Cauliflower Farming (Ghobi) | Guide & Information

Cauliflower Farming Details

Little about Cauliflower

After Potatoes and onions, Cauliflower is the most consumed vegetable throughout the globe on the daily basis. In general, it is also known as Ghobi, Gobi, etc in India. It is the most important commercial vegetable crop that has always demand in the market throughout the year. And, one can easily good income from it with little care and initial investment. So, it is a better idea to grow Cauliflower vegetables instead of going for any other vegetable farming.

Basically, it is a cruciferous edible flower. The edible part of the cauliflower is known as ‘Curd’ surrounded by few leaves narrower than that of cabbage. The surrounding of the curd is ribbed and coarse green leaves which protect it from the sunlight for preventing it from the development of chlorophyll in it. And, the cauliflower flower is attached to a central stalk.

cauliflower farming

It is mainly grown from its seeds. The white portion of this vegetable flower is used for the culinary purpose in the kitchen. Its stalk, surrounding thick, and its green leaves are used in the vegetable broth. They can be also used as a livestock fodder to feed the milking dairy animals or to goat, sheep, etc.

The Scientific name of Cauliflower is “Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L”. And, it belongs to the family “Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)”. And often overshadowed by its own green cousin named broccoli.

They can be grown as two seasonal crops. They can be grown as an Early season type crop as well as Late seasonal crop. However, late seasonal cauliflowers are grown for a longer time period as compared to the Early seasonal crop type.

These wonderful vegetable flowers, cauliflowers can be also grown in the greenhouse and also in the poly houses.

Why is it most consumed by people throughout the world?

It is proven that regular consumptions of this vegetable flower can reduce the risk of certain cancer up to some extent. It is also beneficial for the pregnant women and also aids in weight loss and weight management. Beside this, it also promotes the healthy immune system via lowering the blood cholesterol levels and detoxifies the body system. It is also full of Calcium and Vitamin K content besides being the rich in all essentially required minerals and vitamins.

Local Names of Cauliflower Throughout the World (In Different Languages)

Cauliflower (English), 甘蓝 (Chinese), Phool gobhi (Hindi), Bloemkool (Dutch), Phool/Gobi  (Urdu), Coliflor ( Catalan), карфиол (Macedonian), цэцэгт байцаа (Mongolian), cvjetača / Karfiol (Bosnian), Blumenkohl (German), Blomkool (Afrikaans), Kalafior (Polish), càl-Colaig (Scottish), dòk gà-làm (Thai),  lulelakër (Albanian), Koliplor (Cebuano), काउली/Kauli (Nepali), Kubis Bunga (Malay), Κουνουπίδι(Greek), 花椰菜 (Taiwanese), huā cài (Mandarin),  꽃양배추(Korean), a couve-flor (Portuguese), Gulkaram (Uzbek), Cavolfiore (Italian), súp lơ or bông cải (Vietnamese), Lillkapsas(Estonian), Cóilis (Irish), Pastarda (Maltese), карфиол (Serbian), gàw-bì-pán (Burmese), Ziedkāposts (Latvian), цветно зеле (Bulgarian), conopidă (Romanian), القرنبيط (Arabic), Kuliplor (Filipino), Blomkål (Norwegian), Chou Fleur (French),  මල්ගෝවා (Sinhalese), korifurawā (Japanese), ផ្កាខាត់ណា (Cambodian), Karnabahar (Turkish), капуста (Russian),  Květák (Czech),  Karfiol (Hungarian), blomkål (Swedish), Gol Kalam (Persian), Ukholifulawa (Zulu), Qvavilovani Kombosto (Georgian), cvetača (Slovenian), blomkål (Danish), etc

Cauliflower Varieties (Cauliflower Cultivar)

There are numbers of improved varieties of Cauliflower, developed for growing in different climate conditions in different geological regions. So, it is a better idea to learn the best suitable cultivar of cauliflower vegetables and grow the best one to obtain high yield as the production of vegetable.

cauliflower varieties

White Cauliflower Varieties

The curd, the edible part of the vegetable flower or the head of flower buds is white of such kind of varieties. It grows and enlarged and develops into a large white curd, which should be harvested before it starts to open.

cauliflower farming in India

Actually, cauliflower curd is pure white, appearing as the single growth without the development of side shoots. And in the market, numbers of white varieties are easily available in the market throughout the world. The flower vegetable includes a “White Cloud,”. In fact, it is especially tolerant of the early spring or of the fall frosts, and “Early White Hybrid,” and are known for attaining quick maturity.

Orange Cauliflower Varieties

In additions to the common cultivar, white cauliflower, there is also great market demand for the orange cauliflowers.

Like the white cultivar, such types of varieties are specially grown to obtain “Cheddar” develop bright orange curds. In fact, these plants are made so that they produce increased amounts of the orange pigment beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A.

The “Cheddar” cultivar has the similar cultural requirements as to those of white cauliflower varieties. Although, is curds tends to hold especially well on the plant without producing flowers at harvest time by allowing to stagger the harvest rather than picking all of the curds at a single time. When cooked, the curds of such kind of cauliflower variety develops into a brighter, deeper orange color.

Other Varieties

There are many other varieties of cauliflower other than the white and orange cultivar. Such as “Graffiti” and “Purple Head” variety produce striking violet-purple heads or curds. And, the curs are tender having a very mild flavor, best suitable for cooking as well as colorful accents in the salad. “Graffiti”, when cooked, curds retain their original purple color, while those from the “Purple Head” turn into green color.

Cauliflower romanesco, also known as Roman cauliflower, is another such type unusual variety of this flower vegetables. Its curds are a lime green in color, with several pointed pinnacles at the head surface. These curds heads tend to be little smaller than the standard cauliflower curds. Plants are less vigorous than remaining other varieties. It produces heads or curds with a mild, nutty taste reminiscent of broccoli.

The following is the list of top famous hybrid cultivars of Cauliflower, which are popular throughout the globe for their high yielding capacity.

  • Flame Star (F1) Cauliflower Seed
  • Mardi Organic (F1) Cauliflower
  • Graffiti (F1) Cauliflower Seed
  • Snow Crown (F1) Cauliflower Seed
  • Bishop (F1) Cauliflower Seed
  • Amazing Cauliflower Seed
  • Denali (F1) Cauliflower Seed
  • Vitaverde (F1) Cauliflower Seed
  • Veronica Organic (F1) Cauliflower Seed
  • Skywalker Organic (F1) Cauliflower Seed
  • Janvel Organic (F1) Cauliflower
  • Cheddar (F1) Cauliflower Seed
  • Veronica (F1) Cauliflower Seed
  • Punto Verde AKA 26-701 (F1) Cauliflower 

Where Do Cauliflowers Grow

To obtain optimum yield as productions with excellent quality of vegetables, it is essential to growing the seedlings on suitable climate conditions in preferred soil requirements. Climate conditions and soil requirement for cauliflower varies from cultivar to cultivar.

cauliflower farming in green hourse

Climate Conditions for Cauliflower Farming

Depending on the variety of cauliflower, the climate requirements keep changes for the optimum curds production. However, Cauliflower vegetables grow well in a cool and moist cool climate conditions. They are able to sustain to very low temperatures and also for hot climatic conditions. But, do not that extremely dry conditions and low humidity climate conditions are not suitable for Cauliflower farming.

A temp. ranging from 12 °C to 22 °C as the optimum temperature is excellent for the healthy seed germination in Cauliflower cultivation. And, high temperatures during the whole growing period lead to poor quality of curds or heads. Whereas low temp may lead to delay in the maturity period and also in the undersized curd.

Soil Requirement for Cauliflower Farming

Cauliflower can grow over a wide variety of soil. However, a soil, rich in humous or organic matter content with good water holding capacity and a good water drainage is best suitable for growing cauliflowers.

Sandy and loamy soils are advised for the early crops. Whereas for late crops, loam soils and clay soils are recommended. They also thrive their best in a soil having pH ranging from 6.0 to 7.0

For commercial cauliflower cultivation, going for a soil test before growing seeds is a good idea. Do not that this vegetables are very sensitive to the higher acidic value, cultivation on soil having less than 5.5 pH value should be avoided. It should be corrected by applying 5 to 10 quintal per hectare for a successful crop. Whereas a soil pH value more than 7.5 may lead to boron deficiency.

How to Grow Cauliflowers Vegetables

cauliflower farm

Land Preparation for Cauliflower Farming

To obtain higher yield, proper field preparations should be done very well. So, for the field preparations, deep plowing about 20 cm depth should be given by local tractor or a cultivator.

And, also try to make sure to have about 2 to 3 cross – harrowing. With 2 planking to make the surface smooth. Do not forget to bring the soil into fine tilth stage for better yield.

Organic manures such as Farm Yard Manure should be supplemented at the time of field preparation to correct all kinds of deficiency.

Propagation in Cauliflower Farming

Generally, propagation in cauliflower cultivation is mainly done through seeds.

Try to buy high yielding seeds from well known and genuine source or seed seller.

Seed Rate in Cauliflower Farming

The seed rate in this vegetable farming depends on variety as well as the season of growing. However, for growing as early crop, about 700 gm to 800 gm seeds per hectare are good enough. Whereas for the late crop, about 500 gm per hectare seeds are good enough to healthy seed rate.

Planting in Cauliflower Farming

Seeds should be sown on nursery beds. Seed should be transplanted before 4 weeks of planting seedlings on the main field.

For commercial cultivation, furrow and ridges type layout.

Spacing in Cauliflower Farming

A good spacing in cauliflower farming leads to higher vegetable curd production. However,

  • For an early crop, the spacing should be 45 cm X 45 cm. Whereas
  • For a late crop, 60 cm X 60 cm plant spacing should be is maintained.

Sowing Time in Cauliflower Farming

Prepared nursery bed seedlings should be transplanted in suitable growing season. However,

  • For early crop cultivation, prepared nursery beds should be transplanted from July to August. Whereas,
  • For late crop cultivation, prepared nursery beds should be transplanted from Sept to October.

Irrigation in Cauliflower Farming

Watering is essential for the healthy growth of curds. So, make sure of proper irrigation facility before plantation.

Cauliflower is a shallow-rooted vegetable crop, & its roots are confined to 45 to 55 cm soil depth, that is why requires more water at the crucial stage. So, drip irrigation is the best suitable way of irrigation to obtain uniform head size with high-quality produce. And, there are many advantages of drip irrigation over the traditional watering system. Frequent watering is needed in hot and dry climatic conditions.

irrigation in cauliflower farming

For watering in early cauliflower crop, irrigation should be followed at an interval of 4 to 7 days. Whereas for watering in late cauliflower crop, irrigation should be followed at an interval of 10 to 14 days. A good moisture content at the time of head formation is essentially required for healthy curds development.

Manures & Fertilizers in Cauliflower Farming

Application of manure and fertilizers at a proper time will result in excellent yields for this vegetable crop. On an average, 20 to 30 tonnes of well-decomposed farmyard manure should be applied at the time of land preparation to increase soil fertility.

Whereas 60 kg of Nitrogen, 40 kg of Potash along with 80 kg of Phosphorous should be applied per unit hectare land before four weeks of transplanting of seedlings in the main field.

For commercial cultivation, fertigation of nitrogen with the help of drip irrigation system in about 6 different doses results in better and quality yield.

However, try to give manures and fertilizer at a higher dose, if your soil posses less soil fertility to increase the soil fertility and productivity.

Pests and Diseases in Cauliflower Cultivation

In any vegetable crop, it is very important to control pest and disease at the proper time to avoid the loss in productions. Since the presence of any of pests and diseases in this vegetable crop may lead to lower down the yield as well as quality.

cauliflower farm

Pests in Cauliflower Vegetables

Caterpillars, Cutworms, Cabbage fly, Aphids, Flea beetles, Thrips, Slugs, Tarnished plant bugs, and Nematodes are common pests that are observed in commercial Cauliflower Cultivation.

Diseases in Cauliflower Vegetables

Clubroot, Downey mildew, Grey leaf spot & black leaf spot, Rhizoctonia, Black rot (Bacterial diseases), Blackleg, and fungal diseases (Damping-off) are some common diseases that are found in this vegetable farming.

Control Measures

  • Crop rotation is the best way to get rid of pests and diseases.
  • Always select seeds having high pests and diseases resistance.
  • Avoid overwatering.
  • For more details, try to contact with one of the nearest horticulture department. As they are the best source of information.

Harvesting of Cauliflower

Cauliflower gets ready for harvesting when their heads or curds attain proper maturity age. And, their maturity age can be determined by the size of heads, just before they begin to discolor.

Harvesting should be done with the help of sharp sickle. Make sure of the heads are compact and the plant should be cut down, below its head in such a way that the stub has left the head from damage during transportation.

cauliflower cultivation

Try to harvest three to six time, so that you can get higher production. Harvesting should be done, only when the curds attain their suitable market size or fully developed.

Harvesting should be done in morning or at evening time. And, collected curds should be graded on the basis of size before sending them to the market. Store them at a cool place to maintain the quality and quantity of vegetables.

Yield in Cauliflower Farming

When it comes to yield, there are many factors, which are responsible for deciding the yield of Cauliflower vegetable farming. The factors include the selection of cultivar or variety, soil type, and fertility, the way of irrigation and several other farm management skills.

cauliflower farming in India

However, on an average, in commercial cultivation, one can easily obtain a yield of about 25 to 35 tonnes of vegetable per hectare in early season crop. Whereas as late crop, the yield figure rises up to 45 to 50 tonnes of vegetable per unit hectare land.

Cassava Farming Cultivation ,Planting Method & Its Spacing

Cassava Farming – Guide & Tips and Profit

Introduction

Cassava, one type of starchy tuberous bulb, a perennial tree grows in tropical and subtropical areas which are consumed by the people as a food. Basically, cassava farming is mainly done in South America and surrounding tropical countries. Cassava farming can be done with potato farming, rice farming, and maize farming.

Cassava farming is mainly done to produce food items, solvents, alcohol, glucose, animal feed, energy, fertilizers, and some extra by-products. Nigeria tops the list of cassava production list, all over the world and Thailand tops the list of cassava production in the Asian continent.

Basically, they have originated from South Africa and the scientific name of cassava is Manihot esculenta.

when to plant cassava

Mainly, from cassava plant, leaves and tubers are the important part, which is used most by the people for cooking or in other forms. Roots of this commercial crops are mainly consumed because of these are an excellent source of starch along with vitamin ‘C’, calcium, phosphorus, etc. A good combination of all these nutrients have lots of health benefits. Roots are about 1 mm thick in size and have brown color outside. However, the commercial cassava plants have larger roots having a bigger diameter and larger length.

Commercial cassava farming can create a huge profit if a suitable variety of cassava is cultivated with good farm management skills. So, let’s learn how to how to grow cassava commercially? in the following article.

Health Benefits of Cassava

cassava health benefits

The following is the list of some of the health benefits of cassava.

Other Names of Cassava

कसावा, Sakarkand (India, Hindi), ات کٹ (Urdu), 木薯 (Chinese),  Tarul (Nepali), Cassave (Dutch), Maniok (German), Moxog (Somali), كاسافا (Arabic), 樹薯 (Taiwanese), Kamoteng Kahoy (Cebuano), 카사바  (Korean), มันสำปะหลัง (Thai), Maniok jadalny (Polish), маниока (Macedonian), Маниока (Bulgarian), тропска биљка(Serbian), Kamoteng kahoy (Filipino), Mandi’o (Estonian), Maniok (Bosnian), Casabhaigh (Irish), Manyok or Mandioko (Turkish), Mandioca (Portuguese), Yuca (Spanish), Sắn(Vietnamese), Manihot esculenta (Italian), مانیوک (Persian), Маниок (Russian), Manioka (Latvian), キャッサバ (Japanese),  Maniok (Norwegian),Manyokka (Sinhalese), Manioc (French), Tapioca (Czech), Maniok (Slovak), 木薯 (Cantonese), Maniok (Swedish), Ubi kayu (Malay), Kassava (Danish), Mogo (Gujarati).

How to Start Commercial Cassava Farming?

how to plant cassava

Select a Suitable Cassava Variety

There are numbers of an improved variety of cassava for growing cassava commercially. Bitter and Sweet are two main kinds of cassava, from which the sweet variety is cultivated most because of it is capable of producing more roots and leaves than other varieties.

In the market, for commercial cassava cultivation, there are many kinds of varieties are available according to each specific the region. However, Katabang, Brasil, Golden Yellow, and Macan are some common varieties, which are capable of producing more yield.

Agroclimate Condition for Growing Cassava Commercially

Basically, cassava plant is tropical and short day plant which requires warmer atmosphere along with humid climate. In commercial cassava farming, the atmosphere temp. plays a vital role in the production.

This crop is very prone to the frost condition so try to grow cassava in a frost free area in a warmer region with moderate humid conditions. For growing commercially, a temp. ranging between 23 °C to 33 °C is considered as the ideal one for producing maximum.

Also, cassava can also grow well with moderate water availability. It is possible to cultivate cassava in a region having an annual rainfall about 500 mm to 35000 mm. Since farming this crop with good availability of water is helpful in obtaining higher production.

Soil Requirement for Cassava Farming

This crop can be cultivated, almost in all kinds of soils. However, a deep and sandy, loamy soil is considered as the best suitable for producing optimum through growing cassava. Note that, in the organic-rich soil, tuber growth is less than the vegetative growth. So, grow this crop in a soil having good organic content with proper drainage to obtain a higher yield from it.

Also, this crop produces the most in acidic soil. So, control your soil pH. This can be done by adding about 50 kg of lime per hectare. They can grow best in soil having ph, ranging between 5.5 to 6.5.

Land Preparation for Planting Cassava

Land preparation in growing cassava plays an important role in yield. Your land should be in fine tilth form. This can be done by giving two or three normal plowing. The weed from the previous crop should be removed from the field. The friable soil is more helpful in producing more.

However, go for at least one soil test before starting cassava farming because they do not grow well in neutral soil. They thrive their best in saline soils. So, add about 50 kg of lime per hectare to bring your soil pH in between 5.5 to 6.5.

How to Start Cassava Plantation?

how to grow cassava

How to Plant Cassava?

Cassava is mainly cultivated with the help of stem cutting. However, it is also possible to propagate them with the help of tubers and stems.

For commercial cassava plantation, learn the suitable cassava planting methods.

Planting Cassava

This crop can be cultivated throughout the whole year but it is essential to keep your soil moisten for about half a year after plantation on the field. According to cassava planting methods, take care in the plantation. Never plant an immature stem.

Plant a stem having more than 30 cm size and should be cut from a year old mature plant. Also, 4 to 7 nodes on the grafted stem are essential for setting well.

Plant your cut stem in the previously prepare did in the morning or evening in the cooler weather.

Cassava Planting Methods.

There are three methods of the plantation in commercial cassava farming. These three methods are listed below:

Vertical Plantation

This method of plantation should opt for growing cassava in the monsoon to avoid the constant wetting of the rot.

Horizontal Plantation

To maintaining the moisture content on your farm, this planting method should be opted for growing in summer or hotter days.

Slanting Plantation

If you are thinking to grow this crop in between summer and monsoon season, then go for this method of the plantation.

Note: In every method of the plantation, the stems should be planted by keeping the cuttings about the ¾ inside of the field and the remaining one or ¼ portion should be incorporated into topsoil.

Cassava Plant | Spacing

The cuttings are planted in the prepared dig by keeping row distance about 1 meter. Plant them at a distance one meter apart.

Irrigation in Cassava Farming

It is essential to provide water in sufficient amount to maintain the moisture content in your soil for the first month of the plantation so that grafted cuts set a well on the field and also to grow healthy tubers.

watering to cassava plant

Frequent irrigations are needed in the conditions of drought. However, a 25 % moisture content in your field may help you in producing doubles the numbers of grown tubers.

Application of Manure and Fertilizers in Cassava Farming

Timely application of suitable manure and fertilizer in your cultivation can give your higher production.

For improved variety, it is a good idea to add farmyard manure, more than 20 tonnes per hectare along with proper chemical fertilizers. Also, add about 50 kg of Nitrogen, 50 kg of Phosphorus and 50 kg of Potash at time of land preparation per hectare land.

Also, the same dose of N:P:K should be applied at after about two months of planting cuts or stems on the field.

Cassava | Pests, and Diseases

cassava pest & diseases

Cassava Pests

The following is the list of common pests and insects, observed in the cassava production:

  • Locusts,
  • Beetles, 
  • Aaphids, and
  • Aants

However, wild pigs, goats, sheep’s, and rates are also harmful to your crop.

For controlling all these, try to keep away all these mentioned.

Cassava Diseases

The followings are the main disease, that is observed in the commercial production of Cassava.

  • Root rot, 
  • Anthracnose, 
  • Mosaic disease,
  • Bacterial blight, etc

For controlling measure, learn the symptoms of all these mentioned diseases and operate a suitable treatment as sooner as they observed.

Harvesting Cassava

This crop becomes ready for harvesting in about 12 months of the plantation on the main field whereas short duration variety takes about 6 to 8 months. However, harvesting at the right time helps in obtaining the best quality of tubers in a higher amount.

This commercial crop is mainly harvested by hand, by lifting the base of the stem and then pulling it outs. Then they should be removed from the field though hand. Removed the upper portion of plants and stems before harvesting it.

harvesting cassava yield

Take care while harvesting roots. While harvesting, your roots should be not be damaged in any way.

Yield in Cassava Farming

The yield of this commercial crop depends on numbers of key factors such as theagro-climaticc condition, type of soil, the cultivar or variety is chosen for its cultivation along with good farm management skills.

However, it is possible to harvest about more than 40 tonnes of roots with good farm management skills through growing high yielding hybrid and for short-term variety, you can harvest roots, about more than 30 tonnes from a hectare land.