Pesticides are indispensable in agricultural production. They have been used by farmers to control weeds and insects, and their remarkable increases in agricultural products have been reported. The increase in the world’s population in the 20th century could not have been possible without a parallel increase in food production.
How do farmers apply pesticides in four steps?
Use bait stations for rodent baits that are formulated with food (e.g., peanut butter or grain bait) or place the bait where non-target wildlife cannot get to it. Use landscaping techniques that help increase native habitat and reduce the need for pesticides. Top of Page. Tips for Farmers. Follow all requirements on pesticide product labels.
Do chemical fertilizers actually help in agriculture?
When it comes to the advantages of using fertilizers in agriculture, it’s all about efficiency. Chemical fertilizers allow growers to maximize their crop yield on a specific piece of land — the more the plant grows, the better. Fertilizer works to ensure that each piece of land produces as efficiently as possible.
What are the dangers of chemical pesticides in agriculture?
- World Health Organization. Public Health Impact of Pesticides Used in Agriculture. …
- Alewu B, Nosiri C. Pesticides and human health. …
- NSW EPA. …
- Hoffman RS, Capel PD, Larson SJ. …
- Canadian Cancer Society. …
- Johnston JJ. …
- Hayes TB, Case P, Chui S, Chung D, Haeffele C, Haston K, et al. …
- Sanborn M, Kerr KJ, Sanin LH, Cole DC, Bassil KL, Vakil C. …
- Pimentel D, Burgess M. …
How many pesticides does American agriculture use?
So Donley studied yearly pesticide use recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey. From that, he figured how much of the use was from chemicals banned elsewhere. In 2016, U.S. farms used 544 million kilograms (1.2 billion pounds) of pesticides.
Are pesticides used everywhere?
Pesticides are widely used throughout the developing world, and pesticide demand is increasing due to the current system of crop production, which prioritises high agricultural yields.
Where are pesticides commonly used?
Insecticides are commonly used in agricultural, public health and industrial applications, as well as household and commercial uses (e.g., control of roaches and termites). The most commonly used insecticides are the organophosphates, pyrethroids and carbamates (see Figure 1).
Is pest control under agriculture?
All pest control use that does not fit into the listed non-agricultural use categories is agricultural use. This includes watersheds, rights-of-way, landscaped areas (golf courses, parks, recreation areas, cemeteries, etc.).
What type of farming uses pesticides?
Industrial agricultureIndustrial agriculture relies on two types of chemicals: fertilizers and pesticides. The former boost soil fertility, making crops more productive, while the latter protect crops by controlling weeds (herbicides), insect and animal infestation (insecticides and rodenticides) and fungal/mold diseases (fungicides).
What is pesticide used for?
Pesticides are used to control various pests and disease carriers, such as mosquitoes, ticks, rats and mice. Pesticides are used in agriculture to control weeds, insect infestation and diseases. There are many different types of pesticides; each is meant to be effective against specific pests.
Do local farmers use pesticides?
All farmers use pesticides, including organic farmers. Whether from synthetic or natural sources, pesticides are used by all farmers. The difference is organic farmers can only use pesticides from natural sources. But both synthetic and natural pesticides have various levels of toxicity.
What is pest control in food industry?
Monitoring, detection, reporting and documentation of pests; Taking appropriate pest elimination measures and documenting activities as required by best practice and legislation; Storing pesticides according to regulations to ensure safety and prevent contamination.
What are pests agriculture?
Pests can include weeds, plant pathogens (certain fungi, bacteria, and viruses), rodents, and nematodes in addition to the plant-feeding insects and mites described in the preceding text, and are estimated to destroy as much as one-third of all agricultural yield.
What is the means of pesticides?
/ˈpes.tɪ.saɪd/ us. /ˈpes.tə.saɪd/ a chemical substance used to kill harmful insects, small animals, wild plants, and other unwanted organisms: The pesticides that farmers spray on their crops kill pests, but they can also damage people’s health.
Are pesticides and fertilizers the same?
Fertilizers help plants grow by adding nutrients to the soil. Pesticides (including herbicides) are any toxic substance used to kill insects, animals, or plants.
Are pesticides bad for the environment?
Impact on environment Pesticides can contaminate soil, water, turf, and other vegetation. In addition to killing insects or weeds, pesticides can be toxic to a host of other organisms including birds, fish, beneficial insects, and non-target plants.
Should we use pesticides Why or why not?
More specifically, pesticides can keep harmful pests–such as rats, mice, ticks and mosquitoes–away from crops while also protecting the plants from weeds and diseases that have the ability to greatly reduce crop yield. In fact, growth of major crops has tripled since 1960, mainly because of the use of pesticides.
What is pesticide?
The term pesticide covers a wide range of compounds including insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, molluscicides, nematicides, plant growth regulators and others. Among these, organochlorine (OC) insecticides, used successfully in controlling a number of diseases, such as malaria and typhus, were banned or restricted after …
What are the primary benefits of pesticides?
The primary benefits are the consequences of the pesticides’ effects – the direct gains expected from their use. For example the effect of killing caterpillars feeding on the crop brings the primary benefit of higher yields and better quality of cabbage. The three main effects result in 26 primary benefits ranging from protection of recreational turf to saved human lives. The secondary benefits are the less immediate or less obvious benefits that result from the primary benefits. They may be subtle, less intuitively obvious, or of longer term. It follows that for secondary benefits it is therefore more difficult to establish cause and effect, but nevertheless they can be powerful justifications for pesticide use. For example the higher cabbage yield might bring additional revenue that could be put towards children’s education or medical care, leading to a healthier, better educated population. There are various secondary benefits identified, ranging from fitter people to conserved biodiversity.
What is the pesticide use in India?
The pattern of pesticide usage in India is different from that for the world in general. As can be seen in Figure 1, in India 76% of the pesticide used is insecticide, as against 44% globally (Mathur, 1999). The use of herbicides and fungicides is correspondingly less heavy. The main use of pesticides in India is for cotton crops (45%), followed by paddy and wheat.
How do pesticides help the Indian economy?
This result has been achieved by the use of high-yield varieties of seeds, advanced irrigation technologies and agricultural chemicals (Employment Information: Indian Labour Statistics, 1994). Similarly outputs and productivity have increased dramatically in most countries, for example wheat yields in the United Kingdom, corn yields in the USA. Increases in productivity have been due to several factors including use of fertiliser, better varieties and use of machinery. Pesticides have been an integral part of the process by reducing losses from the weeds, diseases and insect pests that can markedly reduce the amount of harvestable produce. Warren (1998) also drew attention to the spectacular increases in crop yields in the United States in the twentieth century. Webster et al.(1999) stated that “considerable economic losses” would be suffered without pesticide use and quantified the significant increases in yield and economic margin that result from pesticide use. Moreover, in the environment most pesticides undergo photochemical transformation to produce metabolites which are relatively non-toxic to both human beings and the environment (Kole et al., 1999).
How many pesticides were used in 1996?
In 1996, seven pesticides (acephate, chlopyriphos, chlopyriphos-methyl, methamidophos, iprodione, procymidone and chlorothalonil) and two groups of pesticides (benomyl group and maneb group, i.e. dithiocarbamates) were analysed in apples, tomatoes, lettuce, strawberries and grapes.
What are the high risk groups exposed to pesticides?
The high risk groups exposed to pesticides include production workers, formulators, sprayers, mixers, loaders and agricultural farm workers. During manufacture and formulation, the possibility of hazards may be higher because the processes involved are not risk free. In industrial settings, workers are at increased risk since they handle various toxic chemicals including pesticides, raw materials, toxic solvents and inert carriers.
When was the first pesticide poisoning reported in India?
In India the first report of poisoning due to pesticides was from Kerala in 1958, where over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion (Karunakaran, 1958). This prompted the Special Committee on Harmful Effects of Pesticides constituted by the ICAR to focus attention on the problem (Report of the Special Committee of ICAR, 1972). In a multi-centric study to assess the pesticide residues in selected food commodities collected from different states of the country (Surveillance of Food Contaminants in India, 1993), DDT residues were found in about 82% of the 2205 samples of bovine milk collected from 12 states. About 37% of the samples contained DDT residues above the tolerance limit of 0.05 mg/kg (whole milk basis). The highest level of DDT residues found was 2.2 mg/kg. The proportion of the samples with residues above the tolerance limit was highest in Maharastra (74%), followed by Gujarat (70%), Andhra Pradesh (57%), Himachal Pradesh (56%), and Punjab (51%). In the remaining states, this proportion was less than 10%. Data on 186 samples of 20 commercial brands of infants formulae showed the presence of residues of DDT and HCH isomers in about 70 and 94% of the samples with their maximum level of 4.3 and 5.7 mg/kg (fat basis) respectively. Measurement of chemicals in the total diet provides the best estimates of human exposure and of the potential risk. The risk of consumers may then be evaluated by comparison with toxicologically acceptable intake levels. The average total DDT and BHC consumed by an adult were 19.24 mg/day and 77.15 mg/day respectively (Kashyap et al., 1994). Fatty food was the main source of these contaminants. In another study, the average daily intake of HCH and DDT by Indians was reported to be 115 and 48 mg per person respectively, which were higher than those observed in most of the developed countries (Kannan et al., 1992).
How are pesticides used in agriculture?
Many farms in the U.S. rely on chemical intervention to fight pests and weeds.
What are the risks for humans?
Humans are primarily exposed to pesticides occupationally, from applying pesticides or working in fields where pesticides have been applied. Certain pesticides have been proven to be detrimental to human health. Organophosphates, for example, have been linked to developmental problems in exposed children.
Are pesticides dangerous to pollinators?
Pollinators are responsible for one out of every three bites of food and contribute billions of dollars to agriculture. By some estimates, there may be as many as 350,000 different pollinator species.
How do pesticides impact the environment?
Pesticides can have detrimental effects on organisms in the environment other than the pests they target. They can drift into surrounding areas by wind or be carried in water or soil from agricultural fields into waterways and groundwater.
How can we decrease pesticide risks?
There are a variety of strategies that farmers can use to reduce, or mitigate, pesticide-related risks. Buffer zones between an application site and an untreated area like a school, pollinator habitat or body of water are a common risk mitigation strategy.
Pesticides can be harmful to humans, particularly the farm workers whose jobs create more opportunities for exposure than the general public, and to organisms in the environment that are not the intended target, including pollinators and other beneficial species.
Why were chemical pesticides developed?
Chemical pesticides were developed at the onset of agricultural history to counter the persistence of pests, pathogens, and competitive species. Interestingly, remnants of elemental sulfur dusting were found to be used in ancient Mesopotamia to protect crops.
How do pesticides affect the environment?
It is now well recognized that chemical pesticides generate considerable losses in non‐target species and cause widespread contamination of soil and water systems. Such widespread issues affect not only surrounding areas, populations, and natural habitats but any ecosystem that may be connected in some way.
How much of the world’s crop losses are caused by insects?
It is estimated that every year, the contribution of pests to global crop losses varies from between 50% in wheat to 80% in cotton. More specifically, insects alone consume 5 to 20% of major grain crops annually around the world, posing a considerable threat to food security. Additionally, these impacts are known to be exacerbated in regions lacking the capacity to prevent, manage, or recover from the damage incurred, which often correlates with socioeconomic status.
What are some ways to limit pesticide use?
Biopesticides and other nature-based strategies for biological control are also promising candidates to limit pesticide use. Considerable research has been conducted over the past decade to explore such strategies through the use of predators, such as ladybirds, to reduce the burden of insecticides in crops.
How can we change the application technique of pesticides?
Another strategy may be to change the application technique of pesticides such as by using a controlled release system , which was discussed further in a review by Indian researchers from earlier this year. Such a strategy provides more precise control and monitoring of pesticide use and may help lessen the ecological burden of pesticides.
How can we reduce the need for pesticides?
For instance, employing genetically modified crops that are pathogen-resistant may reduce the need for pesticides. Metabolomics have also been used to refine the targeting of pesticides by identifying pesticides with high selectivity, unique modes-of-action, and acceptable eco-toxicological properties.
How much will insects damage the future?
Looking forward, the damage of pests is forecasted to increase considerably in the future as damage from insects estimated to increase by 10 to 25% per degree Celsius of warming . This was a finding from a 2018 study by Curtis Deutsh and colleagues, who modeled changes in insect consumption of wheat, rice, and maize under global warming.
Why is pesticide use important in agriculture?
One of its benefits is that it has managed to increase food production.
Who is at the highest risk of suffering from the harmful effects of pesticides?
People who are at the highest risk of suffering from the harmful effects of pesticide use are farmers and agricultural workers who work directly with these chemicals, applying, mixing, and loading them in the farms where they are used.
What is the movement of contaminants like pesticides or fertilizers through the soil and finally to groundwater?
Pesticide leaching is the movement of contaminants like pesticides or fertilizers through the soil and finally to groundwater, which is vulnerable to pollution.
Why are pesticides misdiagnosed?
This is just another reason why pesticide poisonings are often misdiagnosed or under-reported.
What is pesticide residue?
Pesticide residues are amounts of pesticide that may remain in foods after being applied to food crops.
What is the herbicide called that is being sued?
For instance, a herbicide called Paraquat is currently being the target of many lawsuits in the United States.
How long does it take for a pesticide to cause long term health effects?
On the other hand, chronic or long-term health effects are delayed injuries or illnesses which may not appear until several years following pesticide exposure.
Why are pesticides important in agriculture?
The Benefits of Pesticide Use in Agriculture. The point of pesticides is to protect plants from pests, weeds and diseases that have the power to destroy entire crops. Currently, up to 40% of the world’s potential crops are destroyed every year due to these threats.
How do pesticides affect crops?
More specifically, pesticides can keep harmful pests –such as rats, mice, ticks and mosquitoes–away from crops while also protecting the plants from weeds and diseases that have the ability to greatly reduce crop yield. In fact, growth of major crops has tripled since 1960, mainly because of the use of pesticides.
What are some examples of pests that can be spread by insects?
For example, rats can carry the bubonic plague, while mosquitoes can spread malaria and fleas can spread typhus. Greatly reducing the number of these pests around crops can also reduce the number of human deaths caused by certain diseases.
How does pesticides benefit farmers?
At the same time, the use of pesticides has also benefited farmers, who can make better profits when they’re able to protect their crops without having to personally pull weeds or remove pests from fields on their own.
How much of the world’s crops are destroyed every year?
Currently, up to 40% of the world’s potential crops are destroyed every year due to these threats. Without the use of pesticides, this percentage could quickly double. For this reason, all farmers in California and beyond use pesticides in some form, to protect their crops. Even organic farmers use pesticides, as they simply opt for natural …
How many types of weeds are there in the world?
Plants face numerous hazards that threaten to kill them off every day. In fact, there are more than 30,000 species of weeds alone, all of which can stunt plant growth and even damage entire crops. In addition, there are more than 10,000 types of insects that eat plants. Then there are the threats the plants have to face once they are pulled from the fields and put into storage–since insects, rodents and mold can all cause damage to them.
What happens if you don’t read the label on pesticides?
If you fail to read the label and follow the directions, you could be in violation of the law in California. So, if the label requests that you put a tarp over the affected area after you apply the pesticide, and you neglect to do so, you’re breaking the law regarding pesticide use and could be fined or jailed.
How do pesticides affect agriculture?
The increase in the world’s population in the 20th century could not have been possible without a parallel increase in food production. About one-third of agricultural products are produced depending on the application of pesticides. Without the use of pesticides, there would be a 78% loss of fruit production, a 54% loss of vegetable production, and a 32% loss of cereal production. Therefore, pesticides play a critical role in reducing diseases and increasing crop yi elds worldwide. Thus, it is essential to discuss the agricultural development process; the historical perspective, types and specific uses of pesticides; and pesticide behavior, its contamination, and adverse effects on the natural environment. The review study indicates that agricultural development has a long history in many places around the world. The history of pesticide use can be divided into three periods of time. Pesticides are classified by different classification terms such as chemical classes, functional groups, modes of action, and toxicity. Pesticides are used to kill pests and control weeds using chemical ingredients; hence, they can also be toxic to other organisms, including birds, fish, beneficial insects, and non-target plants, as well as air, water, soil, and crops. Moreover, pesticide contamination moves away from the target plants, resulting in environmental pollution. Such chemical residues impact human health through environmental and food contamination. In addition, climate change-related factors also impact on pesticide application and result in increased pesticide usage and pesticide pollution. Therefore, this review will provide the scientific information necessary for pesticide application and management in the future.
Why are pesticides important?
It is generally accepted that pesticides play an important role in agricultural development because they can reduce the losses of agricultural products and improve the affordable yield and quality of food [2,3,4]. Because of the urgency to improve food production and control insect-borne diseases, the development of pesticides increased during World War II (1939-1945). Additionaly, from the 1940s onwards, the increased use of synthetic crop protection chemicals permitted a further increase in food production . Moreover, worldwide pesticide production increased at a rate of about 11% per year, from 0.2 million tons in the 1950s to more than 5 million tons by 2000 . Three billion kilograms of pesticides are used worldwide every year , while only 1% of total pesticides are effectively used to control insect pests on target plants . The large amounts of remaining pesticides penetrate or reach non-target plants and environmental media. As a consequence, pesticide contamination has polluted the environment and caused negative impacts on human health [1,7].
What is the literature review of pesticides?
This literature review firstly provides basic scientific information about the agricultural development process, the historical perspective of pesticide usage, general types of pesticide in use, and the role of pesticides in agriculture. Specific focus is then put on pesticide behavior in the environment, climate change-related factors in pesticide use and its adverse effects on the natural environment. Finally this study provides a new direction for the application and management of pesticides.
How do pesticides help the environment?
In terms of public health, pesticides are used in daily life to kill pests, including mosquitoes, ticks, rats, and mice in houses, offices, malls, and streets. As a result, the immense burden of diseases caused by these vectors has been substantially reduced or eliminated [21,23,26]. Insecticides are often the most practical way to control insects that can spread deadly diseases such as malaria, possibly resulting in an estimated death count of 5000 deaths globally each day . In addition, pesticides are indispensable in agricultural production. They have been used by farmers to control weeds and insects in agricultural cultivation, and remarkable increases in agricultural products have been reported as a result of pesticide use [1,27]. To cope with demographic growth, there has been a significant increase in agricultural yield since the beginning of the 20th century. Within one century, population growth increased from 1.5 billion in 1900 to about 6.1 billion in 2000, corresponding to a world population growth rate three times greater than during the entire history of humanity. Since 2003, the world’s population has increased by yet another billion, and given the current growth rates, it is projected to reach 9.4–10 billion by 2050 . The increase in the world’s population in the 20th century could not have been possible without a parallel increase in food production. Although increases in food productivity have been due to several factors, including the use of chemicals, better plant varieties, and the use of machinery, pesticides have been an integral part of the process by reducing harvest losses caused by weeds, diseases, and insect pests . About one-third of agricultural products are produced using pesticides. Without the use of pesticides, there would be a 78% loss of fruit production, a 54% loss of vegetable production, and a 32% loss of cereal production . Therefore, pesticides play a critical role in reducing diseases and improving the increase in crop yields worldwide. Thus, they have made a significant contribution to alleviating hunger and providing access to an abundant supply of high-quality food.
How were pesticides used in the past?
During the first period before the 1870s, pests were controlled by using various natural compounds. The first recorded use of insecticides was about 4500 years ago by Sumerians . They used sulfur compounds to control insects and mites. About 3200 years ago, the Chinese used mercury and arsenical compounds to control body lice. There was no chemical industry, so all products used were derived directly from readily available animal, plant, or mineral sources. For example, volatile substances were often applied by “smoking”. The principle was to burn straw, chaff, hedge clippings, crabs, fish, dung, or other animal products, so that the smoke, preferably malodorous, could spread throughout the orchard, crop, or vineyard . It was generally assumed that such smoke would eliminate blight or mildew. Smoke was also used against insects. People controlled weeds mainly by hand weeding, while various chemical methods were also reported . Pyrethrum is obtained from the dried flowers of the chrysanthemum Cineraria folium, “pyrethrum daisies”, and has been used as an insecticide for over 2000 years.
What are the different types of pesticides?
Pesticides are classified by different classification terms such as chemical classes, functional groups, modes of action, and toxicity . Firstly, pesticides are classified by different targets of pests, including fungicides, insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. For example, fungicides are used to kill fungi, insecticides are used to kill insects, while herbicides are used to kill weeds [21,22]. In terms of chemical classes, pesticides are classified into organic and inorganic ingredients. Inorganic pesticides include copper sulfate, ferrous sulfate, copper, lime, and sulfur. The ingredients of organic pesticides are more complicated . Organic pesticides can be classified according to their chemical structure, such as chlorohydrocarbon insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides, carbamate insecticides, synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, metabolite and hormone analog herbicides, synthetic urea herbicides, triazine herbicides, benzimidazole nematocides, metaldehyde molluscicides, metal phosphide rodenticides, and D group vitamin-based rodenticides. Figure 1shows the summary of the agricultural use of each class of pesticide in China .
Why do pesticides bind to soil?
In contrast, a large amount of pesticides reaches the soil, resulting in severe soil pollution [51,52]. The sorption process is a phenomenon that binds pesticides to soil particles due to the attraction between chemical and soil particles [51,53,54,55]. In addition, adsorption isotherms can be obtained according to the standard batch equilibration method (OECD106, 2000) and used for the assessment of pesticide retention in the environmental media .
Why do some plants have pesticides?
Some pesticide manufacturers now coat the plant seeds with pesticide, so that the plants take up the pesticide in their organs and become toxic to agricultural pests. This has become a very popular way to protect annuals such as wheat, soybean or corn.
How often do pesticides have to be applied?
Insecticides must be applied at lethal concentrations and sometimes several times during the pest’s lifecycle to be fully effective. At sub-lethal concentrations, a pesticide can, in fact, increase the fecundity or the longevity …
How much of the neonicotinoids used in agriculture could be replaced by non-chemical pest management?
There are opportunities to reduce pesticide use, and scientists, like myself, work on many sustainable alternatives. A recent study highlighted that 78 per cent of the neonicotinoids used in agriculture could be replaced by non-chemical pest management.
What are some ways to reduce pesticide use?
Several new technologies are under development that could help reduce pesticide use. For example, cameras can detect the volatile chemicals released by plants during a pest outbreak. These warning signals can help farmers detect pests sooner and lead to a better, more efficient treatment. Biotechnology can also help.
How long does it take for pesticides to reappear?
In these cases, a few weeks after the pesticide is applied, the same pest will re-appear in the field (primary pest resurgence) or an outbreak of another pest will occur (secondary pest resurgence). These phenomena have been identified on many crops, including soybean, potato and more, but they’re difficult to study because there are so many different factors involved.
Why do humans use insecticides?
Humans have replicated this natural chemical warfare to produce pesticides that have become essential for agriculture. But insecticide use also raises concerns about their impact on non-target species such as bees, or their indirect effect on birds, which eat a lot of insects.
What are some examples of plants that are resistant to pests?
The best documented example is the use of neonicotinoids on cotton, corn and tomato, and the rise of two-spotted spider mite outbreaks.
The Agricultural Challenge of Pests and Pathogens
The Development of Pesticides Through Agricultural History
Chemical pesticides were developed at the onset of agricultural history to counter the persistence of pests, pathogens, and competitive species. Interestingly, remnants of elemental sulfur dusting were found to be used in ancient Mesopotamia to protect crops. In the present day, nearly 3.5 million tonnes of pesticides are used worldwide every year. China is the major contributing coun…
The Consequences of Pesticide Usage
It is now well recognized that chemical pesticides generate considerable losses in non‐target species and cause widespread contamination of soil and water systems. Such widespread issues affect not only surrounding areas, populations, and natural habitats but any ecosystem that may be connected in some way. For humans, the use of pesticides is linked to thousands of annual a…
The Future of Pesticide Usage in Agricultural Systems
The most suitable strategy may be to modify or limit the usage of chemical pesticides by using a combination of sustainable alternatives to reduce crop vulnerability. For instance, employing genetically modified crops that are pathogen-resistant may reduce the need for pesticides. Metabolomics have also been used to refine the targeting of pesticid…
- Aliferis, K. A., & Chrysayi-Tokousbalides, M. (2010). Metabolomics in pesticide research and development: review and future perspectives. Metabolomics, 7(1), 35–53. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11306-0…
- Deutsch, C. A., Tewksbury, J. J., Tigchelaar, M., et al. (2018). Increase in crop losses to insect pests in a warming climate. Science, 361(6405), 916–919. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.a…
- Aliferis, K. A., & Chrysayi-Tokousbalides, M. (2010). Metabolomics in pesticide research and development: review and future perspectives. Metabolomics, 7(1), 35–53. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11306-0…
- Deutsch, C. A., Tewksbury, J. J., Tigchelaar, M., et al. (2018). Increase in crop losses to insect pests in a warming climate. Science, 361(6405), 916–919. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aat3466
- Hedlund, J., Longo, S. B., & York, R. (2019). Agriculture, Pesticide Use, and Economic Development: A Global Examination (1990–2014). Rural Sociology, 85(2), 519–544. https://doi.org/10.1111/ruso.1…
- Kumar, S., Nehra, M., Dilbaghi, N., et al. (2019). Nano-based smart pesticide formulations: Em…