Apples should be planted in the square or hexagonal planting system. If you are planting apples in the hilly area or valleys, followed the counter planting method in those sloppy areas.

For planting apples, dig a pit having proper size with dimension one meter each. A mixture of rotten cow dung manure, 40 kg along with 50 gm of malathion dust and 500 gm of superphosphate is should be incorporated to each prepare pit for good development of apple tree. An immediate irrigation should be done, just after transplantation of apples on the apple orchards. Also, provide a planting pollinator between the main plantation for obtaining decent apple fruit production

Spacing

Spacing in your apple orchard is mainly depended on the apple varieties and planting method, used for the cultivation. By planting apple trees keeping a proper distance between them, it is able to plant about 300 to 1200 no’s of Apple plant per unit hectare land.

Apple Orchard Farming

However, there are mainly 4 types of density planting, usually followed by the growers.

  1. With the help of Ultra high density (UHD) method of planting, about 1200 apple plants per hectare can be cultivated.
  2. With the help of high density (HD) method of planting, about 600 to 1200 apple plants per hectare can be cultivated.
  3. By using moderate density plantation, it is able to plant around 300 to 600 plants per unit hectare land. And
  4. By following low-density plantation in apple cultivation, it is able to plant around 300 plants per unit hectare land.

Decide on your own, how many apple trees per hectare or acre, you want to grow.

Watering Apple Trees

An apple tree requires about 120 cm rainfall per annum. So, providing this much of water is beneficial more production of apples. Give water in your apple orchard on a schedule, about 20 irrigation per year. Water frequently in the summer season, it should be given at an interval of a week whereas, in winter, irrigation should be carried out at intervals of three to four weeks or even more.

Note that more than eight scheduled irrigations are essential during the critical period; in summer (April to August) after the fruit set on the plants.

irrigation in apple farming

How much water does an apple tree need per day? A grown apple tree requires about 10 inches of water per day, when the soil is dry and temp is hot (in summer) while it requires about 4 to 5 inches of water per day when the soil is not too dry (in winter)

Which is the best way to irrigate fruit trees? Obviously, the drip irrigation system. And nowadays, govt. are providing big subsidies on setting up the drip irrigation system on your farm.

Application of Manure and Fertilizers in Apple Farming

Friends, timely application of suitable manure and fertilizers in your apple farm, directly impact the amount of production both; quality and quantity via enhancing the plant growth and setting healthy fruits. Since apple farming with all essential organic matter is beneficial than traditional. As discussed earlier in land preparation, apply about 15 kg of well rotten FYM along with all essential organic matters; Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Potash in the following ratio to the base of apple plants.

For the first year of planting apples, supply about 35 gm of P2O5, 70 gm of Nitrogen, & 70 gm of K2O. Add up this dose for the following years, one time for one year, up to ten years. After that, supply 350 gm of P2O5, 700gm of Nitrogen, & 700gm of K2O to each apple plant. Apply these manure & fertilizers in the month of July to August to utilize them maximum.

Note that deficiency of Boron, Zinc, calcium, and manganese should be supplemented by using appropriate chemicals fertilizer by foliage spray.

Pest and Disease in Apple Farming

Apple Pests

Codling moth, Plague thrips, Western flower thrips, Apple dimpling bug, European red mites, Two-spotted mites, Woolly apple aphid, Queensland fruit fly are some common pest and insect, that’s commonly found in apple cultivation.

Apple Tree | Pests Control

To controlling these apple pests and insect, make use of suitable chemical fertilizers as a foliage spray. However, proper intercultural activities like growing resistant rootstocks, spraying Chloropyriphos, fenitrothion, carbaryl etc have more effective results on Appletree pests control in commercial farming.

Apple Tree Diseases

Apple Scab, fruit blotch, Bitter rot, Powdery mildew, White root rot, Sclerotium collar rot,¬†Alternaria leaf etc are the main apple tree diseases,¬†that’s commonly found in apple cultivation.

Apple Disease Control

For controlling apple tree diseases, select a quality and disease-resistant in growing apples. It prevents most of the diseases. However, removal of the infected plant and use of suitable chemical fertilizers like mancozeb, carbendazim, and other such fungicides has effective results.

Apple Diseases Pictures

Below are some pictures showing symptoms of the various types of diseases, found in apple farming.

Apple Tree Leaves Turning Brown and Curling

Apple Tree Leaves Turning Brown and Curling

Cedar Apple Rust

Cedar apple rust

Rosy Apple Aphid

rosy apple aphid

Apple Tree Leaves Curling Up

apple tree leaves curling up

Apple Harvesting

Generally, An apple orchard begins fruits bearing after about 7 to 8 years of plantation. However, it is mainly depended on the variety of apple, used for the cultivation. Generally, an apple tree gives fruit for about more than 35 years. In the beginning, there is less fruit production. but, after about 8 years of starting fruit bearings, fruit production will increase up to 15 years. Thereafter, this production will remain stable for about 35 years.

Presently, there are many types of apple, easily available in the market that can produce fruits for more than 35 years constantly depending on the surroundings atmospheres.

Apple Picking

Picking apples should be carried out before the fruit get to ripen on the tree. For bigger orchards, make use of apple harvester since the process of picking apples is time-consuming and also tough enough as there is more need of laborious work.

Yield

The yield of apple farming depends on numbers of factors like the agroclimatic conditions of the atmosphere (cooling, sunlight, wind flow, etc), the type of soil and also the variety of apple, used for the cultivation along with good farm management skills.

However, averagely about 12 to 18 tonnes of apple fruit production per unit hectare can be easily obtained after a good establishment of your orchard. Which can be increased latterly in the following years.

Final Words

Friends, this is all about growing apple like Where Do Apple Trees Grow? how many types of apples are there, the variety of apple, pest and disease control along with apple harvesting and benefits of apples. I think that all the above mention details are sufficient enough to establish an apple orchard. Cultivate a high yielding and fast growing apple variety and earn a lot by growing apples with suitable climate condition and good farm management skills.  

However, if you find any difficulty in apple farming or cultivation, then please inform us so that we solve your query as soon as possible

Have a great success in Apple Farming | Cultivation!!!

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