Agricultural Training Through Stronger Vocational Education (ATTSVE) The project aims to help move Ethiopia towards a market-focused agricultural system better poised to support the country economically, while meeting the needs of both male and female farmers and youth, and the agriculture industry.
What are the contribution of agriculture to development in Ethiopia?
Ethiopia’s economy is dependent on agriculture, which accounts for 40 percent of the GDP, 80 percent of exports, and an estimated 75 percent of the country’s workforce.
Why is Tvet important in developing countries like Ethiopia?
The TVET thus remains significant because it provides an opportunity to develop practical solutions to Developing Countries’ problems, based on a thorough analysis of the prevailing conditions.
What is an objective of a vocational agriculture program?
The goal is to maintain a high-quality, comprehensive agricultural vocational program in California’s public school system to ensure a constant source of employable, trained, and skilled individuals.
What is the future of agriculture in Ethiopia?
The market for agriculture in Ethiopia is projected to register a CAGR of 5.6% during the forecast period (2022-2027).
What are the importance of vocational and technical education?
Technical and vocational education has the potential of improving the socio-economic sector of the country. The skills of a workforce make the economy of its country competitive. This depends on the quality of the country’s educational and training systems.
What are the major challenges of Ethiopian TVET system?
Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is one of the salient priority areas in Ethiopian education system. TVET was designed to redress the challenges of poverty, unemployment, low technological development, and low productivity of the economy (MoE, 2008).
What is vocational agriculture education?
Vocational agriculture trains people for jobs in such areas as production, marketing, and conservation. College agriculture involves training of people to teach or conduct research in order to advance the fields of agriculture and food science. General education informs the public about food and agriculture.
What is vocational agriculture?
(1) The programme of vocational training in agriculture should cover the whole agricultural population without distinction as to race, religion, nationality or sex, and whatever the legal relation to the land, for example prospective and actual farmers and farm workers, including seasonal workers, farm women and …
What are the objectives of vocational education?
Vocational and Technical Education is aimed at making individuals that will be well armed with skills and knowledge to enable them secure employment either by establishing a small-scale outfit, or by being gainfully employed thereby utilizing their skills, abilities and competencies that are cultivated and inculcated …
What are major problems of Ethiopian agriculture?
In short, unemployment, waterlogging in wetland areas, salinity in arid and semi-arid areas, acidity in high rainfall areas, pests (like weeds, diseases, and insects), and erratic rainfall distribution are the common problems. In addition, the country’s agriculture highly depends on rain-fed.
What type of agriculture does Ethiopia have?
Principal crops include coffee, pulses (e.g., beans), oilseeds, cereals, potatoes, sugarcane, and vegetables. Exports are almost entirely agricultural commodities, and coffee is the largest foreign exchange earner. Ethiopia is also Africa’s second biggest maize producer.
What are the characterstics of Ethiopian agriculture?
An estimated 85 percent of the population are engaged in agricultural production. The most important agricultural exports include coffee, hides and skins (leather products), Pulses, oil seeds, beeswax, and, increasingly, tea. Domestically, meat and dairy production play an integral role for subsistence purposes.
What is agricultural technical and vocational education and training?
Vocational programs can be secondary or post-secondary in nature, and can focus on direct training for producers or training for individuals who support farmers and contribute to the post-production process. With the current focus on strengthening agricultural value chains and investing in workforce development, ATVET systems are being re-evaluated and assessed for their relevance in a changing agricultural and development setting. Increased access to primary and secondary education, as well as connections to urbanizing populations and international markets, has shifted the employment demands in many sectors of agricultural production and post-production. In order to build upon these changing agricultural realities, national governments, private enterprise and international donors must take stock of the current state of ATVET systems and approaches, and seek lessons and insights that are most appropriate to individual settings.
What is the disconnect between agricultural education and other types of TVET training?
As previously mentioned, one common theme in the ATVET literature is the disconnect between agricultural education and other types of TVET training. As it currently stands, ATVET is often not included in national-level reporting of TVET programs, and so is often overlooked in workforce development programs (UNESCO 2006b). Though this could be seen as a weakness of the more conventional TVET system as well as of ATVET, in this context it is important to note that ATVET has generally not moved as quickly as other sectors in terms of technology, pedagogy and direct connections to labor markets.
What is TVET in education?
As mentioned in the introduction, the definition of TVET uniformly accepted throughout the past several decades is that of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, which focuses on education for occupational skills (UNESCO 2004: 7; UNESCO 1989: 4). The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) includes this definition of TVET in recent documents discussing workforce development (Olenik and Fawcett 2013) and so we take this definition as common ground from which to both describe past efforts at supporting TVET as well as to assess current trends and future possibilities in this report. In addition to this parsimonious understanding of TVET as general and skills-based education related to future employment, UNESCO (2004) broadens the scope of possible elements of TVET, including education for sustainability, improved civic participation and poverty alleviation. In general, USAID keeps to a more narrow view of TVET, situating it within the broader context of workforce development (Olenik and Fawcett 2013). Though the implication is that TVET oriented toward workforce development will alleviate poverty by providing individuals with skills that increase their employability and therefore their income, the multiple steps in the process from defining labor market demands to implementing TVET programs to actual individual employment require further explication.
What is ATVET training?
Agricultural technical and vocational education and training (ATVET), as a subset of TVET approaches and institutions, has been particularly hard-hit over the past few decades, as many developing country governments cut their public spending throughout the 1980s and 90s. In addition, many countries experienced rapid urbanization that took people and resources away from rural areas. Throughout this time period, agricultural education was increasingly disparate, with post-primary vocational education aimed at “the sons of traditional farmers,” whereas post-secondary education was designed to “lead the sons of the middle class into public employment” (Johanson and Saint 2007: 13). In other words, ATVET provided static skills training for agricultural systems that were mostly disconnected from more dynamic or growing sectors of national economies and the labor demands of those sectors. Atchoarena and Gasperini (2003) highlight another aspect of this phenomenon, arguing that following Green Revolution research and technology development, international and national interest in supporting agricultural development moved away from a skills-based approach for individual producers and toward a science-based approach that focused on tertiary education, research for technology transfer and non-formal rather than technical training for farmers. Over the past ten years, however, there has been growing emphasis on agricultural value chains to stimulate economic growth (Maguire 2011). These modern value chains, in turn, demand skilled workers to fill a variety of roles that relate to agricultural development but that are not directly related to traditional roles of production and small-scale sales.
What is a TVET?
Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) has, since WWII, provided an approach to education and job training in modern educational systems in both developed and developing countries. TVET is defined as “a comprehensive term referring to those aspects of the educational process involving, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences, and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life” (UNESCO 2004: 7). With consistent emphasis on education for occupational skills, TVET programs in developed countries have been largely situated as either an addendum to secondary education or within the post-secondary education context, as an alternative to university training (Hoffman 2011). In developing countries, the situating of TVET has historically been less clearly defined, with programs and institutions ranging from alternatives to general primary and secondary education (including non-formal educational settings like field-based training), to job-specific skills training, to more traditional vocational colleges and certification programs (King 2011). Though ostensibly all of the approaches are focused on teaching occupational skills, combining these various types of education and training systems into the single category of TVET has complicated the assessment of which types of training are most appropriate and effective in which settings. This has in turn led to a lack of consistent best practice suggestions and frameworks for investments in vocational training.
Why is agriculture important for aTVET?
Agriculture is a growing and diversifying aspect of many developing country economies, which provides the opportunities for ATVET to contribute to changes in livelihoods for rural people and communities (Brooks et al. 2013). As agriculture changes and in many cases expands in breadth and intensity, there is a coinciding concern for the environmental effects of expansion. ATVET can provide an opportunity to educate both producers and others in agriculture-related jobs as to the impacts of their decisions and how to best balance current needs with concerns for the future (UNESCO 2006a). The second part of the UNESCO (2004) definition of TVET includes education about sustainability, and with increasingly sophisticated understandings of natural system and accessible technologies with which to track changes, there is an opportunity for ATVET to expose new groups of people to this knowledge and technology.
What is the strength of TVET?
An overarching strength of TVET is apparent in the generally accepted definition: TVET provides skills and training oriented around employment. This means that the educational level and the duration of such programs can vary in part with the type of job for which an individual is preparing, and can dispense with some of the time and cost associated with broader, more theoretical education. Certainly at the post-secondary level, TVET is usually cheaper than enrolling in a formal higher education institution, both because of the relatively shorter duration of programs and the lower educational requirements for instructors (Maguire 2011; Davis et al. 2010). Post-secondary TVET programs generally function in parallel to other types of educational institutions, which allows government oversight and certification of the intended and actual outcomes of this training (UNESCO 2012; IFAD 2011b).