Did agricultural reforms in egypt affect food security

Due to the country’s economic development, the agricultural sector is in relative decline as a share of GDP. Moreover, investment in agriculture is fairly sluggish. Yet the sector still plays a decisive role in food security in Egypt, a country where demographic growth is strong and households are highly sensitive to food prices.

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What is the importance of Agriculture in Egypt?

Agriculture is a major component of the Egyptian economy, contributing up to 14.5 percent of GDP and 28 percent of all jobs. Agriculture employs almost 45 percent of all women in the workforce. USAID’s program is focused on Upper Egypt, where over 55 percent of employment is agriculture-related.

Why is Egypt’s food security so fragile?

The fragile state of Egypt’s food security stems from the agricultural sector’s inability to produce enough cereal grains, especially wheat, and oilseeds to meet even half of the country’s domestic demand.

What are the biggest challenges facing Egypt’s agriculture?

The agriculture sector in Egypt is dominated by small farms which use traditional practices that do not comply with internationally recognized standards. For example, farmers tend to overuse and misuse agricultural chemicals and use outdated technologies and tools for land preparation, irrigation, and harvesting.

What is feed the future for Egyptian farmers?

Under the U.S. Government’s global hunger and food security initiative, Feed the Future, Egyptian farmers and food processors are establishing connections to domestic and international markets, gaining access to finance, and increasing their adherence to food and safety practices.


Does agriculture increase food security?

Growth in the agriculture sector — from farm to fork — has been shown to be at least twice as effective in reducing poverty as growth in other sectors. Investing in these smallholder farmers—many of whom are women—and the food systems that nourish them is more important than ever.


What was the impact of agriculture in ancient Egypt?

Egyptians relied on agriculture for more than just the production of food. They were creative in their use of plants, using them for medicine, as part of their religious practices, and in the production of clothing.


How is agriculture linked to food security?

Agricultural development is critically important to improving food security and nutrition. Its roles include: increasing the quantity and diversity of food; driving economic transformation; and providing the primary source of income for many of the world’s poorest people.


Does Egypt have food security?

According to the 2019 Global Hunger Index, Egypt suffers from a moderate level of hunger, ranking 61 of 117 countries, compared to 61 of 119 countries in 2018. Food affordability, quality and safety remain challenges as Egypt continues to rely on global markets for more than half of its staples.


How did they grow food in ancient Egypt?

Farmers planted fruit trees and vines along paths, to give shade as well as fruit. Where did the farmers grow their crops? The Egyptians grew their crops along the banks of the River Nile on the rich black soil, or kemet which was left behind after the yearly floods. The fertile soil was ideal to grow healthy crops.


How did ancient Egypt store food?

There were several ways of preserving meats available to the ancient Egyptians – drying, salting (dry and wet), smoking, a combination of any of these methods, pemmicaning, or using fat, beer, or honey curing.


What are the factors affecting food security?

Multiple factors are responsible for food insecurity worldwide, including population growth, climate change, increasing cost of food, unemployment, poverty, and loss of biodiversity (10).


How does sustainable agriculture affect food security?

Sustainable agriculture and food systems such as organic agriculture and agro-ecology improve food security, eradicate hunger and are economically viable, while conserving land, water, plant and animal genetic resources, biodiversity and ecosystems and enhancing resilience to climate change and natural disasters.


What are the causes of food security?

Some of the causes of food insecurity include:Poverty, unemployment, or low income.Lack of affordable housing.Chronic health conditions or lack of access to healthcare.Systemic racism and racial discrimination.


Why is Egypt food insecure?

The fragile state of Egypt’s food security stems from the agricultural sector’s inability to produce enough cereal grains, especially wheat, and oilseeds to meet even half of the country’s domestic demand.


What is the importance of agriculture in Egypt?

Agriculture is a major component of the Egyptian economy, contributing 11.3 percent of the country’s gross domestic product. The agricultural sector accounts for 28 percent of all jobs, and over 55 percent of employment in Upper Egypt is agriculture-related.


Is Egypt good for agriculture?

Egypt’s agricultural sector remains one of the most productive in the world, despite the small area of arable land and irregular and insufficient water supplies. Farmers do not have to pay for water used in irrigation.


Abstract

Egypt has been famous for its productive and prominent agriculture for many centuries. For the past two decades, its agricultural sector has faced innumerable constraints and issues, lowering its yields and limiting economic returns.


Notes

The authors are extremely grateful and express their gratitude to the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences for extending us all the possible help and sincere cooperation toward the completion of this piece of work and research.


About this chapter

Baig M.B., Straquadine G.S., Qureshi A.M., Hajiyev A., Abou Hadid A.F. (2019) Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security in Egypt: Implications for Innovations in Agricultural Extension. In: Behnassi M., Pollmann O., Gupta H. (eds) Climate Change, Food Security and Natural Resource Management. Springer, Cham.


What are the challenges of the agricultural sector?

Due to the country’s economic development, the agricultural sector is in relative decline as a share of GDP. Moreover, investment in. agriculture is fairly sluggish. Yet the sector still plays a decisive role in food security in Egypt, a country where demographic growth.


What are the fundamentals of Egypt?

fundamentals, including inflation, foreign trade and the public accounts. For Egypt, like the rest of the region, water resources are a. major issue. Yet in Egypt’s case, this issue is especially crucial given the uncertainty that looms over the waters of the Nile and.


Is Egypt’s food production vulnerable to climate variations?

Food production in Egypt is not. very vulnerable to climate variations due to the predominance of. irrigation in the production process (thanks to the use of the Nile’s. waters, and to a lesser extent, ground water). Primary farm. The agricultural sector contributes to the Egyptian economy at two.


About this book

This book gathers contributions discussing climate change in Egypt from an agricultural perspective. Written by leading experts, it presents state-of-the-art insights and the latest research developments in light of the most recent IPCC report.


Introduction

This book gathers contributions discussing climate change in Egypt from an agricultural perspective. Written by leading experts, it presents state-of-the-art insights and the latest research developments in light of the most recent IPCC report.


How did Egypt integrate into the capitalist economy?

The integration of Egypt into the international capitalist economy in the nineteenth century transformed rural social relations, the agricultural labor process, and agricultural technology. [2] Muhammad Ali introduced cotton into Egypt to increase revenue, which he needed to pursue his goal of an independent dynasty. Since cotton requires large quantities of water during the summer, when the Nile is at its nadir, large-scale cotton production necessitated the transformation of the old basin irrigation system. The basin system had been used in Egypt since the time of the pharaohs. The topography of the Nile Valley resembles the back of a leaf: the land slopes down gradually from the high land lying along the banks of the river and canals toward the desert. The high land along the banks of the river was flooded perhaps once every 15-20 years when the annual Nile flood was unusually high. The remainder of the land, comprising some 75 percent of the cultivated area in the Delta and nearly 90 percent in the Valley, was divided into basins by a system of dikes, some running perpendicular to the Nile, others parallel to it. Canals dug through the high land along the banks allowed the rising flood waters to flow into these basins. The sediment-laden water stood on the fields and soaked in after it was trapped by the dikes. Muhammad Ali requisitioned large numbers of peasants to deepen the canals in order to bring more water to the fields. These corvees, along with his military draft, provoked peasant flight from the land and even several peasant revolts. He was at the same time decentralizing his administration to cope with the problems of highly centralized bureaucracy in pre-industrial conditions. The process of peasant flight and government decentralization along with European pressure to introduce capitalist institutions, especially private property rights in land, laid the foundations for the rise of the social classes of large landlords, rich peasants (often village sheikhs), small peasant owners and a landless class.


What were the main agricultural policies of the Nasser regime?

Three aspects of agricultural investment policies under Nasser stand out: 1) the construction of the Aswan High Dam; 2) the emphasis on land reclamation; and 3) the relative neglect of drainage. Agriculture was not neglected under Nasser: the share of agricultural investment in total public capital expenditure rose from 11.6 percent in 1952-1953 to 16.8 percent in 1967-1968. [16] Some sources estimate agriculture’s share in public-sector investment as high as 25 percent in the mid-1960s, when the Aswan Dam is included. Although there was a substantial increase in the use of fertilizers (126 percent over the 1952- 67 period), pesticides, and livestock, most capital formation was in the hydraulic system (75 percent of total capital in 1967, as against 70 percent in 1950). This is hardly surprising, given that the Aswan Dam accounted for roughly one third of all capital formation during this period.


How did the Nasser regime change agriculture?

The Nasser regime continued the transformation of Egyptian agriculture by its land reform, its price policies, and its investment decisions. Agricultural production made important advances during the period 1955-1966. The land reform, while excluding the poorest peasants ( tarahil ), nevertheless reduced inequalities in landholding. It also greatly strengthened the government’s hold in the countryside. Because of its social base and ideology, the regime had an “engineering-technocratic” orientation towards all problems. [6] Such an approach to agricultural problems had serious limitations, however, especially as it was administered by the notoriously sclerotic Egyptian bureaucracy.


Why did Muhammad Ali introduce cotton to Egypt?

Muhammad Ali introduced cotton into Egypt to increase revenue, which he needed to pursue his goal of an independent dynasty. Since cotton requires large quantities of water during the summer, when the Nile is at its nadir, large-scale cotton production necessitated the transformation of the old basin irrigation system.


5.1 Introduction

This chapter provides an analytical framework within which to assess the linkages between trade reform (whether unilateral, plurilateral or multilateral) and food security. Problems arise at both ends of the link: with food security and with trade reform.


5.2 Linking individual food security to national policy

The approach developed by Sen is helpful, since it emphasises the different ways in which individuals can acquire food [63]. Each can be affected directly and indirectly by trade policy change [64].


5.3 The trade policy agenda

Whilst there is broad agreement that full, global liberalization of agriculture could be expected to have favourable aggregate effects for developing countries, there is also a consensus that the Doha Round will not fully liberalize trade. It is also not the only liberalization act in town.


5.4 Conclusion

The arguments presented in this chapter are summarized in Figure 5.1. It is based upon the flow charts in McCulloch et al. 2001 [73], designed to map the link between liberalization and poverty.

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