Brinjal Farming – Detailed Information & Guide
Little About Brinjal Farming
Brinjal or eggplants are also one of the most common tropics vegetables that are grown widely throughout the world. It belongs to the “Solanaceae” family and “Solanum” genus. There are numbers of varieties of brinjal that are grown throughout the world accordingly their suitable climate conditions and soil type. All of these cultivars vary from each other in their shape and size and flavor too.
Brinjals are used for preparing many delicious dishes including the tasty curry. The great popularity of brinjal is due to their medicinal properties. So, brinjals are in all-time market needs that anyone can earn a great profit by following Brinjal Farming Commercially.
So, Learn here how to grow Brinjal commercially along with Brinjal Varieties, when to grown brinjal, where does brinjal grows and Harvesting of Brinjal here in this post. Farmers can cultivate brinjal in poly houses, greenhouses, and even in backyards. They cal also grows in the containers.
The name of brinjal is derived from the Sanskrit and Arabic Language whereas it is also famous as Eggplant which has been derived from its shape which is white in color and resembles the chicken eggs. They are also known as aubergine on the European continent.
Basically, there is a great importance in the warm climate conditions of Far East and are being grown extensively in such countries. It is mainly grown in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China and in the Philippines. Apart from this, it is also popular in the Egypt, Italy, France, and the United States.
In fact, it is a versatile crop that is adapted to different climatic conditions. It can be also grown throughout the year as a different vegetable crop. And, it’s lovers used to select in the basis of their shape, size, and color.
Brinjal Varieties | Brinjal Cultivar
For commercial Brinjal cultivation, it is very important to select a suitable cultivar accordingly the climate conditions and soil type. They are able to grow over a wide variety of climate and soil type.
Brinjal varieties are classified on the basis of their shape, size, and color. Burpee Hybrid, Harris Special Hibush, Classic, Bringal Bloom, Dusky, Black Magic, and Black Beauty produces Oval-shaped fruit with having black skin color. Whereas Little Fingers, Ichiban, Pingtung Long, and Tycoon varieties of eggplant produces fruit which purple and black skin color.
There are also some cultivars of it which produces fruit with green skin and slim in shape. Such kind of varieties includes Thai Green and Louisiana Long Green. Whereas Traditional, Dourga variety, White-skinned some of the varieties where are famous for producing their white fruits.
Other Name of Brinjal in the World
It is widely grown vegetable that is popular in the different portion of the world with a specific name. The other names of Brinjal in other portion of the world are –
Brinjal (Indian), Berenjena (Spanish), Aubergine (Dutch), Aubergine (German), Patellxhani (Albanian), Patlidžan (Bosnian), Ai Qwa (Chinese), Talong (Filipino), มะเขือยาว (Thai), Aubergine (Norwegian), Патладжан (Bulgarian), Cà tím (Vietnamese), Vânătă (Romanian), Nasu (Japanese), Patlıcan (Turkish), Padlizsán (Hungarian), Aubergine (Swedish), Terung (Malay), بادنجان (Persian), වම්බටු (Sinhalese, Sri Lanka), باذنجان (Arabic), 茄 (Taiwanese), Баклажан (Ukrainian).
Where to Grow Brinjal
Climatic Conditions for Brinjal Farming
Brinjals can be grown over a wide range of climate conditions because it is a versatile crop that is adapted to different climatic conditions, especially the warm climate conditions. It can be also grown throughout the year as a different vegetable crop.
As it is a warmed seasonal crop it is susceptible to frost conditions up to great extent. And, low atmospheric temp during its growing period leads to deformation of shape and size of vegetables.
So, Brinjals are best suitable for growing in long and hot regions with low temp in the winter season. A region with Cool nights with short summers is not suitable for the brinjal farming with a satisfactory production of vegetables.
A temp ranging from 14 to 22 ‘C is most suitable for the optimum growth rate and excellent production. The brinjal seed can germinate well at 25 ‘C.
Soil Requirement for Brinjal Farming
Brinjal can be grown over a wide variety of soils and can grow on almost all kinds of soils. Since it is a versatile crop that is adapted to different climatic conditions and soils. However, a well-drained soil which is rich in humus is best suitable for growing Brinjals.
But, they thrive their best on the soil with excellent soil fertility and production as it a long duration vegetable crop. And, it directly depended on the soil type, fertility, and productivity.
So, for commercial Brinjal Cultivation, going for a soil test is a smart move. It helps to find out the soil fertility and productivity with the deficiency of soil.
For optimum production in this vegetable crop, the soil ph must be from 5.5 to 7.3 pH range.
How to Grow Brinjal?
Soil Preparation before Growing Brinjals
As the brinjal vegetable crop is a long season crop, soil preparations also play a vital role in the growth rate and production of it. So, the soil should be prepared well in order to get higher production.
So, give 4 to 5 normal plowings before transplanting brinjal seedlings on the field. To increase the fertility of growing field, it should be corporate with a good amount of Bulky organic manures. Such as 20 tonners of well-rotted farmyard manure is good enough for growing brinjal per unit hectare land. Try to apply 2 kg of Azospirillum along with 2 kg of Phosphobacteria per each 50 kg of FYM at the time of soil preparation.
Brinjal Transplanting should be done in ridged and furrow method of transplanting. Then, just irrigate the furrows and, then transplant the four to five weeks older brinjal seedlings by keeping 60 cm between them on the ridges.
Propagation in Brinjal Farming
In brinjal farming, the propagation is mainly done through the seeds. Seeds are sown on the well fertile nursery beds. When the seedling becomes four to five weeks older, are transplanted on the main field. Check how to prepare seedling on nursery Beds
Nursery Bed Seedling preparation of Brinjal
In order to prepare nursery bed seedlings, apply 10 of Farmyard manure, 1 kg of neem cake, 50 gm of VAM, 100 gm of Enriched superphosphate along with 10 gm Furadon per each square meter of nursery bed before sowing the high yielding seeds.
The area required for raising brinjal seedling for planting one 1 hectare land is 100 sq.m.
To avoid the occurrence of diseases in the field, seed treatment should be done before sowing the seeds on the nursery beds. In order to do so, seed treatment should be done with 4 gm Trichoderma Viride, 10 gm Pseudomonas Fluorescens per each kg of seeds.
Also, treat them with 10 gm Azospirillum per 100 gm with the help fo ice gruel as an adhesive. Then after, sowing of seeds should be done by keeping 10 cm spacing between them followed by covering of beds with sands.
When the seedling becomes four to five weeks older, they should be transplanted at 60 cm apart in the ridges.
Planting Season of Brinjal
Brinjal crop can be cultivated throughout the year. However, the sowing time for it is from May to June and December to January.
For optimum productions, they should be planted on well fertile soil with excellent humus content and high productivity.
Seed rate in Brinjal Farming
- Common Varieties – 400 grams /ha and
- Hybrids Varieties – 200 grams /ha.
Transplantation of Brinjal Seedlings & Spacing
The brinjal seedlings get ready for transplanting in about 30 to 35 days as they attained a height of 12 to 15 cm and bears 3 to 5 leaves.
A light irrigation should be applied before transplanting them on the field. Then, Uproot the brinjal seedlings very carefully without harming to their roots.
The brinjal transplanting should be done at the time of evening hours followed by a light irrigation. Please press the soil surrounding the seedlings very softly for better fixation of seedlings.
When it comes to spacing in the brinjal cultivation it depends on the soil fertility, soil type, cultivar of brinjal and the suitability of climate conditions.
However, for non-spreading type verities, the spacing should be 60 CM X 60 CM. Whereas the spacing for spreading type verities should be 75 CM X 90CM and 60 CM X 75 CM.
Irrigation in Brinjal Farming
Irrigation time to time is very important in the brinjal productions for healthy growth rate, flowering, and fruit set for excellent productions. So, watering should be done on the basis of crop requirements. Because, in commercial brinjal cultivation, it is essential to maintain optimum moisture level for the healthy growth rate of the plants.
However, in the plain areas, irrigation should be done at every third to the fourth day while hot and sunny days. Whereas the time period should be seven days to ten days in the cooler season.
If no rain, then irrigation should be done before top dressing the crop. And, never forget to supply water regularly during frosty days in order to maintain the soil moisture level.
If you want to obtain higher production, then never let the soil dry for a long time period. It will definitely lower down the production amount and your profit.
Manure and Fertilization in Brinjal Farming
Timely Application of Manure & Fertilization in commercial brinjal farming helps the grower obtain optimum production. As they are a long season crop, it is a good idea to always grow them on a soil which is high in fertility and productivity. So, providing a good amount of nutrients along with organic manures and fertilizers helps the farmer to attain healthy crop growth rate along with timely water supply.
Try to corporate about 20 tonnes of well-rotted farmyard manure at the time of land preparation. Then after, apply 60 kg of Nitrogen, 50 kg of Potash per unit hectare land during at the time of flowering and fruit set in the crop.
Pests and Diseases in Brinjal Farming
Pests of Brinjal Farming
The Common pests and insects in brinjal farming are –
- Brinjal fruit borer.
- Brinjal shoot borer.
- Brinjal Epilachna beetle.
- Brinjal Jassids.
- Brinjal Nematode and
- Brinjal Mites.
Diseases of Brinjal Farming
The Common diseases in brinjal farming are –
- Bacterial Wilt.
- Phomopsis blight.
- Fungal wilt.
- Mosaic. and
- Damping off.
Make sure to resist all these major pests and disease of brinjal crop to minimize the loss in this vegetable production.
Harvesting of Brinjals
Harvesting of brinjal vegetables should be done when they attain the proper marketable size and attractive color. But, It should be done before they start ripening. When they attain their maturity, they tend to bright color with glossy fruit appearance.
For supplying fresh vegetables to the market for the cooking, harvesting should be done at the immature stage. For this, carry out manual harvesting by twisting the fruit or cut them with the help of sharp knives.
If you want to get higher productions of vegetables, then, let them to attain proper marketable shape and size. But, stop the harvesting of the vegetables as they start looking dull. It is an indication of over maturity. It may lead to the loss of quality and hence the quantity of brinjal farming.
Post Harvesting in Brinjal Farming
- Store the fruit vegetables for about 6 to 7 days at fairly average temp conditions.
- So, they should be stored at the maintained temp, maintained between 7 °C to 10 °C by keeping the RH at 80 % to 90 %.
- And, maintaining the quality of fruits helps to attain higher profit from the same production by increasing the rate in the market.
- It is also recommended to store them in perforated Polyethylene bags under the above mentioned ideal conditions and then under the open conditions.
Yield in Brinjal Farming
The yield of any vegetable farming depends on numbers on farm management factors. But, it mainly depends on the selection of Brinjal cultivars, suitable climate conditions, an occurrence of the pests and disease during the growing period, etc.
However, the average yields in brinjal farming are –
- For the Early short cultivars of brinjal – More than 25 tonnes/ha yield can be easily obtained.
- For the Long duration cultivars of brinjal – More than 35 tonnes/ha yield can be easily obtained.
- Some improved and hybrid commercial varieties of Brinjal are able to produce up to 75 tonnes/ha of fruit vegetables as the production.