Can transgenic plants be used to develop agricultural systems?
The transgenic plants were found to be tolerant to higher concentrations of salt. The gut D gene from Escherichia coli has been used to generate salt tolerant transgenic maize plants. Such genes are a potential source for developing cropping systems for marginalized lands (MS Swaminathan, Personal Communication, 2000).
What are the transgenic plants that are resistant to viral infections?
Virus resistant plants TMV resistant tobacco and tomato plants are produced by introducing viral coat proteins. Other viral resistant transgenic plants are (a) Potato virus resistant potato plants (b) RSV resistant rice, (c) YMV resistant black gram and (d) YMV resistant green gram etc.
What are the pros and cons of transgenic crops?
There is clearly a benefit to farmers, if transgenic plants are developing a resistant into specific pest. For example, Papaya-ring-spot-virus resistant papaya has been commercialized and grown in Hawaii since 1996.12 There may also be a benefit to the environment, if the use of pesticides is reduced.
How do transgenic plants kill fungal pathogens?
These transgenic plants producechitanase naturally and can prevent the attack of fungal pathogens such as Rhizoctoniasolani. This is another enzyme that dissolves the cell wall of fungi.
Does GMO cause antibiotic resistance?
Some genetically modified plants contain genes that make the plant resistant to certain antibiotics. Scientists often add these resistant genes during genetic modification so that the GM plants and cells can be distinguished from non-GM ones.
What are the benefits of transgenic plants in agriculture?
Other Benefits of Transgenic Plants First generation transgenic varieties have benefited many farmers in the form of reduced production costs, higher yields, or both. In many cases, they have also benefited the environment because of reduced pesticide usage or by providing the means to grow crops with less tillage.
How are GMO crops disease resistant?
Disease resistance was achieved by transferring two resistance genes from sweet pepper into banana, both singly and as stacked traits. These genes have provided disease resistance in other plants, including tobacco, tomato, orchids, calla lily, and rice.
What bacteria use transgenic plants?
Agrobacterium tumefaciens which causes the crown gall disease in plants is well known for its ability to transfer DNA between itself and plants, and is thus widely used an a genetic engineering tool in the production of transgenic plants.
Are bacteria transgenic?
Transgenic bacteria are the genetically modified bacteria that carry the gene from other sources and are used for the production of desired gene product at large scale.
What are the disadvantages of transgenic plants?
Disadvantages of Transgenic plants: The main disadvantages of Transgenic plants are included allergic reactions, the emergence of super-pests and loss of biodiversity. It increases the cost of cultivation and more inclined towards marketization of farming that works on immoral profits.
What is transgenic resistance?
Transgenic resistance to plant viruses is an important technology for control of plant virus infection, which has been demonstrated for many model systems, as well as for the most important plant viruses, in terms of the costs of crop losses to disease, and also for many other plant viruses infecting various fruits and …
How can plants be engineered to resist pathogenic bacteria?
The production of pathogen-resistant transgenic plants has been achieved by this method; certain genes are inserted into the plant’s genome that confer resistance to such pathogens as viruses, fungi, and insects.
How do plants become disease-resistant?
Plant disease resistance protects plants from pathogens in two ways: by pre-formed structures and chemicals, and by infection-induced responses of the immune system.
What are two disadvantages of GMO?
The pros of GMO crops are that they may contain more nutrients, are grown with fewer pesticides, and are usually cheaper than their non-GMO counterparts. The cons of GMO foods are that they may cause allergic reactions because of their altered DNA and they may increase antibiotic resistance.
What is meant by transgenic plants?
Transgenic plants are the ones, whose DNA is modified using genetic engineering techniques. The aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. A transgenic plant contains a gene or genes that have been artificially inserted.
What is the advantage of producing transgenic organisms called Bt crops?
Bt crops have enormous potential to reduce the use of both synthetic and organic pesticides (see this article). By relying on their Bt corn or cotton, farmers can decrease pest control-related costs and increase their yield.
What are the different types of transgenes that are introduced into plants?
Followings are the various types of transgenes which when introduced into the plants can confer resistant against bacterial and fungal diseases; 1. Transgenes expressing antimicrobial peptides, such as defensins and thionins. 2. Transgenes expressing bacterial lysozymes. 3.
What are the compounds that are present in plants before challenge by microorganisms?
5. Phytoanticipins: Phytoanticipins are low molecular weight, antimicrobial compounds that are present in plants before challenge by microorganisms or are produced after infection solely from preexisting constituents, like phytoalexins , they play an important role in establishing a disease resistance in plants.
When was the strategy of resistance first proposed?
The strategy was originally proposed by Flor in 1955 while studying resistance to the rust disease of flax. This molecular basis is defined by a single plant R gene for a single pathogen Avr gene, hence the name gene-for-gene resistance.
Which pathogens reproduce sexually?
1. Fungal and Bacterial Pathogens: The majority of phytopathogenic fungi belong to the Ascomycetes and the Basidiomycetes.The fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually via the production of spores. These spores may be spread long distances by air or water, or they may be soil borne.
How do bacteria affect plants?
Certain bacteria isolated from soils possess properties that allow them to exert beneficial effects on plants either by enhancing crop nutrition or by reducing damages caused by pathogens or pests. Some of them, such as rhizobia, azospirilla, and agrobacteria, have been traditionally released in fields as seed inoculants and they often lead to increases in the yield of different crops while the application of others, such as pseudomonads, often fails to give the expected results. Bacteria genetically modified to be easily traceable and/or to be improved in their expression of beneficial traits have been constructed and released with plants in a number of experimental field plots. With these releases, it has been possible to monitor the modified inoculant bacteria after their introduction in field ecosystems and to assess their impact on the resident microflora. Local environmental factors appeared as playing a crucial role in the survival and persistence of bacteria once released in fields and in the expression of the beneficial traits whether improved or not. The spread of inoculant bacteria from their point of dissemination was limited. Transient shifts in favour of the released bacteria and in disfavour of some members of the bacterial and fungal populations present in the plant rhizosphere might occur with certain released bacteria. The changes observed were, however, less important than those observed under usual agricultural practices. Gene transfer from resident population to introduced bacteria was detected in one case. The transconjugants were found only transiently in the phytosphere of plants but not in soils. No differences between the survival, spread, persistence in field and ecological impacts of genetically modified bacteria and of the corresponding unmodified parent strain could be detected.
What are the properties of soil bacteria?
Certain bacteria isolated from soils possess properties that allow them to exert beneficial effects on plants either by enhancing crop nutrition or by reducing damages caused by pathogens or pests. Some of them, such as rhizobia, azospirilla, and agrobacteria, have been traditionally released in fields as seed inoculants …
What is the name of the disease that cows resist?
Department of Agriculture researchers have used gene-transfer technologies to produce dairy cows that resist a widespread bacterial infection called mastitis.
Does lysostaphin kill S. aureus?
The lysostaphin is secreted into milk, where it kills S. aureus, thus protecting cows from becoming infected. “The three genetically engineered cows that have been tested so far are expressing lysostaphin in their milk and are resistant to S. aureus intramammary infection,” said Wall.
What is the purpose of transgenic plants?
The aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. A transgenic plant contains a gene or genes that have been artificially inserted. The inserted gene sequence is known as the transgene, it may come from an unrelated plant or from a completely different species. The purpose of inserting a combination of genes in a plant, is to make it as useful and productive as possible. This process provides advantages like improving shelf life, higher yield, improved quality, pest resistance, tolerant to heat, cold and drought resistance, against a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. Transgenic plants can also be produced in such a way that they express foreign proteins with industrial and pharmaceutical value. Plants made up of vaccines or antibodies (Plantibodies) are especially stricing as plants are free of human diseases, thus reducing screening costs for viruses and bacterial toxins.1
When were transgenic plants first discovered?
The first transgenic plants were reported in 1983.
What is the target of transgenic DNA?
The nucleus of the plant-cell is the target for the new transgenic DNA. Most genetically modified plants are generated by the biolistic method (Particle gun method) or by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation method.
Why is it important to use transgenics?
The transgenics would allow for more crops that last longer and withstand pests and diseases.
How can GM food be used in the future?
In the future, researchers hope to be able to provide vaccinations and medicines in GM foods , which can provide medications to people in developing countries more easily. Medications incorporated into food are easier to transport and store than conventional medicine. The advancements made with transgenic plants have and will continue to have a great impact on the lives of many. Transgenic plants offer a new approach to producing and administering human antibodies. The use of genetic engineering for the production of biopharmaceuticals like erythropoietin to treat anemia and insulin to treat diabetes are well known. Future generations of GM plants are intended to be suitable for harsh environments and for the Enhancement of Nutrient content, production of pharmaceutical agents and production of Bioenergy and Biofuels.
What is the disadvantage of genetically engineered plants?
The only disadvantage of this process is that serious damage can be happened to the cellular tissue. The next method, used for the development of genetically engineered plants, is the “Agrobacterium” method ( Fig. 1 ). It involves the use of soil-dwelling bacteria, known as Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
Why do plants need genes?
The purpose of inserting a combination of genes in a plant, is to make it as useful and productive as possible. This process provides advantages like improving shelf life, higher yield, improved quality, pest resistance, tolerant to heat, cold and drought resistance, against a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses.