Cost and returns in the Pearl(Moti) Farming: Project report

Cost and returns in the Pearl(Moti) Farming: Project report

Hey, friends! are thinking of starting a pearl farming in India(pearl culture process )? or Pearl farming at Home. and have no idea about the costing & returns of the Pearl farm. So, to give you comfort, I am here with a reliable data of it. Before going to the costing & returns of a pearl farm, let us learn some basics of pearl culture like about pearl, Types of pearl list (natural pearl, artificial pearl, cultured pearl, etc), 

About Pearl

Project report pearl farming

Pearl is a natural masterpiece that is generated from the mollusk and raising or production of pearl is known as the pearl culture. Freshwater pearl farming; which can be easily operated by any beginners who have an interest in starting a pearl farming. Nowadays, the demand of pearl in the international market is increasing, as there is plenty of its utilization in the world of grocery. On the another hand, the stock of pearl is reducing because of the increasing pollution. This business; pearl culture process is really profitable & is also too simple than other because there is no need of any food to form a pearl.

How long does it take to form pearls? In a very short time period, you will be able to obtain pearl as yield. Generally, it takes several weeks to form a pearl inside an Oyster. About 45 days to six months or more than it, however, pearl formation mainly depend on the types of mussel, you have used for pearl cultivation

Key Points to Consider before Starting a Pearl Farming

Consider the following facts and key points before starting a pearl culture.

Forming a pearl takes a long term time period, sometimes several years along with bigger initial investment and you have to work hard to become successful in pearl culture process & Produce high-quality pearls so that you can earn a bigger profit. Quality of pearls depends on the size, shininess, shape, etc.

One can easily meet his high-quality pearl yields under some specific circumstances, which are listed below

  • First of all, you need a well known & good source of Pearl mollusk or Oyster.
  • You also have a proper & sufficient location for forming pearls.
  • As this business require good initial capital to invest in your business for establishment & operating your pearl farm.
  • You should have good knowledge of grafting & its techniques as this is an important and difficult task in pearl cultivation.
  • And finally, you should have contact with a well-known retailer in the market, so that you can sell your pearl.

If you are incapable of meeting any one of the mentions above than it is advisable to go for other farming or business without taking a danger of loss.

Types of Pearls | List

Here below is a list of some pearl varieties

  1. Natural pearl
  2. Freshwater Cultured Pearl or Cultured Freshwater Pearl
  3. Keshi Pearl
  4. Seawater Cultured Pearl (salt water)
  5. Japanese Cultured Pearl
  6. Cultured Pearl &
  7. Mabe Pearl

Which are available in eight type of shapes. Those eight shapes are round, baroque, button, semi-round, pear, oval, circled drop, & double bouldered.

Pearl Farming Commercially

But in the market, Perfectly rounded & shiner Pearl are more valuable and also in great demand.

Usually, Natural pearl, Seawater Cultured Pearl (salt water) & Freshwater Cultured Pearl or Cultured Freshwater Pearl are cultivated more by the farmer.

Here I had provided an estimation of the cost and return to start a pearl farm with additional details like the profit ratio, need of qualification and some more topics.

Project Report; Costing in Pearl Farming

Initial Investment

The below are the basic need for the pearl culture process before starting it. Take care that all these factors are taken on an average scale. This estimation may vary from region to region and also on the basis of good management skill.

Standard use in this estimation

Area: half an acre to 3/4 the acre
Product: Pearls through double implantations
Stocking  density: approx 8 to 10,000 mussels
Culture period: approx one year to one and a half year
Requirement Rs
Mussel Holding tanks (3 tanks) cost 30,000
Bamboos and ropes cost 40,000
Surgical sets cost 20,000
Pond lease value 15,000
Mussels cost 12,500
Pearl Nuclei cost 1,00,000
Skilled workers for implantation cost 54,000
Fertilizers, lime, and other miscellaneous costs 30,000
Post harvesting and processing of pearl cost 45,000
Total Cost 3,46,500

Note: The above mention estimation is prepared on the basis of some research. Take care that this may vary from region to region.

Gross Income

Return on Sale (25,000 – 80 % survival= 20,000 and means 40,000 pearl collected Income
Pearl ( grade A; 10 % of total) = 4000 pearl

Taking avg rate of Rs. 15o per unit pearl

Pearl ( grade B;20% of total) = 8000 pearl

Taking avg rate of Rs. 60 per unit pearl

Gross return 10,80,000

Note: Take care that this calculation made on the basis of avg. valuation of pearl. The valuation of pearl may vary on the basis of your pearl quality. You can achieve better if you have pearls of standard quality.

Net Income

Project report pearl farming

Net income means your profit in this farming. And your profit depends on the initial costing and the gross return or income you have achieved from this farming.



NET INCOME = 10,80,000 – 3,46,500

NET INCOME = 7,33,500

So, one can easily achieve this much of amount in pearl farming.

Additional Details

Here below are some additional details about Cultured Freshwater Pearl. Learn them & take advantages of it to become a successful pearl farmer.

Profit Ratio in Pearl Farm

Pearl farming surgery

Pearl formation takes a time period of about one year to one & half year to become ready for harvesting. Up to this, you have to only invest in your pearl farm. According to Pearl specialists; one can achieve good returns from a pearl farm. Usually, one can obtain 25 to 35 no’s of pearls per unit Mussels which value on the basis of its quality. From the first year of pearl harvesting, you can get profit more than 5o %. Farmers achieve even 150-200 % profit, taken as a serious task as like other professions.

However, some factor like good farm management skilled & proper can lead to better production in your pearl farm. So, care your farm and manage it good as well. To learn or get training, consult your nearest Peart training Institutes. Since there are many Pearl Farming Training Institute in India, providing training of various pearl farming courses.

An Initial Effort to Start Pearl culture Process

Pearl culture process is a time-consuming process which requires too much initial effort in the beginning of both; money as well of proper care & management of your pearl. You have to wait for first harvesting about one year to one and half year.

Usually, you need about 2.5 lac to start a pearl farm. This much of investment you need to construct a pond, to buy those pearl mussels from the market, has to pay to those skilled labor require for grafting or implantation process because it is the single difficult task in pearl farming business.

Is any Tax Applicable to Pearl Farming Business in India?

NO! there is no tax, applicable to pearl farming business in India because this business comes under the agriculture sector.

But, if you are going to sell your Pearl’s in the International market that at this time, you have to pay a tax for exporting your product to the foreign countries.

Basic Requirements to Carry out Pearl Culture Process

In Freshwater Cultured Pearl,  you need some essential requirement to carry out pearl culture process. Here below is list of all those require items;

A. Fixed Cost (one-time investment)

  1. A Shed; An open & wide area is required to perform surgical activities
  2. A Pond; To farming pearl, you need at least one pond, in which you can stock you pearl mussels. It is a good idea to have your own. If you have not, then take on the lease.
  3. Culture Units; To stock those mussels pearls, you need a supporting material to which you can fix them. Make use of the Bamboo stick, PVC pipes, etc.
  4. A Surgical Set; To perform the surgical activities, you need a surgical set. A surgical set is easily available at pearl training center or fisheries department.
  5. Furniture: Essential furniture like table, chair require for the skilled worker so that they can perform surgical activities.

B.Variable Costs

  1. High-quality Mussels; You need to purchase high-quality mussels from a reliable source like fisheries department. You can also collect it from freshwater bodies like a river, lake, etc. Consult to the Fish farmer, which are a good source of high-quality mussels in their fish pond.
  2. Pearl Nucleus; You need to buy Pearl Nucleus from the market, require for the grafting or implantation process in the pearl cultivation.
  3. Skilled Workers; For the grafting or implantation process in the pearl cultivation, you need only & only Skilled worker, because it needs much care as it is a difficult task in pearl farming. It is a better idea to train some labor on your cost & give them sufficient wages so that they work happily.
  4. Fertilizer & Lime; If you starting your pearl farm in a new pond, then it recommended to you that bring in favorable condition by using suitable fertilizers to raise the planktons productivity & algae in your pond.
  5. Post Harvesting Activities; To get more value of the pearl, polishing, bleaching, cutting of pearl is carried out. But, note that many clients looking for natural products.

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Tool Box Items | List

To conduct surgical activities, you need a tool box kit or surgical set which is easily available at pearl training center. Many people have this set, but not the ideal one. So, here below is a list of all tool box items require for a Pearl farm

  1. Mussel holder
  2. Incision knife
  3. Operation Scalpel
  4. Spatula
  5. Nucleus carrier
  6. Sheel Opener
  7. Forceps
  8. Cell inserter
  9. Knife or graft cutter &
  10. A Graft carrier

Final Words

This is all about the costing & returns for starting a pearl farm. But take care that this estimation is for an Ideal condition. It may vary from farm to farm. It is the good farm management skill, Care & your dedication towards your farm, which decide the amount of pearl production.

So, friends!! take it seriously as like other profession & earn a lot!!

Orange Farming Techniques Cultivation and Plant Guide

Orange Farming | Cultivation Orange Fruit | Tree Information process profit guide

Like Banana, Apple & Mango, Orange is also one of the topmost fruit, that is cultivated widely in every corner of the world. Basically, oranges are citrus fruits, frequently eaten by the people because of orange nutritional value. Orange fruits are the excellent source of vitamins, particularly the vitamin C. And, Orange juice acquire an important place in the regular diet of many people. So, friends, growing orange tree is a great idea to begin a new tree farming business plan

The scientific name of Orange is Citrus reticulata & the botanical name of orange is Citrus aurantium.

Oranges products have great demand in Internation Market because of its extensive scope of uses & Benefits. This delicious fruit can be eaten as a fresh or in form of syrup, juice, jam, squash, or any other orange products. Note that, orange fruits are the principal source of citric acid, peel oil, and cosmetics. And because of this much importance, Orange Farming | Cultivation plays an important role in economics.

So, let us learn Orange Farming/Cultivation 

Growing Oranges

Today, Sweet Oranges are popular variety, which is eaten more by the people. Basically, Sweet Oranges were grown firstly in the Asia. Which spread slowly to whole Asia & become popular in very short time all across the world. Now, sweet oranges are grown in most of the part in the world. The topmost citrus species used for commercial fruit tree farming business are mandarin (Citrus reticulata), acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia), & sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). Besides, this there also several types of oranges, used for cultivation.

The flowers of oranges have fragrance sweetness, because of which attract numerous honey bees. Apart from being grown as commercial fruit tree farming, oranges are also grown in a container, pots, or in the backyard of the house. Commercial orange farming is very successful & profitable if cultivated with good farm management skills and proper care. Note that Orange trees are very prone to numbers of pest, insects, and diseases. So, care and management play an important role in the production of orange cultivation.

Benefits of Oranges

Below is a list of some health benefits of eating oranges, Learn all uses of orange fruit.

Benefits of Oranges

  • Benefits of Oranges for Weight Loss; Oranges are low-calorie food. So, consumption of it beneficial in weight loss.
  • Benefits of Orange for Skin; Oranges are rich in citric acid & dietary fibers, Which are effective in removal of harmful waste, toxins, Acne from our body. So, you can use orange for skin whitening.
  • Orange fruits contain a high content of carotenoid compounds, a source of “vitamin A”. So, helps in prevents from macular degeneration.
  • Benefits of Eating Oranges in Empty Stomach; Eating Orange in empty stomach is helpful in Detoxification & provide lots of energy to the body.
  • The magnesium & flavonoid hesperidin of orange fruit is helpful in controlling high blood pressure.

However, Sweet and tasty oranges are the excellent source of Vitamin C.


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Are Oranges Bad For You?

No, Oranges are the excellent source of citric acid (Vitamin C). There are lots of health benefits of eating oranges. But, consume them in moderate level. Eating too many oranges are sometimes have some adverse effects and might be harmful to you. So, eating oranges in moderate is beneficial for human beings but eating too many oranges at a time is not good for health.

Top Orange Producing Countries

Here below is a list of top 10 countries, which top the orange production list.

10.South Africa

After China, India is the second largest orange producer in the Asia.

Other Name For Orange

Narangi | Santra (Hindi), Suntalā (Nepali), Apfelsine (German), 오렌지 (Korean), chéngzi (Chinese), Portokall (Albanian), ส้ม (Thai), Sinaasappel (Dutch), Mikan / orenji (Japanese), برتقال (Arabic), Cam (Vietnamese), porteqāl (Persian), Arancio (Italian), දොඩම් (Sinhalese), Narancs (Hungarian), appelsin (Swedish), laranjeira (Portuguese), Naranja (Spanish), Апельсин (Ukrainian), 桔子 (Mandarin), Narandža (Bosnian), Kahel (Filipino), Жүрж (Mangolian), Пўртаҳол (Uzbek), Appelsin (Norwegian), òr-mheas (Scottish), Pomeraňc (Czech), Pomarańcza (Polish), Портокал (Macedonian), Portokal (Bulgarian), апельсин (Russian), Apelsinipuu (Apelsinipuu), Portocală (Romanian), Pomaranč (Slovak), liwtefng (Taiwanese), oráiste (Irish), Поморанџа (Serbian), Portakal (Turkish), Pomaranča (Slovenian), πορτοκάλι (Greek), Jeruk (Sundanese), larinġa (Maltese), ក្រូចពោធិ៍សាត់ ( Cambodian), ნარინჯის (Georgian), Appelsin (Danish), Apelsīns (Latvian), oranji (Somali), Narinch (Armenian), l’orange (French), iwolintshi (Zulu), Pokok limau (Malay), Kamala pandu (Telugu), Santara (Punjabi), etc.

However, many languages, it is also referred as “Chinese apple” like Sinaasappel (Dutch), etc

Orange | Varieties

Selecting a high yielding and fast growing variety for orange cultivation will directly impact on the production of your oranges. So, always select a high yielding and fast growing variety for orange for obtaining a higher amount of production.

Growing Oranges commercially

Blood, Hamlin Navel, Page, Ortanique, Parson Brown, Pineapple, Red Navel, Temple (Royal mandarin), Valencia (Citrus Sinensis Valencia), Ambersweet, etc… are the topmost, high-yielding varieties of oranges that give more no. of oranges that others. Apart from this, Nagpur Santra (Mandarin), Sumithra mandarin, Darjeeling Mandarin, Kinnow mandarin, Blood Red, Sathukudi (Satagudi), Dancy, SZ-IN-COM, Coorg Santra, Mosambi, Kara, Khasi Santra, Seedless-182, Shringar, Hamlin,  Butwal, Mudkhed, and Jaffa are also some important types of oranges, that are cultivated most, all around the world.

Depending on your region’s climatic condition, select a suitable for your orange farm. It is a good idea select a disease and pest resistant variety with the help of local horticulture department for obtaining more orange production.

Climate Condition For Orange Farming

Where do oranges grow? Likewise Mango Farming and Banana Farming, Oranges are also cultivated widely as they can grow well in the tropical region as well as in sub-tropical regions up to a height of 1500 m. However, a dry climatic condition is favorable for profitable orange cultivation for obtaining higher oranges production.

Orange farming

A soil temp. (about room temp: 26 ‘C) is beneficial in enhancing the growth of plant root as well plant growth. However, farming oranges in an arid and drier area with good hot summer and moderate rainfall, about 100 to 200 cm is considered as the best and most favorable climatic conditions for the excellent growth of orange plants.

Take care that orange trees are very sensitive to high humid and frost condition and such climatic condition in orange farming invites numbers of many diseases and harmful pest, insect, etc. Also, note that hot winds during summer lead to dropping down of orange flower and budding fruits. So, for obtaining high production of oranges, it is a good idea to keep maintaining the favorable temp in your farm during the growth period.

Soil Requirement for Orange Farming

Oranges can be cultivated on a wide variety of soil like sandy loam to loamy soil, alluvial, red to black soils with too much clay. However, a soil with high fertility, good drainage power, lime-free soil with good salt absorption power and light loam is considered as the best & most favorable for the orange cultivation.

As soil ph for citrus trees is about 6.0 to 7.0 and oranges are also a citrus tree, it is smartness to cultivate them on soil, which has pH ranging between 5. 8 to 7.3 for best production.

However, it is a good idea to go for the soil test, at least once before starting any commercial farming, to know that is your soil is suitable or not?

Land Selection and its Preparation for Orange Farming

Select a site for your orange farm, from where there is a full availability of transport for transporting your oranges in the market.  Also, it should not be too cold during the winter and monsoon season because this invites numbers of pest and disease to your farm. It is also suggested to give windbreaks on sides of your farm from heavy winds since hot and heavy winds during summer lead to dropping down of orange flower and budding fruits. Growing Jamun (Plum), Mulberry trees, Eucalyptus, etc on sides is a good idea for providing windbreaks.

Prepare your soil, favorable for orange farming like managing ph about 5.8 to 7.3, make rich your soil in all essential organic matters for producing more fruits. If your soil has any nutrient deficiency, then it should be supplemented at the time of soil preparation and remover the previous crop’s weeds, if present.

Propagation in Orange Farming

Propagation Method

An Orange tree can be reproduced by seed or with the help of vegetative propagation, by T-budding.

how to grow an orange tree from a seed

Learn how to grow an orange tree from a seed in few steps.

  1. Prepare a pot, having sterilized pot soil
  2. Plant your orange seed into this pot at about 1/2 inch depth in pot soil
  3. Cover this pot by using any wrapping material
  4. Keep this pot in a warm place and give some time to grow
  5. When seedling appears, move your pot to the sunny and open area so that it can grow well
  6. Water it regularly

However, planting oranges with the help of budding are fast growing & high yielding in nature.

Growing Oranges | Planting Season

Planting oranges should be done in the beginning of the rainy season (Monsoon season) because the risk of plant death is comparatively low in the rainy season. Rainwater helps the plant to fix faster. But, the best time for planting orange plant is from July to August.


Prepare a pit, having size 80 cm X 80 cm X 80 cm. Add about 10 kg of rotten cow dung manure to the topsoil of the pit. Plant the Oranges, keeping a distance of 7 meters between the rows and 7 meters apart. However, the spacing in orange cultivation depends on the type of soil, method and the cultivars, selected for the cultivation.

Growing Oranges planting season

Friends, for high-density orange planting, this spacing may be less. With less spacing, it is able to plant about 120 plants per one acre. Watering should be done, just after the planting.

Irrigation in Orange Farming

How often to water orange trees? Friends, Orange plant require more water as like the Banana Plant. for the repetitive growth of fruit plant. However, irrigation in your orange farm depends on many factors like agro-climatic condition, plant age, and soil type. Give water your orange trees at a regular interval like at a week in the summer season and at 10 days from monsoon to winter. However, first irrigation should be done, just after the orange plantation.

Avoid waterlogging the tree, because orange trees are very sensitive to the water stagnation. A fully grown Orange plant needs minimum 20 watering in a particular year i.e 1,400 mm water. However, farming with drip irrigation system is the best and beneficial in any commercial crops.

Manure and Fertilizers in Orange Farming

Basically, an orange plant needs Nitrogen, Potassium, Phosphate along with some Micro-nutrient Magnesium, Zinc, Iron, etc for good development of vegetative plant growth. Keeping orange tree full of organic manure is helpful to the orange plant in bearing healthy and delicious oranges. So, here below is a guide for application of manure and fertilizer in orange farming for good fruit production.

Orange Plant Age Year-wise Fertilizer dose (gm per plant)
1st Year  150 50 25
2nd Year 300 100 50
3rd Year 450 150 75
4th Year & above 600 200 100

Note that timely application of suitable manure and fertilizer play an important role in enhancing Orange fruit production. You can make use of any best fertilizer for orange trees in your farm

Orange Tree | Pests, and diseases

The Orange tree care is one of the key factors, which decide the production & profit of your orange farming business. Care of orange tree is mainly done for preventing the disease and pest of the orange tree. Let us learn what are the Orange Pest and Disease.

Orange Tree Pests and diseases

Orange | Disease

Gummosis, twig blight, damping off, root and collar rot are some main disease, that are commonly observed in the orange farming business. For controlling the Orange tree disease in your farm, depending on your orange plant infection, spray Bavistin, Ridomil MZ 72, Benomyl etc on the affected orange plants.

Orange | Pests

Snails, Citrus Red Mites, Citrus Bud Mite, Brown Soft Scale, Citrus leafminer, Citrus Thrips, Orangedog Caterpillars, Mealybugs, Citrus psylla, Citrus Whitefly, Fruit fly, Blackfly, Bark eating caterpillar, Aphids etc.. are some common insect and pest, that are observed on an orange tree.

Why Disease and Pest Control in Orange Farming?

Presence of all these pests and disease in your farm are the main cause beside the poor quality of oranges and also the low fruit production. So, they should be controlled as soon as possible. Liquid Pesticide have effective results for controlling pests and diseases in an orange cultivation business

For controlling the Orange tree disease in your farm, spray Bavistin, Ridomil MZ 72, Benomyl etc on the affected orange plants, depending on your orange plant infection. While for controlling Pest, spraying quinalphos, dimethoate, monocrotophos, phosphamidon, phosalone, etc insecticides, depending on your orange plant infection. Timely application of suitable fertilizer in your orange farm is beneficial in controlling these pests and diseases and also helps in enhancing the fruit production in your fruit farming business.

Orange Harvesting

Generally, An orange plant becomes mature at the age of one year. After which they start flowering and budding, but not in proper amount or less no. of fruit are obtained in the first harvesting.

Usually, Depending on the types of orange cultivated, from the 4th year onward, you will be able to harvesting oranges. And an orange tree used to give fruit for about 25 yrs in an economic life. Collect those tasty and delicious oranges at three different intervals, during a year. Harvest them in autumn, summer, and in the rainy season.

Picking mangoes

For meeting a higher amount of profit, take care in picking oranges. They should be picked, when are in their best size and also ripen completely. Attractive color, bigger size, a good sugar content and well acid ratio are main factors, which yields a higher value of fruit in the market.

You can make use of orange harvesting machine for picking oranges, fresh and healthy as orange harvesting is a time-consuming process and require more laborious work.


After about four to five, year, you will be able to harvest these tasty oranges. However, the no’s of fruit per tree in your fruit farming business is less at this stage, hence less is the yield also. However, 20 to 35 tonnes of oranges can be easily obtained, each and every year. This may high or low, depending on the types of oranges cultivated, soil fertility, agroclimatic condition, orange tree care and management.

In commercial orange cultivation business, about 50 no’s of fruit can be obtained per each tree while after the good establishment of your orange farming business, about 500 no’s of fruit per tree can be easily obtained.

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