Can higher temperatures affect agriculture


Agriculture is extremely vulnerable to climate change. Higher temperatures eventually reduce yields of desirable crops while encouraging weed and pest proliferation. Changes in precipitation patterns increase the likelihood of short-run crop failures and long-run production declines.

What happens to crops in high temperatures?

Many staple crops are extremely sensitive to heat and when temperatures rise over 36 °C, soybean seedlings are killed and corn pollen loses its vitality. Scientists project that an annual increase of 1 °C will decrease wheat, rice and corn yields by 10%.

How does the climatic change affect agriculture?

In the long run, the climatic change could affect agriculture in several ways: rural space, through the loss and gain of cultivated lands, land speculation, land renunciation, and hydraulic amenities.

How does heat stress affect the agricultural sector?

In 2011, exposure to high temperature events caused over $1 billion in heat-related losses to agricultural producers. [1] Heat stress affects animals both directly and indirectly. Over time, heat stress can increase vulnerability to disease, reduce fertility, and reduce milk production.

Why do crops in warmer countries struggle to grow?

Because of the lack of water available to crops in warmer countries they struggle to survive as they suffer from dehydration, taking into account the increasing demand for water outside of agriculture as well as other agricultural demands.


Does temperature affect agriculture?

Changes in ozone, greenhouse gases and climate change affect agricultural producers greatly because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause habitat ranges and crop planting dates to shift and droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

How do high temperatures affect agricultural production?

Reduced grain and forage quality can reduce the ability of pasture and rangeland to support grazing livestock. More extreme temperature and precipitation can prevent crops from growing. Extreme events, especially floods and droughts, can harm crops and reduce yields.

How does climate affect agriculture?

Agriculture emits an estimated 10.5 percent of total U.S. greenhouse gases; however, agriculture also provides opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

How does warmer climate affect agriculture?

Climate change can affect agriculture in a variety of ways. Beyond a certain range of temperatures, warming tends to reduce yields because crops speed through their develop- ment, producing less grain in the process. And higher tem- peratures also interfere with the ability of plants to get and use moisture.

What is the effect of high temperature on plant?

High temperature decreases the chlorophyll contents, reduces light quanta’s interception, decreases the net photosynthetic rate, and ultimately results in lower kernel yield (Hasanuzzaman et al., 2013) .

How is the effect of high temperature?

Temperature extremes most directly affect health by compromising the body’s ability to regulate its internal temperature. Loss of internal temperature control can result in various illnesses, including heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heatstroke, and hyperthermia from extreme heat events.

How does climate change affect agriculture essay?

Climate change is affecting agriculture by interfering with the efficiency of crop production. Agriculture is facing droughts, flooding, sea level elevations, natural disasters, and health hazards for employees. All of these exponents lead to crop failure that creates famines and food prices to rise.

Which effect of climate change will prompt changes in agricultural practices?

Air Pollution 7 Which effect of climate change will prompt changes in agricultural practices?  Warming temperatures bring new pests into an area.

Why is climate smart agriculture?

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an integrated approach to managing landscapes—cropland, livestock, forests and fisheries—that addresses the interlinked challenges of food security and accelerating climate change.

How does climate change affect plants and crops?

Rising global temperatures also are linked with changes in rainfall patterns, and the frequency and duration of heat waves and droughts, which can affect crop health and productivity. Higher temperatures also affect the length of growing seasons and accelerate crop maturity.

How will climate change affect agriculture quizlet?

Amount of pests will increase, since warmer temperatures produce more generations of pests per year. Agriculture responds to weather; increasing floods and droughts will reduce agricultural production (aka food availability).

How does climate affect land use?

Climate change adversely impacted food security, terrestrial ecosystems, land degradation, and land use [36, 37]. Similarly, it is a significant driver for land degradation processes, which results in a land-use change. In many lower-latitude regions, yields of some crops (e.g., maize and wheat) have declined.

How does climate affect food?

Any climate-related disturbance to food distribution and transport, internationally or domestically, may have significant impacts not only on safety and quality but also on food access. For example, the food transportation system in the United States frequently moves large volumes of grain by water. In the case of an extreme weather event affecting a waterway, there are few, if any, alternate pathways for transport. High temperatures and a shortage of rain in the summer of 2012 led to one of the most severe summer droughts the nation has seen and posed serious impacts to the Mississippi River watershed, a major transcontinental shipping route for Midwestern agriculture. This drought resulted in significant food and economic losses due to reductions in barge traffic, the volume of goods carried, and the number of Americans employed by the tugboat industry. The 2012 drought was immediately followed by flooding throughout the Mississippi in the spring of 2013, which also resulted in disruptions of barge traffic and food transport. [3] Transportation changes such as these reduce the ability of farmers to export their grains to international markets, and can affect global food prices.

How does heat affect livestock?

Drought may threaten pasture and feed supplies. Drought reduces the amount of quality forage available to grazing livestock.

What are the potential changes in veterinary practices?

Potential changes in veterinary practices, including an increase in the use of parasiticides and other animal health treatments, are likely to be adopted to maintain livestock health in response to climate-induced changes in pests, parasites, and microbes.

What are the challenges of droughts?

Changes in the frequency and severity of droughts and floods could pose challenges for farmers and ranchers and threaten food safety. [3] . Meanwhile, warmer water temperatures are likely to cause the habitat ranges of many fish and shellfish species to shift, which could disrupt ecosystems. Overall, climate change could make it more difficult …

How does temperature affect salmon?

Many steps within an aquatic animal’s lifecycle are controlled by temperature and the changing of the seasons. For example, in the Northwest warmer water temperatures may affect the lifecycle of salmon and increase the likelihood of disease. Combined with other climate impacts, these effects are projected to lead to large declines in salmon populations. [1], [11], [12]

How does drought affect pasture?

[1] More extreme temperature and precipitation can prevent crops from growing. Extreme events, especially floods and droughts, can harm crops and reduce yields.

Why is drought a challenge?

Dealing with drought could become a challenge in areas where rising summer temperatures cause soils to become drier. Although increased irrigation might be possible in some places, in other places water supplies may also be reduced, leaving less water available for irrigation when more is needed.

How does farming affect the environment?

Large scale farming can cause large amounts of soil erosion, causing between 25 and 40 percent of soil to reach water sources , with it carrying the pesticides and fertilizers used by farmers, thus polluting bodies of water further . The trend to constantly bigger farms has been highest in United States and Europe, due to financial arrangements, contract farming. Bigger farms tend to favour monocultures, overuse water resources, accelerate the deforestation and a decline in soil quality. A study from 2020 by the International Land Coalition, together with Oxfam and World Inequality Lab found that 1% of the land owners manage 70% of the world’s farmland. The highest discrepance can be found in Latin America: The poorest 50% own just 1% of the land. Small landowners, as individuals or families, tend to be more cautious in land use. The proportion of small landowners however, is increasingly decreasing since the 1980ties. Currently, the largest share of smallholdings can be found in Asia and Africa.

What is CSA in agriculture?

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an integrated approach to managing landscapes to help adapt agricultural methods, livestock and crops to the ongoing human-induced climate change and, where possible, counteract it by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, at the same time taking into account the growing world population to ensure food security. Thus, the emphasis is not simply on sustainable agriculture, but also on increasing agricultural productivity. “CSA … is in line with FAO ’s vision for Sustainable Food and Agriculture and supports FAO’s goal to make agriculture, forestry and fisheries more productive and more sustainable”.

How does CO2 affect plants?

It limits the vaporization of water reaching the stem of the plant. “Crassulacean Acid Metabolism” oxygen is all along the layer of the leaves for each plant leaves taking in CO 2 and release O 2. The growth response is greatest in C 3 plants, C 4 plants, are also enhanced but to a lesser extent, and CAM Plants are the least enhanced species. The stoma in these “CAM plant” stores remain shut all day to reduce exposure. rapidly rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere affect plants’ absorption of nitrogen, which is the nutrient that restricts crop growth in most terrestrial ecosystems. Today’s concentration of 400 ppm plants are relatively starved for nutrition. The optimum level of CO2 for plant growth is about 5 times higher. Increased mass of CO2 increases photosynthesis, this CO2 potentially stunts the growth of the plant. It limit’s the reduction that crops lose through transpiration .

How will ENSO affect monsoons?

ENSO ( El Niño Southern Oscillation) will affect monsoon patterns more intensely in the future as climate change warms up the ocean’s water. Crops that lie on the equatorial belt or under the tropical Walker circulation, such as rice, will be affected by varying monsoon patterns and more unpredictable weather. Scheduled planting and harvesting based on weather patterns will become less effective.

Why are hail storms more common in North America?

In North America, fewer hail days will occur overall due to climate change, but storms with larger hail might become more common (including hail that is larger than 1.6-inch). Hail that is larger than 1.6-inch can quite easily break (glass) greenhouses.

What are the main agricultural products of Latin America?

The major agricultural products of Latin American regions include livestock and grains, such as maize, wheat, soybeans, and rice. Increased temperatures and altered hydrological cycles are predicted to translate to shorter growing seasons, overall reduced biomass production, and lower grain yields. Brazil, Mexico and Argentina alone contribute 70-90% of the total agricultural production in Latin America. In these and other dry regions, maize production is expected to decrease. A study summarizing a number of impact studies of climate change on agriculture in Latin America indicated that wheat is expected to decrease in Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. Livestock, which is the main agricultural product for parts of Argentina, Uruguay, southern Brazil, Venezuela, and Colombia is likely to be reduced. Variability in the degree of production decrease among different regions of Latin America is likely. For example, one 2003 study that estimated future maize production in Latin America predicted that by 2055 maize in eastern Brazil will have moderate changes while Venezuela is expected to have drastic decreases.

Why do plants need humidity?

So, it’s vital to get it right. Humidity and temperature go hand-in-hand when it comes to raising crops in a greenhouse. Partially because imbalances in either can often give similar results. Plants are, by nature, responsive to their environments. Furthermore, plants depend on a certain set of air conditions to survive.

What happens when humidity is too high?

For example, if humidity levels are too high then there’s nowhere for the evaporating water from the stomata to go, the air is already saturated. This means that, despite having the stomata constantly open, the plant fails to respire and can essentially drown in a soup of trapped CO2 and water.

Why do plants lose leaves in winter?

Cold temperatures also cause many plants to stunt their growth as a self-protection mechanism, much like the effects of winter when most plants lose their leaves and lie dormant. Imbalances in either temperature or humidity can have a roster of detrimental effects upon plants and potentially cause whole crops to be wasted.

What is the humidity of air at 20 degrees?

This means that say the air is at 60% humidity at 20 degrees, then the air is at 60% of its total moisture capacity for that temperature.

What is the most important element for plants?

Water is crucial in regard to relative humidity. Relative humidity is a measure of how much water the air can hold at any given temperature.

Can greenhouses measure the environment?

This means that large-scale greenhouse management is no longer a guessing game, it is now possible to measure the exact conditions of your growing environment and base your actions upon that or even automate these processes.

Does high temperature affect stomata?

High temperature has similar effects in terms of influencing the stomata, though it can have the opposite effect. At high temperatures, with low relative humidity, plants tend to close their stomata in order to preserve water.

How does industrial agriculture affect the ecosystem?

Industrial agriculture treats the farm as a crop factory rather than a managed ecosystem, with minimal biodiversity over wide areas of land. This lack of diversity in farming operations exposes farmers to greater risk and amplifies climate impacts such as changes in crop viability and encroaching pests. Intensive inputs.

Why are industrial farms so expensive?

The industrial farm’s heavy reliance on fertilizers and pesticides may become even more costly to struggling farmers as climate impacts accelerate soil erosion and increase pest problems. Heavy use of such chemicals will also increase the pollution burden faced by downstream communities as flooding increases.

What is the industrial model that dominates our nation’s agriculture?

In fact, the industrial model that dominates our nation’s agriculture—a model that neglects soils, reduces diversity, and relies too heavily on fertilizers and pesticides—mak es US farms susceptible to climate impacts in several ways. The combination of advancing climate change and an already-vulnerable industrial system is a “perfect storm” …

Why do farmers increase irrigation?

Farmers may also increase irrigation in response to rising temperature extremes and drought, further depleting precious water supplies. A family surveys their flooded farm and corn fields in Wever, Iowa, 2012. Projected impact of climate change on yields of corn, wheat, soybeans and cotton by the years 2080-2099.

What changes in crop and livestock viability?

Changes in crop and livestock viability. Farmers choose crop varieties and animal breeds that are well suited to local conditions. As those conditions shift rapidly over the coming decades, many farmers will be forced to rethink some of their choices—which can mean making new capital investments, finding new markets, and learning new practices.

What are the effects of monoculture cropping?

These practices leave soils low in organic matter and prevent formation of deep, complex root systems. Among the results: reduced water-holding capacity (which worsens drought impacts), and increased vulnerability to erosion and water pollution (which worsens flood impacts).

What are the changes in precipitation patterns?

Changing precipitation patterns. Rainfall patterns have already begun shifting across the country, and such changes are expected to intensify over the coming years. This is likely to mean more intense periods of heavy rain and longer dry periods, even within the same regions.

Why is it important to increase the growing season length?

An increase in growing season length may sound like a great thing for food production, but as we’ll see, that can make plants more vulnerable to late frosts and can also allow for more generations of pests per growing season, thus increasing pest pressure.

Will the NCCV increase temperatures?

ANSWER: The NCCV shows that temperatures are predicted to increase, including max and min temperatures. Growing seasons will be longer. Increased temperatures could result in heat stress for some crops and increased yields for others.

What’s at stake?

Climate change could make it too hot to grow certain crops, and droughts caused by climate change could reduce the amount of water available for irrigation. Climate change is also likely to cause stronger storms and more floods, which can damage crops.

Crop Losses

Climate change could make it too hot to grow certain crops, and droughts caused by climate change could reduce the amount of water available for irrigation. Climate change is also likely to cause stronger storms and more floods, which can damage crops.



Impacts on Crops

  • Despite technological improvements that increase corn yields, extreme weather events have caused significant yield reductions in some years. Source: USGCRP (2009) Click the image to view a larger version. Crops grown in the United States are critical for the food supply here and around the world. U.S. farms supply nearly 25% of all grains (such as wheat, corn, and rice) on the globa…

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Impacts on Livestock

  • Livestock locations in the continental United States. Source: USGCRP (2016) Click the image to view a larger version.Americans consume more than 36 million metric tons of meat and poultry annually. Livestock and poultry account for over half of U.S. agricultural cash receipts, often over $100 billion per year.Changes in climate could affect animals both directly and indirectly. 1. Hea…

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Impacts on Fisheries

  • American fishermen catch or harvest five million metric tons of fish and shellfish each year. U.S. fisheries contribute more than $1.55 billion to the economy annually (as of 2012).Many fisheries already face multiple stresses, including overfishing and water pollution. Climate change may worsen these stresses. In particular, temperature changes could lead to significant impacts. Thi…

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International Impacts

  • Climate change is very likely to affect food security at the global, regional, and local level. Climate change can disrupt food availability, reduce access to food, and affect food quality.For example, projected increases in temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, changes in extreme weather events, and reductions in water availability may …

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The effects of climate change on agriculture can result in lower crop yields and nutritional quality due to for example drought, heat waves and flooding as well as increases in pests and plant diseases. The effects are unevenly distributed across the world and are caused by changes in temperature, precipitation and atmospheric carbon dioxide levels due to global climate change. In 2019, millions already suffer from food insecurity due to climate change and predicted decline in global crop pr…

Crop examples

Climate change impacts on rainfed wheat will vary depending on the region and local climatic conditions. During the period 1981 to 2008, global warming has had negative impacts on wheat yield in especially tropical regions, with decreases in average global yields by 5.5%.
Studies in Iran surrounding changes in temperature and rainfall are representative for several different parts of the world since there exists a wide range of climatic conditions. They range fro…

Direct impacts from changing weather patterns

As the temperature and weather patterns change, areas suitable for farming will alter. The current prediction is for temperature increase and precipitation decrease for major arid and semi-arid regions (Middle East, Africa, Australia, Southwest United States, and Southern Europe). In addition, crop yields in tropical regions will be negatively affected by the projected moderate increase …

Direct impacts from increased atmospheric CO2 levels

Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide affects plants in a variety of ways. Elevated CO2 increases crop yields and growth through an increase in photosynthetic rate, and it also decreases water loss as a result of stomatal closing.
Changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide may reduce the nutritional quality of some crops, with for instance wheat having less protein and less of some minerals. Food crops could see a reductio…

Climate driven changes in pests, plant diseases and weeds (indirect impacts)

Global warming will alter pest, plant disease and weed distributions, with potential to reduce crop yields, including of staple crops like wheat, soybeans, and corn.
Currently, pathogens take 10-16% of the global harvest and this level is likely to rise as plants are at an ever-increasing risk of exposure to pests and pathogens. Warmer temperatures can increase the metabolic rate and number of breeding …

Other indirect impacts from changed conditions

It is difficult to project the impact of climate change on utilization (protecting food against spoilage, being healthy enough to absorb nutrients, etc.) and on volatility of food prices. Most models projecting the future do indicate that prices will become more volatile. In 2019 the IPCC stated that millions already suffer from food insecurity due to climate change. As of 2019, an estimated 831 million people are undernourished. Climate change impacts depend strongly on p…

Global aggregate estimates for crop yields

Climate change induced by increasing greenhouse gases is likely to affect crops differently from region to region. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has produced several reports that have assessed the scientific literature on climate change. In 2019 the IPCC stated that millions already suffer from food insecurity due to climate change and predicted decline in global cro…

Impacts on forests and forestry

The IPCC Sixth Assessment Report in 2022 found that: “In the past years, tree mortality continued to increase in many parts of the world. Large pulses of tree mortality were consistently linked to warmer and drier than average conditions for forests throughout the temperate and boreal biomes. Long-term monitoring of tropical forests indicates that climate change as begun to increase tree mortality and alter regeneration. Climate related dieback has also been observed du…

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