Sunflower Farming: A Simple Guide To Growing Sunflower | Profit

How to Grow Sunflowers? A Guide to Sunflower Farming

Introduction

Sunflower crop is an extraordinary oil seed crop, which was grown firstly in India. It is grown as unbaked plant crop to meet the market demand for vegetable oil, all over the globe. This crop was firstly introduced in the form of a peg harvest in 1969. Due to its big production capacity and high value over the years, sunflower cultivation has become more popular all over the globe in very short. Growing mass of sunflower will not only provide edible oil but also save foreign exchange in very large extent. There are great health benefits of consuming sunflower oil and its seeds.

This commercial crop is quick in maturing and can tolerate dry, is insensitive to temperature and light, so you can grow this crop all the during a year as a Kharif weather, Rabi weather and Zayed weather. But the best season for planting this crop is the summer because, during summer, there is a great availability of honey bee at this time, which is very helpful and is more important for its higher yield. This crop is very useful for the treatment of vegetable ghee and diseases by its oil.

Sunflower cultivation

How long do sunflowers take to grow? it mainly depends on the climatic conditions and the sunflower variety, which is used for the sunflower cultivation. So, grow a fast growing cultivar of sunflower which is also high in yielding to obtain maximum production. But, generally, it takes about 78 to 95 days in Kharif season, 100 to 125 days in Rabi season and 95 to 115 days in the autumn season.

All like the other commercial crop, sunflower crop does not affect more by the day length and the season of cultivation. So, sunflower can be grown throughout the year, excepting the freezing temp.

So, let us learn why there is great demand for sunflower seeds in the market.

Health Benefits of Sunflower Seeds

The following is the list of top health benefits if eating sunflowers seeds daily.

Health benefits of sunflower

  1. Sunflower seeds contain 80 % of Vitamin E, which helps in lowering the risk of various heart diseases.
  2. Sunflower seeds have high antioxidant content in them, which is helpful in preventing many kinds of cancer.
  3. Sunflower seeds are also helpful in boosting thyroid function.
  4. Sunflower seeds also help in bone loss, combat osteoporosis, & muscle cramps.
  5. Sunflower seeds are also helpful in improving the skin health.
  6. Sunflower seeds are mainly used for preparing the vegetable ghee.
  7. Sunflower seeds are also helpful in lowering the risk of blood pressure.
  8. It is also helpful in preventing diabetes up to some extent.
  9. Sunflower seeds full of protein and minerals, so it is also can be used as weight loss diet.

However, decide you own, how much sunflower seeds to eat daily? and take advantages of it…

Sunflower Varieties

Selecting a right sunflower variety is one of the most important tasks, which needs more care and attention. Selecting a fast growing and high yielding variety of sunflower is mainly responsible for the production. Nowadays, with the help of advance sunflower farming techniques, there is numerous kind of sunflower hybrid seed are available in the market.

However, select a right cultivar which is high in production having high oil %age. Also, it should also have toleration to biotic and abiotic stresses. So, that you can produce optimum and earn a lot from this commercial farming.

Note: Please go through the sunflower varieties list, So, that you can learn which can give you more production in short time period.

Where Do Sunflowers Grow?

Sunflower varieties

Climate Condition For Sunflower

This commercial crop can be cultivated on each type of soil throughout the year. But, cool climatic conditions are required during the germination period and also during the growth of sunflower seedlings.

Sunflower seedlings can tolerate frosts condition up to some extent till they bear 4 to 8 leaf during growth development. But, a hot atmosphere is needed in the time interval of the flowering stage from the sunflower seedling stage. Also, hot temp is also required till the maturity.

High humidity along with rainfall and cloudy weather during flowering stage can cause lower seedling and hence less production.

Best Soil For Sunflowers

Sunflower can grow on any type of soil and also soil having controlled pH range and saline soil up to some extent. However, sunflower crop thrives their best in deep loamy soil with an availability of good irrigation and drainage.

Sunflower seedlings

The best soil pH for sunflower cultivation is 6.8 to 8.0. So, by selecting proper sunflower variety, you can produce optimum from this cultivation.

How to Plant Sunflower Seeds?

Sunflower seeds are sown by the Dibbling and furrow method. With the dibbling method, one can sow about 5 to 7 kg of sunflower seeds per hectare land. Whereas with the furrow method, it is possible to plant about 10 kg of watermelon seeds per hectare.

When seedling appears, excess seedling should be thinned after two weeks of the seedling. Also, a proper seed treatment is to be carried out for better germination of sunflower seeds So, that you can achieve a good plant density. A plant population around 50,000 to 75,000 plants per hectare is considered as the best suitable for producing maximum depending on the water availability and sunflower cultivar.

Seed treatment and method of Propagation in sunflower Farming

For quick seed germination and higher production, a seed treatment is to be done. For this soak seeds of sunflower for about 4 to 6 hrs. Shake them in shade and make a difference before splitting.

Seeds treatment in sunflowers farming

Seed treatment should be done with any fungicides such as Captain, Thiram, Bavis, Carbendazimdazim etc. so that borne diseases do not emerge later. Then these treated sunflower seeds should be planted at a depth of 5 to 8 cm deep inside the soil by keeping appropriate spacing.

After sowing sunflower seeds on the field, first irrigation should be done after two to three days for better germination.

Sowing of seeds should be done with the help of corn planter.

When to Plant Sunflower Seeds?

It is the common question, ask by the every sunflower grower nowadays. Since sunflower can be cultivated throughout the year but planting them before 15 to 20 days of the last spring frost expects. However, below is a guide for you on growing sunflowers.

Sunflower seed germination

Land Preparation for Sunflower Farming

Sunflower crop needs a well crushed, weed-free soil with sufficient moisture supply. Also, soil should have fine tilth form. For this, about two to three normal plowing is enough to bring you soil in fine tilth form.

Make sure about the moisture content. A good moisture content is needed at the time of sowing seeds to get better germination %age. A good germination will ensure a good profit from this crop.

What Month to Plant Sunflowers?

As this crop can be cultivated throughout the year with different climate condition, but planting this crop in the hot climate condition has better results.

So, cultivating sunflower in the hot season, planting of this crop should be done in April is considered as the best for having good results in this commercial crop.

Appropriate Spacing in Sunflower Farming

Planting sunflowers with appropriate spacing mean you are going to produce more from the others. So, always plant with good spacing.

A planting density of 60,000 sunflower plants per hectare is considered as the best on. But, for dry atmosphere, this ranges from 40,000 to 50,000 plans per hectare and region with good water availability, you can plant more than 75,000 plants.

Decide your own, how much plants you want to plant and decide a specific spacing for them.

Irrigation in Sunflower Farming

If you are growing sunflowers as Kharif crop, then there is no need for any irrigation to this crop, but supply once if there is uneven rainfall in your surroundings. Whereas as rabi crop, irrigation should be done thrice, usually after 40, 80, 110 days after planting on the main field.

sunflower farming

This crop is very sensitive to water stress during the flowering stage and grain filling stages. So, take care in this interval. Irrigate once, if there is moisture deficiency in this interval. As like other crops, this crop also requires more water supply in the hot season.

At the grain-filling stage in this crop, supply water gently and in the windless evening to avoid water lodging. However, a special care in irrigation during bud initiation stage, flowering stage, and seed development stages is required.

Application of Manure and Fertilizers in Sunflower Farming

This crop is exhaustive and can respond adequately to the timely application of suitable manure and fertilizers.

However, application of 15 tonnes of farmyard manure is good enough for producing more, especially in the drylands & low fertile soils.

Pests and Diseases in Sunflower Farming

Sunflower Pests and diseases

Sunflower Pests

Sunflower beetle, Seed weevil (red), Banded Sunflower Moth, Cutworms, Seed weevil (gray), Sunflower moth (head moth), Sunflower stem weevil, Wireworms are the name of some most common pest that usually observed in the sunflower farming.

Learn the symptoms, and take controlling measure as sooner as they appear in your sunflower farm.

Sunflower Diseases

Alternaria, Phoma black stem, Downy mildew, Sclerotinia, Sunflower rust are some common diseases that most observed in the sunflower farming.

Learn the symptoms, and take controlling measure as sooner as they appear in your sunflower farm to produce more.

Note: Pest and diseases in sunflower farming should be controlled because of a little presence of cause a big difference in the production.

Harvesting Sunflower Seeds

How long do sunflowers take to grow? it takes about 78 to 95 days in Kharif season, 100 to 125 days in Rabi season and 95 to 115 days in the autumn season. A timely sunflower harvesting can yield more so harvest them when the moisture content of seeds is 20 %.

Harvesting sunflower seeds

Usually, all the sunflower heads become not ready for harvesting at a time. So, harvest heads when they turn yellowish to slightly brown. About two to three harvesting should be done to obtain quality production.

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After harvesting, dry them in the sunny day. Threshes the beats of sunflower head center through a small stick.

Yield of Sunflower Farming

By cultivating suitable cultivar of sunflower hybrid, with good farm management skill, appropriately an average yield of more than 30 quintals sunflower seeds per hectare can be produced.

So, grow the best and care it to earn a big profit…

Cassava Farming Cultivation ,Planting Method & Its Spacing

Cassava Farming – Guide & Tips and Profit

Introduction

Cassava, one type of starchy tuberous bulb, a perennial tree grows in tropical and subtropical areas which are consumed by the people as a food. Basically, cassava farming is mainly done in South America and surrounding tropical countries. Cassava farming can be done with potato farming, rice farming, and maize farming.

Cassava farming is mainly done to produce food items, solvents, alcohol, glucose, animal feed, energy, fertilizers, and some extra by-products. Nigeria tops the list of cassava production list, all over the world and Thailand tops the list of cassava production in the Asian continent.

Basically, they have originated from South Africa and the scientific name of cassava is Manihot esculenta.

when to plant cassava

Mainly, from cassava plant, leaves and tubers are the important part, which is used most by the people for cooking or in other forms. Roots of this commercial crops are mainly consumed because of these are an excellent source of starch along with vitamin ‘C’, calcium, phosphorus, etc. A good combination of all these nutrients have lots of health benefits. Roots are about 1 mm thick in size and have brown color outside. However, the commercial cassava plants have larger roots having a bigger diameter and larger length.

Commercial cassava farming can create a huge profit if a suitable variety of cassava is cultivated with good farm management skills. So, let’s learn how to how to grow cassava commercially? in the following article.

Health Benefits of Cassava

cassava health benefits

The following is the list of some of the health benefits of cassava.

Other Names of Cassava

कसावा, Sakarkand (India, Hindi), ات کٹ (Urdu), 木薯 (Chinese),  Tarul (Nepali), Cassave (Dutch), Maniok (German), Moxog (Somali), كاسافا (Arabic), 樹薯 (Taiwanese), Kamoteng Kahoy (Cebuano), 카사바  (Korean), มันสำปะหลัง (Thai), Maniok jadalny (Polish), маниока (Macedonian), Маниока (Bulgarian), тропска биљка(Serbian), Kamoteng kahoy (Filipino), Mandi’o (Estonian), Maniok (Bosnian), Casabhaigh (Irish), Manyok or Mandioko (Turkish), Mandioca (Portuguese), Yuca (Spanish), Sắn(Vietnamese), Manihot esculenta (Italian), مانیوک (Persian), Маниок (Russian), Manioka (Latvian), キャッサバ (Japanese),  Maniok (Norwegian),Manyokka (Sinhalese), Manioc (French), Tapioca (Czech), Maniok (Slovak), 木薯 (Cantonese), Maniok (Swedish), Ubi kayu (Malay), Kassava (Danish), Mogo (Gujarati).

How to Start Commercial Cassava Farming?

how to plant cassava

Select a Suitable Cassava Variety

There are numbers of an improved variety of cassava for growing cassava commercially. Bitter and Sweet are two main kinds of cassava, from which the sweet variety is cultivated most because of it is capable of producing more roots and leaves than other varieties.

In the market, for commercial cassava cultivation, there are many kinds of varieties are available according to each specific the region. However, Katabang, Brasil, Golden Yellow, and Macan are some common varieties, which are capable of producing more yield.

Agroclimate Condition for Growing Cassava Commercially

Basically, cassava plant is tropical and short day plant which requires warmer atmosphere along with humid climate. In commercial cassava farming, the atmosphere temp. plays a vital role in the production.

This crop is very prone to the frost condition so try to grow cassava in a frost free area in a warmer region with moderate humid conditions. For growing commercially, a temp. ranging between 23 °C to 33 °C is considered as the ideal one for producing maximum.

Also, cassava can also grow well with moderate water availability. It is possible to cultivate cassava in a region having an annual rainfall about 500 mm to 35000 mm. Since farming this crop with good availability of water is helpful in obtaining higher production.

Soil Requirement for Cassava Farming

This crop can be cultivated, almost in all kinds of soils. However, a deep and sandy, loamy soil is considered as the best suitable for producing optimum through growing cassava. Note that, in the organic-rich soil, tuber growth is less than the vegetative growth. So, grow this crop in a soil having good organic content with proper drainage to obtain a higher yield from it.

Also, this crop produces the most in acidic soil. So, control your soil pH. This can be done by adding about 50 kg of lime per hectare. They can grow best in soil having ph, ranging between 5.5 to 6.5.

Land Preparation for Planting Cassava

Land preparation in growing cassava plays an important role in yield. Your land should be in fine tilth form. This can be done by giving two or three normal plowing. The weed from the previous crop should be removed from the field. The friable soil is more helpful in producing more.

However, go for at least one soil test before starting cassava farming because they do not grow well in neutral soil. They thrive their best in saline soils. So, add about 50 kg of lime per hectare to bring your soil pH in between 5.5 to 6.5.

How to Start Cassava Plantation?

how to grow cassava

How to Plant Cassava?

Cassava is mainly cultivated with the help of stem cutting. However, it is also possible to propagate them with the help of tubers and stems.

For commercial cassava plantation, learn the suitable cassava planting methods.

Planting Cassava

This crop can be cultivated throughout the whole year but it is essential to keep your soil moisten for about half a year after plantation on the field. According to cassava planting methods, take care in the plantation. Never plant an immature stem.

Plant a stem having more than 30 cm size and should be cut from a year old mature plant. Also, 4 to 7 nodes on the grafted stem are essential for setting well.

Plant your cut stem in the previously prepare did in the morning or evening in the cooler weather.

Cassava Planting Methods.

There are three methods of the plantation in commercial cassava farming. These three methods are listed below:

Vertical Plantation

This method of plantation should opt for growing cassava in the monsoon to avoid the constant wetting of the rot.

Horizontal Plantation

To maintaining the moisture content on your farm, this planting method should be opted for growing in summer or hotter days.

Slanting Plantation

If you are thinking to grow this crop in between summer and monsoon season, then go for this method of the plantation.

Note: In every method of the plantation, the stems should be planted by keeping the cuttings about the ¾ inside of the field and the remaining one or ¼ portion should be incorporated into topsoil.

Cassava Plant | Spacing

The cuttings are planted in the prepared dig by keeping row distance about 1 meter. Plant them at a distance one meter apart.

Irrigation in Cassava Farming

It is essential to provide water in sufficient amount to maintain the moisture content in your soil for the first month of the plantation so that grafted cuts set a well on the field and also to grow healthy tubers.

watering to cassava plant

Frequent irrigations are needed in the conditions of drought. However, a 25 % moisture content in your field may help you in producing doubles the numbers of grown tubers.

Application of Manure and Fertilizers in Cassava Farming

Timely application of suitable manure and fertilizer in your cultivation can give your higher production.

For improved variety, it is a good idea to add farmyard manure, more than 20 tonnes per hectare along with proper chemical fertilizers. Also, add about 50 kg of Nitrogen, 50 kg of Phosphorus and 50 kg of Potash at time of land preparation per hectare land.

Also, the same dose of N:P:K should be applied at after about two months of planting cuts or stems on the field.

Cassava | Pests, and Diseases

cassava pest & diseases

Cassava Pests

The following is the list of common pests and insects, observed in the cassava production:

  • Locusts,
  • Beetles, 
  • Aaphids, and
  • Aants

However, wild pigs, goats, sheep’s, and rates are also harmful to your crop.

For controlling all these, try to keep away all these mentioned.

Cassava Diseases

The followings are the main disease, that is observed in the commercial production of Cassava.

  • Root rot, 
  • Anthracnose, 
  • Mosaic disease,
  • Bacterial blight, etc

For controlling measure, learn the symptoms of all these mentioned diseases and operate a suitable treatment as sooner as they observed.

Harvesting Cassava

This crop becomes ready for harvesting in about 12 months of the plantation on the main field whereas short duration variety takes about 6 to 8 months. However, harvesting at the right time helps in obtaining the best quality of tubers in a higher amount.

This commercial crop is mainly harvested by hand, by lifting the base of the stem and then pulling it outs. Then they should be removed from the field though hand. Removed the upper portion of plants and stems before harvesting it.

harvesting cassava yield

Take care while harvesting roots. While harvesting, your roots should be not be damaged in any way.

Yield in Cassava Farming

The yield of this commercial crop depends on numbers of key factors such as theagro-climaticc condition, type of soil, the cultivar or variety is chosen for its cultivation along with good farm management skills.

However, it is possible to harvest about more than 40 tonnes of roots with good farm management skills through growing high yielding hybrid and for short-term variety, you can harvest roots, about more than 30 tonnes from a hectare land.