Brinjal Farming | Guide & Tips

Brinjal Farming – Detailed Information & Guide

Little About Brinjal Farming

Brinjal or eggplants are also one of the most common tropics vegetables that are grown widely throughout the world. It belongs to the “Solanaceae” family and “Solanum” genus. There are numbers of varieties of brinjal that are grown throughout the world accordingly their suitable climate conditions and soil type. All of these cultivars vary from each other in their shape and size and flavor too.

Brinjals are used for preparing many delicious dishes including the tasty curry. The great popularity of brinjal is due to their medicinal properties. So, brinjals are in all-time market needs that anyone can earn a great profit by following Brinjal Farming Commercially.

So, Learn here how to grow Brinjal commercially along with Brinjal Varieties, when to grown brinjal, where does brinjal grows and Harvesting of Brinjal here in this post. Farmers can cultivate brinjal in poly houses, greenhouses, and even in backyards. They cal also grows in the containers.

The name of brinjal is derived from the Sanskrit and Arabic Language whereas it is also famous as Eggplant which has been derived from its shape which is white in color and resembles the chicken eggs. They are also known as aubergine on the European continent.

Basically, there is a great importance in the warm climate conditions of Far East and are being grown extensively in such countries. It is mainly grown in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China and in the Philippines. Apart from this, it is also popular in the Egypt, Italy, France, and the United States.

In fact, it is a versatile crop that is adapted to different climatic conditions. It can be also grown throughout the year as a different vegetable crop. And, it’s lovers used to select in the basis of their shape, size, and color.

Brinjal Varieties | Brinjal Cultivar

For commercial Brinjal cultivation, it is very important to select a suitable cultivar accordingly the climate conditions and soil type. They are able to grow over a wide variety of climate and soil type.

Brinjal varieties are classified on the basis of their shape, size, and color. Burpee Hybrid, Harris Special Hibush, Classic, Bringal Bloom, Dusky, Black Magic, and Black Beauty produces Oval-shaped fruit with having black skin color. Whereas Little Fingers, Ichiban, Pingtung Long, and Tycoon varieties of eggplant produces fruit which purple and black skin color.

There are also some cultivars of it which produces fruit with green skin and slim in shape. Such kind of varieties includes Thai Green and Louisiana Long Green. Whereas Traditional, Dourga variety, White-skinned some of the varieties where are famous for producing their white fruits.

Other Name of Brinjal in the World

It is widely grown vegetable that is popular in the different portion of the world with a specific name. The other names of Brinjal in other portion of the world are –

Brinjal (Indian), Berenjena (Spanish), Aubergine (Dutch), Aubergine (German), Patellxhani (Albanian), Patlidžan (Bosnian), Ai Qwa (Chinese), Talong (Filipino), มะเขือยาว (Thai), Aubergine (Norwegian), Патладжан (Bulgarian), Cà tím (Vietnamese), Vânătă (Romanian), Nasu (Japanese), Patlıcan (Turkish), Padlizsán (Hungarian), Aubergine (Swedish), Terung (Malay), بادنجان (Persian), වම්බටු (Sinhalese, Sri Lanka), باذنجان (Arabic), 茄 (Taiwanese), Баклажан (Ukrainian).

Where to Grow Brinjal

Climatic Conditions for Brinjal Farming

Brinjals can be grown over a wide range of climate conditions because it is a versatile crop that is adapted to different climatic conditions, especially the warm climate conditions. It can be also grown throughout the year as a different vegetable crop.

As it is a warmed seasonal crop it is susceptible to frost conditions up to great extent. And, low atmospheric temp during its growing period leads to deformation of shape and size of vegetables.

So, Brinjals are best suitable for growing in long and hot regions with low temp in the winter season. A region with Cool nights with short summers is not suitable for the brinjal farming with a satisfactory production of vegetables.

A temp ranging from 14 to 22 ‘C is most suitable for the optimum growth rate and excellent production. The brinjal seed can germinate well at 25 ‘C.

Soil Requirement for Brinjal Farming

Brinjal can be grown over a wide variety of soils and can grow on almost all kinds of soils. Since it is a versatile crop that is adapted to different climatic conditions and soils. However, a well-drained soil which is rich in humus is best suitable for growing Brinjals.

But, they thrive their best on the soil with excellent soil fertility and production as it a long duration vegetable crop. And, it directly depended on the soil type, fertility, and productivity.

So, for commercial Brinjal Cultivation, going for a soil test is a smart move. It helps to find out the soil fertility and productivity with the deficiency of soil.

For optimum production in this vegetable crop, the soil ph must be from 5.5 to 7.3 pH range.

How to Grow Brinjal?

Soil Preparation before Growing Brinjals

As the brinjal vegetable crop is a long season crop, soil preparations also play a vital role in the growth rate and production of it. So, the soil should be prepared well in order to get higher production.

So, give  4 to 5 normal plowings before transplanting brinjal seedlings on the field. To increase the fertility of growing field, it should be corporate with a good amount of Bulky organic manures. Such as 20 tonners of well-rotted farmyard manure is good enough for growing brinjal per unit hectare land. Try to apply 2 kg of Azospirillum along with 2 kg of Phosphobacteria per each 50 kg of FYM at the time of soil preparation.

Brinjal Transplanting should be done in ridged and furrow method of transplanting. Then, just irrigate the furrows and, then transplant the four to five weeks older brinjal seedlings by keeping 60 cm between them on the ridges.

Propagation in Brinjal Farming

In brinjal farming, the propagation is mainly done through the seeds. Seeds are sown on the well fertile nursery beds. When the seedling becomes four to five weeks older, are transplanted on the main field. Check how to prepare seedling on nursery Beds

Nursery Bed Seedling preparation of Brinjal

In order to prepare nursery bed seedlings, apply 10 of Farmyard manure, 1 kg of neem cake, 50 gm of VAM, 100 gm of Enriched superphosphate along with 10 gm Furadon per each square meter of nursery bed before sowing the high yielding seeds.

The area required for raising brinjal seedling for planting one 1 hectare land is 100 sq.m.

Seed treatment

To avoid the occurrence of diseases in the field, seed treatment should be done before sowing the seeds on the nursery beds. In order to do so, seed treatment should be done with 4 gm Trichoderma Viride, 10 gm Pseudomonas Fluorescens per each kg of seeds.

Also, treat them with 10 gm Azospirillum per 100 gm with the help fo ice gruel as an adhesive. Then after, sowing of seeds should be done by keeping 10 cm spacing between them followed by covering of beds with sands.

When the seedling becomes four to five weeks older, they should be transplanted at 60 cm apart in the ridges.

Planting Season of Brinjal

Brinjal crop can be cultivated throughout the year. However, the sowing time for it is from May to June and December to January.

For optimum productions, they should be planted on well fertile soil with excellent humus content and high productivity.

Seed rate in Brinjal Farming

  • Common Varieties – 400 grams /ha and
  • Hybrids Varieties – 200 grams /ha.

Transplantation of Brinjal Seedlings & Spacing

The brinjal seedlings get ready for transplanting in about 30 to 35 days as they attained a height of 12 to 15 cm and bears 3 to 5 leaves.

A light irrigation should be applied before transplanting them on the field. Then, Uproot the brinjal seedlings very carefully without harming to their roots.

The brinjal transplanting should be done at the time of evening hours followed by a light irrigation. Please press the soil surrounding the seedlings very softly for better fixation of seedlings.

When it comes to spacing in the brinjal cultivation it depends on the soil fertility, soil type, cultivar of brinjal and the suitability of climate conditions.

However, for non-spreading type verities, the spacing should be 60 CM X 60 CM. Whereas the spacing for spreading type verities should be 75 CM X 90CM and 60 CM X 75 CM.

Irrigation in Brinjal Farming

Irrigation time to time is very important in the brinjal productions for healthy growth rate, flowering, and fruit set for excellent productions. So, watering should be done on the basis of crop requirements. Because, in commercial brinjal cultivation, it is essential to maintain optimum moisture level for the healthy growth rate of the plants.

However, in the plain areas, irrigation should be done at every third to the fourth day while hot and sunny days. Whereas the time period should be seven days to ten days in the cooler season.

If no rain, then irrigation should be done before top dressing the crop. And, never forget to supply water regularly during frosty days in order to maintain the soil moisture level.

If you want to obtain higher production, then never let the soil dry for a long time period. It will definitely lower down the production amount and your profit.

Manure and Fertilization in Brinjal Farming

Timely Application of Manure & Fertilization in commercial brinjal farming helps the grower obtain optimum production. As they are a long season crop, it is a good idea to always grow them on a soil which is high in fertility and productivity. So, providing a good amount of nutrients along with organic manures and fertilizers helps the farmer to attain healthy crop growth rate along with timely water supply.

Try to corporate about 20 tonnes of well-rotted farmyard manure at the time of land preparation. Then after, apply 60 kg of Nitrogen, 50 kg of Potash per unit hectare land during at the time of flowering and fruit set in the crop.

Pests and Diseases in Brinjal Farming

Pests of Brinjal Farming

The Common pests and insects in brinjal farming are –

  • Brinjal fruit borer.
  • Brinjal shoot borer.
  • Brinjal Epilachna beetle.
  • Brinjal Jassids.
  • Brinjal Nematode and
  • Brinjal Mites.

Diseases of Brinjal Farming

The Common diseases in brinjal farming are –

  • Bacterial Wilt.
  • Phomopsis blight.
  • Fungal wilt.
  • Mosaic. and
  • Damping off.

Make sure to resist all these major pests and disease of brinjal crop to minimize the loss in this vegetable production.

Harvesting of Brinjals

Harvesting of brinjal vegetables should be done when they attain the proper marketable size and attractive color. But, It should be done before they start ripening. When they attain their maturity, they tend to bright color with glossy fruit appearance.

For supplying fresh vegetables to the market for the cooking, harvesting should be done at the immature stage. For this, carry out manual harvesting by twisting the fruit or cut them with the help of sharp knives.

If you want to get higher productions of vegetables, then, let them to attain proper marketable shape and size. But, stop the harvesting of the vegetables as they start looking dull. It is an indication of over maturity. It may lead to the loss of quality and hence the quantity of brinjal farming.

Post Harvesting in Brinjal Farming

  • Store the fruit vegetables for about 6 to 7 days at fairly average temp conditions.
  • So, they should be stored at the maintained temp, maintained between 7 °C to 10 °C by keeping the RH at 80 % to 90 %.
  • And, maintaining the quality of fruits helps to attain higher profit from the same production by increasing the rate in the market.
  • It is also recommended to store them in perforated Polyethylene bags under the above mentioned ideal conditions and then under the open conditions.

Yield in Brinjal Farming

The yield of any vegetable farming depends on numbers on farm management factors. But, it mainly depends on the selection of Brinjal cultivars, suitable climate conditions, an occurrence of the pests and disease during the growing period, etc.

However, the average yields in brinjal farming are –

  • For the Early short cultivars of brinjal – More than 25 tonnes/ha yield can be easily obtained.
  • For the Long duration cultivars of brinjal – More than 35 tonnes/ha yield can be easily obtained.
  • Some improved and hybrid commercial varieties of Brinjal are able to produce up to 75 tonnes/ha of fruit vegetables as the production.

Broccoli Farming | Detailed Informations & Guide for Best Yield

Broccoli Farming – Detailed Informations & Guide

Little About Growing Broccoli

Suddenly, You may think that What is Broccoli?… Basically, Broccoli is also one of the delicious and edible green vegetable plants, which falls under the cabbage family. In general, the large flowering head of broccoli is eaten as a vegetable in our day to day life.

In fact, it is a cool-season crop, which can be grown in the spring season & fall season. The main advantage of growing Broccoli is that this green vegetable plant can be harvested throughout the year if plantation is done accurately.

As a member of the cabbage family, it is a most selected for the home garden. Fresh heads of broccoli are rich in almost all kinds of vitamins & minerals. Apart from this, they are tasty and delicious as a raw in salads as well as when lightly steamed and frozen well. And, it the best choice for making a big profit in the rural area as a good economy.

However, when it comes to the description of Broccoli plant, a large and green flower heads grows on its plant, specially arranged in a tree-like structure and branching out from a thick and edible stalk. The edible head is covered by several leaves. It also resembles the cauliflower which does not belong to this family.

It is eaten as a raw, boiled, steamed as well as in the stir-fried state. It is one of the most nutritious green vegetables in the world. As it is full of minerals and vitamins. It is an excellent source of iron, magnesium, and calcium along with vitamin ‘A’ and vitamin ‘C’.

The word “Broccoli” is an Italian plural of ‘Broccolo’ which mean’s “the flowering top of a cabbage”.

Basically, this can be grown in indoors, pots, containers, greenhouses, poly house, as well as under the shade nets. Presently, Growing Broccoli hydroponically is the best idea, which helps in getting excellent yields with a minimum input in this vegetable crop.

Scientific Name or Botanical Name of Broccoli

The scientific name and botanical name of broccoli is Brassica oleracea. It belongs to the family Brassicaceae and to the genus Brassica.

Local Names of Broccoli

Wild cabbage, Chinese broccoli, Headless cabbage, White flowering broccoli, Bróculi chino (Spanish), Chinesischer Brokkoli (German), Jie lan cai, Gai lan (Chinese), Kailan (Malay), Broccoli de Chine (French), Phak khana (Thai), Kairan (Japanese), brukuuli (Arabic), broccolo (Italian), Hari phool gobhi (Urdu), Broccoli (Swedish), ανθοκράμβη or brókolo (Greek), brokolice (Czech), Brókkoli (Russian), and Brokoli (Turkish).

World Top 10 Producer of Broccoli

India holds second positions in the list when it comes to the production of broccoli vegetables after China. However, learn the list of top 10 broccoli producer in the world:

  1. China
  2. India
  3. Spain
  4. Mexico
  5. Italy
  6. France
  7. United States
  8. Poland
  9. Pakistan
  10. Egypt

Most Productive Broccoli Varieties for Commercial Farming

When going for commercial vegetable production, it is essential to growing the best productive variety of broccoli in order to get excellent vegetable yield with minimum care and management.

So, here I had listed worlds most productive varieties of broccoli, best suitable for commercial farming in different climate conditions. Check out all.

  • Paraiso (Hybrid broccoli Paraiso) – It is best for crown cut, bunching, and florets. It is also best for florets processing. It attains maturity after about 75 days from transplanting Or in 95 days if directly sowed on the main field. Its plant has an excellent upright habit, and it produces heads with a large dome and fine, dark-green beads.
  • Gemini – It produces uniform heads with nice presentation. And, are best suitable for concentrated harvesting. This fresh market hybrid is perfect for summer and autumn crown production.
  • Constellation – It produces dense heads on the erected plant. It is also best suitable for concentrated harvesting.
  • Blue Wind – It heads are medium sized, blue-green in color with small and attractive beads. It gives uniform production and is easy to harvest. After maturity, Harvest immediately because it does not hold in the field as well as later varieties. It has Unsized seed.
  • Tahoe RZ – They have very high yield potential. And, performs their best from cool to hot climate conditions. They produce smooth, dense and high domed heads with small to medium, uniform beads. They have attractive dark green color and are excellent for crowns.
  • Emerald Crown – It is very uniform, medium maturing heavy-headed domed variety of broccoli with small beads on a small-framed plant. It can be grown well from cool season to warm season (avoid growing in rainy season). It can extend the Green Magic slot into cold due to its resistance to purpling. They produce excellent quality crown cuts in a very short time period in all NAFTA regions.
  • Centennial – It has small beads, smoother heads with minimal sides hoots. In fact, it is a multi-use broccoli variety that performs it best in all kind of Marathon slots. The main advantage is, it can be grown throughout the year in the cool coastal growing regions.
  • Marathon – For commercial broccoli farming, Marathon is widely adaptable variety. And, it gives outstanding results for the fresh-market bunching, processing, and the increasingly popular crown cut market. It produces small bead with a high dome and heavy head.
  • Imperial – This broccoli variety performs it best during the long-day climate conditions with a gentle warm condition. It produces a tight dome with nice, dark-green small, beads. It is also multi-used variety and mostly grown for bunching, crown cut, and processing.
  • Avenger – An excellent choice for the processing markets and crown cut. It produces tight, heavy, dome-shaped, blue-green heads with short bracts having thick stems and very small beads. When it comes to growing areas, it is widely adopted in U.S., Mexico, and Guatemala to get excellent results with great yield potential.

However, they can be also classified based on their colors. Like Broccoli raab, Heading Type (Green), Romanesco, Sprouting Type (Green and Purple), etc.

Where Does Broccoli Grow?

Broccoli can be grown in greenhouses, poly houses, pot, containers, in backyards or on large scale commercially. However, it is essential to growing broccoli in suitable climate conditions with soil required to obtain optimum production.

Climate Conditions for Broccoli Farming

Basically, it is a cool-season crop that can be cultivated throughout the year under controlled conditions like greenhouses and playhouses. If not possible, it can be grown in both; spring and fall on the open and large field.

Broccoli can thrive their best in growing temperature around 18 °C to 20 °C. And, for excellent germination, the ideal soil temp should be around 20 °C to 22 °C.

But, do not that this crop is very sensitive to both, very low and high temp during growing period. So, for cultivating broccoli in such type of region, farmers should go with improved varieties having a good tolerance to high temperatures.

Soil Requirement for Broccoli Farming

Soil Selection is an important task for the commercial broccoli cultivation. This vegetable crop can be grown over a wide range of soil from light sandy loams to heavy clay loams with good drainage capacity and should also rich in all organic matters.

However, to obtain excellent yield with optimum production, cultivation should be done on clay loam or deep sandy loam soil with good amount of humus content and good drainage capacity.

The optimum soil pH for good yield should be in between 6.3 to 7.2 pH value. Cultivation of broccoli on soil having soil pH less than 6.0 should be avoided. However, for growing on such kinds of soils, it should be corrected by applying only required amount of lime.

To achieved excellent production from commercial broccoli farming, it is advised to keep rotating the crop with other non-crucifers crops. It is also advised to the grower to go for a soil test before growing on the field. It will help to learn the suitability of soil. And, also helps to understand the nutrients and minerals deficiency, which need to be corrected.

How to Grow Broccoli Vegetables?

Land Preparation for Broccoli Farming

Land preparation also plays a very important role in the commercial broccoli cultivation. So, bring down the soil in fine tilth form by giving two or three plowing before planting. Extra weeds should be removed along with other dead material from the field.

For single row planting on raised beds, furrows of 0.5 meter apart should be made, whereas, for double row planting, it should be 1.0 meter wide and 0.5 meters apart.

Propagation in Broccoli Farming

Propagation in Broccoli vegetable farming is mainly done by seeds. It can be achieved by direct seeding on the main field. Or by transplanting the seedlings, grows on nurseries beds on the field.

Presently, Modern farmers used to grow broccoli seedling, raised in nurseries using the cell trays.

Planting in Broccoli Farming

When it comes to planting broccoli vegetables, they can germinate their best at 12 ºC soil temp. However, they require hot climate conditions with moist and slightly acidic fertile soil during the growing period.

For growing by direct seeding on the field, highly qualified seeds should be sown directly to the ground by keeping some distance between them. However, for transplanting the nursery-raised seedlings, transplant the seedlings having 3 to 6 true leaves and are three to four weeks old.

Broccoli Growing Season

For spring plantations, transplantations should be done around 2 weeks before the last spring frost. It helps to lessen down the maturity days, around 10 days less.

And, for fall plantation, seeding should be done around 85 days before the first fall frost appears. Fall plantation is the best suitable for growing this vegetable crop as they thrive their best under cool climate conditions. On an average, planting should be done from mid to late summer

Broccoli Planting Depth

Seed should be sown, around 1/2 inch deep. And, seedling should be transplanted slightly deeper than they were grown originally.

Thinning of seedling should be done in case of overseeding in order to give room for the broccoli to grow healthily.

Seed rate & Spacing in Broccoli Farming

Spacing and Seed rate varies accordingly to the selected cultivar, soil quality, and fertility, planting method, etc. However, on an average, 300 gm to 500 gm quality seeds are good enough for planting on unit hectare land.

However, after spending and transplanting seedling, thinning should be at about 3 cm apart after 2 to 3 days of germination.

Spacing for single row planting should be 40 cm to 45 cm apart, whereas, for double row planting, the spacing should be 60 cm to 65 cm. Grown seedling must be watered sufficiently for several hours before planting on the field in order to avoid the wilting during transplanting. A light irrigation must be done, just after transplanting the seedlings.

Irrigation in Broccoli Farming

The first irrigation should be carried out, just after transplanting the seedlings on the main field. However, the frequency of irrigations depends on the type of soil and climate conditions. It is very important to maintain the proper soil moisture during the complete growing period to ensure higher production.

After the first irrigation, subsequent irrigations should be carried out at an interval of 7 to 10 days, depending on soil moisture level and weather conditions.

Make sure to not get wet the developing heads while watering the plants. In case of drought and hot conditions, it is essential to provide consistent soil moisture with regular watering & never let the soil dry. Mulching is the best option to prevent higher moisture loss and extra weed growth.

Manures and Fertilizers in Broccoli Farming

This vegetable crop responds very well to the application of manures and fertilizers. In fact, it requires well fertile soil in order to get optimum production. So, about 10 tonnes of Well-decomposed farmyard manure should be applied at the time of land preparation per unit hectare land. One can also apply it about 3 to 4 weeks before the seedling transplantation.

Also, at the time of planting seedlings on the main field, about 120 kg of Nitrogen, 80 kg of Phosphorous, and 80 kg of Pottasium should be applied to this crop. The nitrogen should be given in different split doses.

  • The half dose should be given at the time of seedling transplantation.
  • The 2nd dose, about 1/4 should be given after about 30 to 35 days of planting.
  • The remaining 1/4 should be given after about 45 days of planting.

Pests and Diseases in Broccoli Farming

In commercial farming of broccoli, it is very important to control pests and diseases in order to ensure high-quality production. So, check the list of all diseases, pests, and insect that are commonly observed in the broccoli production.

Broccoli Diseases

  • Alternaria leaf spot Alternaria brassicae
  • Black rot Xanthomonas campestris
  • Clubroot Plasmodiophora brassicae
  • Powdery mildew Erysiphe cruciferarum
  • Sclerotinia stem rot (White mold) Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
  • White rust Albugo candida
  • Blackleg Phoma lingam
  • Downy mildew Hyaloperonospora parasitica
  • Wirestem (Damping-off) Rhizoctonia solani
  • Ring spot Mycosphaerella brassicicola

Broccoli Pests & Insects

  • Diamondback moth Plutella xylostella
  • Flea beetle (Crucifer flea beetle) Phyllotreta Cruciferae
  • Large cabbage white (Cabbageworm) Pieres Rapae
  • Thrips (Western flower thrips, Onion thrips, etc.) Frankliniella Occidentalis
    Thrips tabaci
  • Root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp.

Harvesting in Broccoli Farming

In a very short time period, around 80 to 90 days from the planting on the main field, broccoli attain their maturity. However, the maturity age varies depending on the cultivar. Quality broccoli heads should be harvested, when they attain their full maturity with proper size and firm. And, never wait until the clustered buds begin to open.

Cutting off the broccoli heads along with 25 cm of the edible stem portion should be carried out manually with local workers with good supervision in order to maintain the quality of vegetable. For harvesting, make use of a sharp knife in order to cut the head stem, little above from the below head. Most of the cultivar has side-shoots which allow other heads to develop, even after the main head being harvested. This also helps in getting production at different interval of time.

To get good quality of heads, the best time of harvesting is the early morning. And, then after, packing of heads should be done as soon as possible after cutting from the plants.

Yield in Broccoli Farming

The yield of this crop depends on numbers of factors including variety, soil type, climate and other garden management skills, practiced during the cultivation.

However, on an average, one can easily obtain 200 to 250 quintals per unit hectare land, depending upon the variety.