Black Gram (Urad Dal) Cultivation In India Information Guide

Black Gram Cultivation (Urad Dal) In India

In India generally, most of the peoples are vegetarian and they are depending on the grains and beans. Every human requires a big amount of protein for a healthy life and black gram is the great source of protein. So we must increase the manufacture of Black Garm Cultivation. Here in this article, you will see the step by step guide for the successful Black Gram Cultivation In India. 

The Black gram is also famous as a “Urad Dal” and it is mainly used in food for making dal. The scientific name of the black gram is “Vigna Mungo”. Black gram is used for making various types of south Indian breakfast such as dosa, idli, and vada. It is also used for to create papad.    

Black gram plant with pod picture

Where Is Black Gram Grown In India?

  • Madhya Pradesh
  • Uttar Pradesh
  • Punjab
  • Maharashtra
  • West Bengal
  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Orissa.
  • Tamil Nadu
  • Karnataka

Climatic Conditions Required For Growing Black Gram

Black gram cultivation is suitable for moist and hot weather condition. Normally, the farmers sowing this black gram in summer and Kharif or rainy seasons. The temperature in between 25 to 350 C is perfect for the black gram cultivation in India. Black gram cultivation process requires the 60 to 75 cm annual rainfall but heavy rain damage the flower. Black gram farming is done successfully at 1800 meters high from the sea level.

Type Of Soil Required For Black Gram Cultivation

Black gram cultivation requires the black cotton soil, sandy loam, loam or heavy clay loam soils. It does not grow well in the waterlogged, saline soil and alkaline soils. Black gram is grown well on all types of little heavy soil. Black gram crop also requires the natural PH of the soil it is appropriate for the high yield. The soil must have a better water holding potential and well drained.

Land Preparation For Black Gram Cultivation

If you want to plan for black gram cultivation then first of all the land preparations are very needful. The selected land must not be sown the black gram in a previous year. You are planning to start cultivation in Kharif season then plowed the selected land in summer by using two or three harrowing. Before sowing a seed in field remove the extra weed and stone from the land. Apply 5 to 6-tonne compost or farm yard manure before sowing black gram. You can also provide the irrigation if it is required before sowing the seeds.

Black gram plant photo

Seed Selection And Treatment In Black Gram Cultivation

The selection of seed plays the most important role for the successful black gram cultivation. When you select the seed for black gram cultivation then must care the selected seeds should be free from the pest, insect, diseases, dust particles and weed. Seed should be well growing and clean. Generally, prefer to purchase seeds from the Agril, research station, Agril service centers, Agriclinics and registered seed companies.

First, apply 2.5-gram thiram on one kg black gram seeds. Also, treat this selected seeds with rhizobium and atmospheric nitrogen.   

 

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Black Gram Sowing Season And Method

The appropriate time for sowing black gram seeds for Kharif season is the 15 to 30 of June. If you are planning for the summer black gram crop then the February third week to April first week is better for the sowing seeds.

There are basically two methods are available for the sowing seed and this both method can be done by using the tractor or Bullock Ferti-cum-seed drill.

  • Line sowing method
  • Drilling sowing method

You can use this Ferti-cum-seed drill for applying the fertilizers and sowing seed at the same time. The maximum depth of the sown seed must be 5 to 6 cm.

Black Gram Seed Rate And Space

The price of the black gram seeds is relying on the variety of seed.

Season Seed rate Spacing
Kharif 12 to 15 kg / ha 30 X 10 cm
Summer 20 to 25 kg / ha 20-25 X 10 cm
     

Black gram seed image

Fertilizer For Black Gram Cultivation

In the following table, you will see the require fertilizer amount for black gram depending on the soil test report. You can apply this fertilizer on a field after 25 to 35 days of seed sowing and the second time after 40 to 50 days.

Sr. No. NPK dose (kg/ha) Fertilizer  (kg/ha) Time of application
1. 20 kg N 44 kg Urea Basal application at the of sowing with ferti-cum-seed drill
2. 40 kg P 250 kg SSP Basal application at the of sowing with ferti-cum-seed drill
3. 40 kg K 67 kg MOP Basal application at the of sowing with ferti-cum-seed drill
       

Irrigation Required For Black Gram Cultivation

There are many irrigation systems are available in latest technology like drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, micro jet, and basin irrigation but suitable irrigation for the black gram cultivation are depending on the weather condition and soil type.

Black gram cultivation only requires irrigation in a summer season. It does not require irrigation in rainy seasons. The black gram plant requires irrigation in the interval of 10 to 15 days. Black gram plant needed a moisture in the soil during the flowering to pod phase.

Weed Management In Black Gram Cultivation

You must remove the extra weed from the field after the 40 days of seed sowing. On the basis of weed intensity, you must do one or two weeding by using hands. You can also control the weed by using some chemical. Take one kg Fluchloralin (Basalin) for one hectare land and mix in 800-1000 liters of water and apply this mixture on a field.

Pest And Diseases Of Black Gram

Black Gram Insect

  • Stem fly
  • Leaf hopper
  • Aphid
  • White fly
  • Hairy caterpillar
  • Jassids

Black Gram Diseases

  • Cercospora leaf spot
  • Bacterial leaf blight
  • Anthracnose
  • Powdery mildew
  • Root rot and leaf blight
  • Rust
  • Stem canker and Macrophomina blight
  • Yellow mosaic disease
  • Leaf crinkle

Harvesting Of  Black Gram Cultivation In India

The harvesting of the black gram cultivation takes place when the black gram Pods and plants are dried, black gram beans become dry and hard. At the time of harvesting at list 20-22 % of moisture require in the black gram cereal. Pod breaks down during the harvesting is a general trouble in a pulse so, immediately harvest the black gram pods when it is mature. When black gram pods are dried completely then cereal are threshed from the pods by using a machine or manually.

Black gram harvesting from the field

Black Gram Cultivation Video

 

What are the health benefits of urad dal?

  • Black gram help to reduce the digestive aid and improve the digestion.
  • It is the energy booster.
  • It maintains the bone mineral density so good for improving bone.
  • Blak gram preventing diabetes.
  • Also, helps for Skin Protection.
  • Black gram relief the Pain and Inflammation.
  • Different black gram foods are good for pregnant women.
  • It is good for the heart health.
  • Black gram useful for hair care.

black gram health benefits images

Black Gram Price Today

The today average price of a black gram in India is 120 Rs to 130 Rs per kg.

Various Names Of Black Gram Dal In India 

  • Urad Dal (Hindi),
  • Minumulu (Telugu)
  • Ulundu Paruppu (Tamil)
  • Uzhunnu Parippu (Malayalam)
  • Uddina bele (Kannada)
  • Masakalai dala (Bengali)
  • Biri dali (Oriya)
  • Kaali Dal(Marathi)
  • Adad Dal (Gujarati)

Black Gram Varieties In India

Sr. No. Varieties Duration (Days) Production (Q/ha) Characters
1. BDU-1 70-75 10-12 Bold seed
2. TAU-1 65-70 10-12  Bold seed, Fast growth
3. TPU-4 70-75 10-12 Bold black seed
4. TAU-2 70-75 10-12 Bold seed, suitable for heavy soil
5. Pant U-35 80-85 12-15 Medium black seed, high yielding
6. Azad-1 80-90 12-14 Medium black seed
7. Naveen 90-95 10-12 Light yellowish green colour seed
8. Pusa-1 80-90 12-15 Resistant to yellow mosaic virus
9. Krishna 90-100 8-10 Bold seeds
10. Pant U-30 68-75 12-15 Hairy and black pods
         

Black gram mature pod image

Black Gram Nutrition Information

Nutritious Name Amount/100g
Protein 25g
Potassium 983 mg
Calcium 138 mg
Iron 7.57 mg
Niacin 1.447 mg
Thiamine 0.273 mg
Riboflavin 0.254 mg
   

Black Gram Yield Per Hectare

In black gram cultivation yield of black gram dal mainly depends on the climate, field management, irrigation, variety and quality of seeds, and fertilizers. If you have a proper land and good farm management then you can get the 450 kg black gram crop per hectare.

  • 800 kg -1100 kg /acre.
  • 12 to 15 quintals / hectare.

Black gram yield image

In the Indian market, Black Gram(Urad Dal) are very demanded. India climate conditions are very suitable for the Black Garm So, you can get the good returns from the Black Gram Cultivation. This all information that is required for any farmer or investor to grow a Blak Gram Dal.

I hope I have covered the all informative details for the rose farming process. If you like this information then please gives your review in the comment box and share this information with you other investor/ farmers friends.

Maize Cultivation (Corn) Process Information Guide For Beginners

Maize Cultivation Process Profit and Information For Beginner

Generally, Maize is also known as a corn in worldwide. It is a large grain plant and globally popular as a queen of grains. The maize is a third most important food and cash crops in India after wheat and rice. In India maize is grown in many states and it’s used for different purpose.

Maize is used for animal’s food, food grain, sweet corn, baby corn, green cobs, and pop corn. In Indian cooking, Corn flour is consumed widely. It is also used as a raw material in thousand of industrial products.

  • Oil
  • Starch
  • Alcoholic beverages
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Food sweeteners
  • Food cereals
  • Cosmetic
  • Film
  • Gum
  • Textile
  • Package
  • Paper Industries

The scientific name of the maize is Zea mays and belongs to the family of grasses (Poaceae).

 

Maize corn cob pictures

Climatic Requirements For Maize Cultivation

In India Maize cultivation mainly take before monsoon start and it is the Kharif crop. The maize crop generally, grows under temperatures between 22°C to 30°C and its maximum tolerates as 35°C temperatures. In a year maize crop requires at least 50 to 90 cm of rainfall.

Suitable Soils For Maize Production

Maize cultivation can be successfully done in various soils like clay loam, sand loamy, and black cotton soil. If you want a better yield of maize crop then chose a soil which has good organic matter content with high water holding capacity. In Maize farming, the PH of soil required in between 5.5 to 7.0. Before cultivate the soil test is required for to find out the deficiency of any nutrient values in the soil. If any deficiency occurs it can be cover at the land preparation stage by adding some good organic matter or compost.

 

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 Maize plant in field wallpaper

Season For Maize Crop Cultivation In India

Maize is the Kharif crop and generally, in India maize crop cultivated during the June to July, Sept to Oct and Jan to Feb seasons. You can also sow during the Nov to Dec for seed production.

Land Preparation For Maize Production

Before maize cultivation Ploughing should be done on a land for to get fine tilth. You can use the plow for plowing. You can also apply 13 to 14 tons of Farm Yard Manure per hectare (F.M.Y) and 10 Azospirillum packets in the field. For saving irrigated water you will make the furrow and ridges with 45 cm to 50 cm spacing on a land.

Seed Rate And Seed Treatment In Maize Cultivation

 Maize Seed Rate Per Hectare

  • 10 to 11 kg maize seeds are required for cultivating the one-hectare farm.

Corn Seed Treatment Chemicals

  • Apply 2 grams thiram or carbendazim on seeds.
  • One day after of seed treatment apply 600 grams of Azospirillum on corn seeds with rice gruel and leave them for 15 to 20 minutes below the shade.

Maize seed photo

How is maize grown?

In India, Maize cultivation is always done by using seeds. You must keep the 10 cm spacing between plant to plant and per second sow 2 seeds on a farm.

What fertilizer to use for maize?

Generally, every farmer applied Farm Yard Manure at the land preparation time in corn farming. But if you want a high yield of maize crop then apply following inorganic fertilizers on farm per hectare.

  • Super phosphate: 470 kg
  • Urea: 200 kg
  • Potash : 180 kg

You should also apply following inorganic fertilizers on farm per hectare after 20 days of sowing.

  • Urea: 50 to 60 kg

After 40 days of sowings apply following fertilizers on farm per hectare for getting a high yield of the maize crop.

  • Urea: 120 kg
  • Potash: 50 kg

Farmer apply fertilizer in maize farm

What nutrients are needed to grow corn?

  • Nitrogen
  • Phosphorous
  • Potassium
  • Zinc
  • Iron
  • Manganese
  • Copper
  • Boron

Best Irrigation System For Maize

In Maize farming, you can require irrigation immediately after sowing of corn seeds are done. On the basis of soil type and seasons give the life irrigation to maize crop on the third or fourth day of sowing. Life irrigation system may not require in the rainy season. Normally, up to 25 to 30 days in maize cultivation process, you can require less irrigation. Then after maize crop requires irrigation once in a week.

Irrigation in maize cultivation

Weed Control Methods In Maize Production

For a better yield of the maize crop, you may require a two hand wedding. You must remove extra weed around maize plants after 20 to 25 days of sowing and then after other weeds are taking on 40 to 45 days of sowing.

You can also apply some fertilizers on a field for remove extra weeds.

  • 500 grams Atrazin + 1000 liters water.

Pest And Diseases Of Maize In India

Major Insect Pest Of Maize

Pest effect on plant Pest effect on grain
African maize stem borer Angoumois grain moth
African pink borer Corn earworm
Armyworm Ear maggot
Corn leaf aphid Grain borers
Corn stunt leafhoppers Grain weevils
Cutworm Indian meal moth
Diabrotica beetles and rootworms Rats and birds
European maize borer Seedcorn maggot
Fall armyworm  
Flea Beetles and Flea Beetle Rootworms  
Grasshoppers  
Maize billbugs and billbug grubs  
Neotropical corn borer  
Oriental corn borer  
Southwestern maize borer  
Spider mites  
Spotted sorghum stem borer  
Sugarcane borer  
Termites  
White grubs  
Wireworms  

 

Diseases Of Maize With Pictures

Foliar diseases Stalk rots and smuts Ear rots viruses and Mollicutes
Banded leaf and sheath blight Charcoal stalk rot Aspergillus ear rot Corn stunt
Common rust False head smut Common smut Maize dwarf mosaic virus
Curvularia leaf spot Fusarium and gibberella stalk rot Fusarium and gibberella ear rot Maize streak virus
Gray leaf spot Head smut Penicillium ear rot Sugarcane mosaic virus
Macrospora leaf stripe Pythium stalk rot Stenocarpella ear rot  
Maydis leaf blight Stenocarpella stalk rot    
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot      
Polysora rust      
Sorghum downy mildew      
Spot blotch      
Sugarcane downy mildew      
Turcicum leaf blight      

 
maize disease images in farm

When Do Farmers Harvest Corn?

In corn farming harvesting of the crop is done when the outer green color cover of corn cob turns into white color. Normally, harvest time of maize crop is mid-September, though it is also taking in October.

There are many corn harvester machines are available in India but harvesting of corn crop generally, done by hand. Maize harvester machine is used for to separate corn seeds from the cob.

Maize cob on plant images

Where Is Maize Mostly Grown?

Maize Production In World

  • United States
  • China
  • Brazil
  • Argentina
  • Mexico
  • Ukraine
  • The European Union

Maize Production In India State Wise

In India, maize cultivation is largely done in north side and MP at the first position for production of maize in the country.

  • UP
  • Rajasthan
  • MP
  • Bihar
  • Himachal Pradesh
  • Jammu and Kashmir
  • Punjab
  • Karnataka
  • Andhra Pradesh
  • south india

Corn cob ready for harvest photo

Various Maize Names And Types Of Maize Varieties

Other Names Maize In India

  • Maka (Hindi, Marathi, Oriya)
  • Bhutta (Bengali)
  • Makai (Gujarati)
  • Makaa’y (Kashmiri)
  • Musikinu jola (Kannada)
  • Cholam (Malayalam)
  • Makka Cholam (Tamil)
  • Mokka jonnalu (Telugu)

List Of Varieties Of Maize In India

  • Himalayan 123
  • 30V92
  • 30B07
  • Sona
  • Kisan
  • 30R77
  • Hi-Starch
  • 32T25
  • 31T15
  • Ganga-1
  • Ganga-101
  • Ranjit
  • Deccan
  • Ganga-5
  • Ganga-Safed-2
  • Ganga-4
  • Ganga-3
  • L. 54
  • Vijay
  • Amber
  • Jawahar
  • Vikram

What are the health benefits of corn?

Maize cob photo

  • Maize is good for digestion.
  • Corn helps in Preventing Anemia.
  • Corn helps in Increased Energy.
  • Corns reduce LDL Cholesterol.
  • Corn is used for Weight Gain.
  • Corn also Prevents Diabetes And Hypertension.
  • Corn helps to Improves Vision.
  • Anti-cancer Properties.
  • Beneficial During Pregnancy.
  • Beneficial For Heart.
  • Prevents Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Combats Hair Loss And Dryness.
  • Prevents Skin Problems.

 

Maize Yield Per Hectare In India

In maize cultivation yield of crop mainly depends on the climate, field management, irrigation, variety and quality of seeds, and fertilizers. If you have a proper land and good farm management then you can get the 2500 kg corn yield per hectare.

Corn farm pictures

In the Indian market, maize or corns are very demanded. So, you can get the good returns from the maize cultivation process. This all information that is required for any farmer or investor to grow Maize or Corn.

I hope I have covered the all informative details for maize cultivation process in India. If you like this information then please gives your review in the comment box and share this information with you other investor/ farmers friends.