Can crop residue management help in agriculture

image

Crop residue management also provides seasonal soil protection from wind and rain erosion, adds organic matter to the soil, conserves soil moisture, and improves infiltration, aeration and tilth. Benefits may include reduction in soil erosion, sedimentation and pollution from dissolved sediment- attached substances.

How much crop residue to remove?

Quick facts

  • Target corn residue harvest in fields that you’ll be planting corn in next year.
  • Rotate residue harvest among fields so you don’t remove residue from the same field every year.
  • Reduce tillage following residue harvest.
  • To add carbon back to the soil, use manure instead of or in addition to commercial fertilizer.
  • Consider winter cover crops. …

Why do farmers burn residue crop?

Why do farmers burn crop residue in Punjab and Haryana?

  1. The paddy after it is harvested is quickly delivered to FCI godowns.
  2. Rice straw, is not used as fodder as it is found to be non-palatable to animals due to its high silica content.
  3. Because of high a silica content its not safe to be burnt in biomass power generators.
  4. It is little economic value as animal feed and other general uses,

What is the value of crop residue?

The Value of Crop Residue

  • Crop Residue Nutrients. There are nutrients in crop residue. …
  • Defense Against Soil Erosion. Crop residues play an important role in reducing soil erosion from wind and rain. …
  • Preventing Water Loss & Temperature Fluctuations. …
  • Sustaining Organic Matter. …

Does residue grazing affect later crop yields?

Indeed, moderate grazing may increase soil organic matter concentration, in some cases, compared to no grazing. Overgrazing can, however, reduce organic matter concentration in the long term. Crop residue grazing, in general, does not affect crop yields unless grazing occurs when the soil is wet.

image


How crop residue is useful for agriculture?

Crop residues can improve soil structure, increase organic matter content in the soil, reduce evaporation, and help fix CO2 in the soil. Good residue management practices on agricultural lands have many positive impacts on soil quality. Besides, crop residues can be used in biofuel production.


What are the benefits of on site crop residue management?

Crop residue management through conservation agriculture can improve soil productivity and crop production by maintaining SOM levels. Two significant advantages of surface-residue management are increased OM near the soil surface and enhanced nutrient cycling and retention.


Why is it beneficial to leave crop residue on fields?

Leaving crop residue on the soil surface improves nutrient cycling and, ultimately, soil quality that will increase and sustain soil productivity. Through conservation practices that include balanced residue management and soil fertility, environmental quality can be substantially enhanced.


What is the importance of residue?

Residue management is also important in soil and water conservation. About 2.5 Mg/ha of crop residue applied as mulch can reduce soil loss by about 60%. Water conservation is an equally important benefit of returning crop residue, especially for rainfed agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions.


How can you improve the quality of crop residues?

Crop residues such as maize stover, wheat and rice straws are abundant in the dry seasons. They are however low in protein content and are poorly digested by livestock. Their quality can be improved by treating with ordinary urea fertilizer.


What are the advantages of cropping system?

Reduces pest and disease incidence iv. Yield stability v. Ecological stability i.e. improvement of soil health and agro-ecosystem vi. It provides more employment and distribution of labour, by growing and harvesting different crops at different intervals.


What happen if farmer uses plant residue to the soil for growing crops?

It enriches the soil with organic matter, improves its biological activity, provides better accessibility of nutrients, and enables biological water drainage on heavier soils.


What is crop residue in agriculture?

Crop residues are materials left in an agricultural field after the crop has been harvested. These residues include stalks and stubble (stems), leaves and seed pods. Good management of field residues can increase efficiency of irrigation and control of erosion.


What is the impact of leaving crop residues on the soil surface on soil biological properties?

Incorporating crop residue with tillage practices have advantage through adding organic matter and carbon to the soil that are preconditions for the better physical, biological as well as for chemical properties. Allowance of crop residue to the soil surface reduces its bulk density and compaction.


How do you manage plant residues and minimize soil erosion?

Residue management (through conservation tillage) for erosion control can be enhanced by: Selection of crops that produce large amounts of residue (such as corn and grain sorghum) and/or a high degree of soil cover per pound of residue (such as wheat).


What is the role of residue on soil surface in soil erosion?

“Residue and growing vegetation protect the soil surface from erosion by absorbing the impact energy of raindrops, thus, reducing the movement of soil particles,” says Jasa. “Reducing the impact also minimizes surface crusting and sealing, enhancing infiltration and decreasing runoff.”


When soil surface is protected with residue of a crop the practice is called?

“[Conservation tillage is] any tillage and planting system that covers 30 percent or more of the soil surface with crop residue, after planting, to reduce soil erosion by water.


Why are crop residues important?

Crop residues play an important role in limiting soil erosion and in maintaining soil organic matter. The quantities needed for these purposes are a function of the crop grown, the management practices used (e.g., crop rotation, tillage practices), the soil type, field topography, and climate among other factors.


How do crop residues help the soil?

Crop residues can improve soil structure, increase organic matter content in the soil, reduce evaporation, and help fix CO2 in the soil. Good residue management practices on agricultural lands have many positive impacts on soil quality. Besides, crop residues can be used in biofuel production.


What is crop residue cover?

24.5.1 Crop residue cover. Crop residues are materials left on cultivated land after the crop has been harvested. Retention of crop residues after harvesting is considered to be an effective antierosion measure. Crop residues can improve soil structure, increase organic matter content in the soil, reduce evaporation, and help fix CO2 in the soil.


What is residue after harvest?

Crop residues remaining after harvest can act as a mulch that counteracts the destructive impact of rain and wind on soils and also help retain soil moisture, enhancing yields for subsequent crops.


Why do farmers burn crop residue?

Crop residue burning is convenient to the farmers, because narrow window get a get a between the wet season harvest and the dry season cropping, forcing the farmers to burn the residues to vacate the fields.


How does mulch affect soil?

Crop residue mulch improves soil aeration by promoting free exchange of gases between the soil and the atmosphere. This is facilitated by improvement of structural stability , total porosity and macroporosity, decrease of surface crusting and by improving the overall soil drainage. Oxygen diffusion rate is higher under mulch than under unmulched condition. The gaseous composition of soil air under mulch depends on the nature of the mulch material (C:N ratio), its rate of decomposition, the soil moisture regime and the climatic condition. Plastic mulch is practically impervious to carbon dioxide (CO2 ), a gas that is of prime importance for photosynthesis. Very high levels of CO 2 build up takes place under the plastic, as the film does not allow it to escape. It has to come through the holes made in the plastic for the plants and a “chimney effect” is created, resulting in localized concentrations of abundant CO 2 for the actively growing leaves that accelerates the growth of the crop.


How does agriculture help society?

Croplands have the potential to offset a very significant portion of greenhouse gas emissions, but questions about climate change impacts on crop residue decomposition research need to be addressed. Specifically: (1) To what extent does climate change affect diversity of plant species and soil biota and residue decomposition processes? (2) What methods of decomposition management should be utilized to control C sequestration and CO2 emissions? (3) What are the tillage methods and residue interactions important in carbon cycling for nutrient-use efficiency? Within a given ecosystem, the soils have a finite capacity to store carbon limited by natural soil formation factors. As a result, agriculture’s contribution to these larger global climate change issues will likely be for the short term (25–50 years). Nevertheless, agriculture can help society buy time to develop new technologies and cleaner burning fuels.


How to get rid of corn residue?

Quick facts. Target corn residue harvest in fields that you’ll be planting corn in next year. Rotate residue harvest among fields so you don’t remove residue from the same field every year. Reduce tillage following residue harvest. To add carbon back to the soil, use manure instead of or in addition to commercial fertilizer.


How much corn residue can you harvest?

In a corn-soybean rotation, you can only harvest 16 percent of corn residue with 200 bushels per acre yields and conservation tillage. Because of the small amount of residue, it would be hard to uniformly remove it. The same is true with continuous corn grown under moldboard plow tillage.


How much corn can you harvest per acre?

In continuous corn systems with conservation tillage, you could annually harvest 35 to 44 percent of the residue if grain yields are 175 to 200 bushels per acre. However, harvesting only 35 to 44 percent of the corn residue can be difficult.


What nutrients are in corn residue?

Corn residue is a source of many nutrients, including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sulfur, magnesium, copper, manganese and zinc. Plus sign (+) if content is closed, ‘X’ if content is open.


What is the effect of the corn belt on the soil?

Increases plants’ rooting ability. Lowers the soil’s bulk density. Allows the soil to be tilled with less horsepower. The light-colored, forest-derived soils in the eastern Corn Belt contain about half the organic matter as Minnesota’s dark, prairie-derived soils.


Why do scientists prefer soil organic carbon?

However, scientists prefer soil organic carbon because it can be measured with more accuracy. Soil organic matter represents decaying plant and animal residues, microscopic soil organisms that decompose plant and animal residues and substances released by these organisms into the soil.


Does corn reduce soil carbon?

However, regularly harvesting all of a field’s corn residue and not returning other sources of carbon to the soil will reduce soil organic carbon and, ultimately, soil productivity. It’s important to balance short-term economics with long-term sustainability.


What are crop residues used for?

They are popularly used as household fuel, animal feed, and composting material in many developing and under-developed countries.


What are the residues left in the field after the main crop is harvested?

The residues which are left in the field after the main crop is harvested are called field residues . When left in the field, these residues increase water holding capacity, control erosion, and add nutrients. They can be tilled back into the same soil.


Why leave corn residue on the field?

Leaving corn residue on your field provides a protective blanket for your soil.#N#“Residue increases water infiltration ,” says Licht. “You’re reducing water runoff from the field and erosion.”#N#The protective blanket of residue does more than that.#N#“Corn residue provides moisture retention,” says Chad Watts, executive director of the Conservation Technology Information Center. “Depending on your climate, that could be a good thing or a bad thing.”#N#A wet spring could delay planting, says Watts. Another consideration is for nitrogen needs. “You may need to compensate for the residue breakdown, which ties up the soil biology, with starter fertilizer,” explains Watts. “These are all issues you can plan for and manage.”


How to speed up decomposition of stalks?

Stalk Management. Chopping or rolling stalks is one option to speed up the decomposition of stalks. “If you chop stalks, they can get caught in the wind and you lose the residue from the field. Most planters today are able to plant into residue fairly well,” says Licht.


Can wet springs delay planting?

A wet spring could delay planting, says Watts. Another consideration is for nitrogen needs. “You may need to compensate for the residue breakdown, which ties up the soil biology, with starter fertilizer,” explains Watts. “These are all issues you can plan for and manage.”.


Is soybean residue a problem?

Soybean residue won’t be a problem, says Watts. If you grow corn following corn, there may be more residue that you need to manage. In Watts’ mind, residue management starts with the combine. It should be viewed as the first tool to manage residue.


How do crop residues affect agriculture?

Crop residues influence agricultural sustainability by enhancing productivity. Productivity increases with residue returned are greater with low rates of fertilizers than with high or recommended rates. Generally, there is a synergistic effect between residue returned and fertilizer use.


How does crop residue affect soil quality?

Crop residues returned to the soil can maintain or enhance soil quality and productivity through favorable effects on soil properties and life-support processes. In the U.S., crop residues produced by 19 principal crops are estimated at 400 million Mg/yr, compared with 2962 Mg/yr produced in the world. Crop residues returned to the soil contribute to the maintenance of and an increase in soil organic carbon content and add plant nutrients and reduce fertilizer requirements. Total amount of principal nutrients in crop residues range from 40 to 100 Kg/Mg. Consumption of fertilizers in 1991 was 116 million Mg of N, P and K in the world and 16 million Mg in the U.S. In comparison, nutrients (N + P + K) contained in crop residues amou8nt to 9 million Mg/yr in the U.S. and 74 million Mg/yr in the world. Therefore, a considerable quantity of fertilizers can be saved by returning the residues produced to the soil. Residue management is also important in soil and water conservation. About 2.5 Mg/ha of crop residue applied as mulch can reduce soil loss by about 60%. Water conservation is an equally important benefit of returning crop residue, especially for rainfed agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions. Water stored in the root zone increases with increasing amounts of residue returned to the soil. There are also snow retention benefits of crop residue mulch. Fuel value is estimated at 18.6 X 10 9 or 2 bbl of oil per MG of crop residues. Total fuel value is estimated at 7 EJ/yr (1 EJ = Exa Joule = 1 X 10 18 Jourles) in the U.S. and 64 EJ/yr in the world. Management of crop residues can also be a useful strategy for sequestering carbon into the soil, and reducing emissions of radiatively-active gases into the atmosphere. About 1.5 Pg (1 Pg = 1 peta gram = 1 X 10 15) of carbon is stored in the crop residues produced annually in the world. Crop residues influence agricultural sustainability by enhancing productivity. Productivity increases with residue returned are greater with low rates of fertilizers than with high or recommended rates. Generally, there is a synergistic effect between residue returned and fertilizer use. Innovative cropping systems should be developed to produce the desired amount of crop residue for alternative uses and returning surplus to the soil. In this regard, cover crops and conservation tillage systems can play an important role in designing appropriate cropping/farming systems.


Why is water conservation important?

Water conservation is an equally important benefit of returning crop residue, especially for rainfed agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions. Water stored in the root zone increases with increasing amounts of residue returned to the soil. There are also snow retention benefits of crop residue mulch.


How much fertilizer was consumed in 1991?

Consumption of fertilizers in 1991 was 116 million Mg of N, P and K in the world and 16 million Mg in the U.S. In comparison, nutrients (N + P + K) contained in crop residues amou8nt to 9 million Mg/yr in the U.S. and 74 million Mg/yr in the world.


Why are small pieces of soil important?

Smaller pieces have more points of entry for the soil microbes to break down and incorporate the material faster. This improves nutrient cycling and soil density, and also helps reduce the risk of erosion, particularly following cover crops.


Is there a gold standard for conservation tillage?

The gold standard of conservation tillage has long been no-till.


Is Steinbach tillage good for water?

One of those benefits – especially compared with conventional tillage – is moisture conservation. before planting. Water typically isn’t an issue for Steinbach, but drought conditions in 2020 presented unexpected challenges – challenges that were better managed with the new tillage equipment.

image

Leave a Comment