Did agriculture develop independently

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Agriculture has no single, simple origin. A wide variety of plants and animals have been independently domesticated at different times and in numerous places. The first agriculture appears to have developed at the closing of the last Pleistocene glacial period, or Ice Age (about 11,700 years ago).

Did agriculture evolve independently throughout the world?

Evidence suggests agriculture evolved independently throughout the world. Until now, the oldest farming evidence was found in Palestine, Syria and Turkey, dating back to 10,000 BC. However excavations conducted recently at a remote farming village of Ghogha Golan in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains in western Iran at a height of 485 meters,…

Where did agriculture begin?

Where Did Agriculture Begin? Oh Boy, It’s Complicated. The Zagros Mountain range, which lies at the border between Iran and Iraq, was home to some of the world’s earliest farmers. The Zagros Mountain range, which lies at the border between Iran and Iraq, was home to some of the world’s earliest farmers. Sometime around 12,000 years ago, our …

Did multiple groups of people start agriculture?

In other words, farming was long believed to have been started by one group of ancestral humans. But a new study suggests something different — that multiple groups of people in the Fertile Crescent started agriculture, and these groups were genetically distinct from one another.

What are the different hypotheses about the origin of Agriculture?

Origin hypotheses. Scholars have developed a number of hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an antecedent period of intensification and increasing sedentism; examples are the Natufian culture in the Levant,…

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Did agriculture develop independently around the world?

Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa. At least 11 separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin. Some of the earliest known domestications were of animals.


Where did agriculture develop independently?

Agriculture began independently in both North and South America ∼10,000 years before present (YBP), within a few thousand years of the arrival of humans in the Americas. This contrasts with the thousands of years that people were present in the old world before agriculture developed.


Why did agriculture begin independently around the world?

Overall, the climate and environment became better suited to agriculture over time. At the same time, populations were expanding in the Northeast, which likely put at least some pressure on those populations to have more reliable food sources.


Why did agriculture develop independently in different world zones?

The evidence that agriculture developed independently in these areas rests in part on their geographic separation but mainly on the fact that these areas all have different natural food sources, each of which required a distinct form of domestication.


Did agriculture develop independently in India?

Despite some stagnation during the later modern era the independent Republic of India was able to develop a comprehensive agricultural programme.


How was agriculture developed?

Agricultural communities developed approximately 10,000 years ago when humans began to domesticate plants and animals. By establishing domesticity, families and larger groups were able to build communities and transition from a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle dependent on foraging and hunting for survival.


Where was agriculture first developed?

Mehrgarh, one of the most important Neolithic (7000 BC to 3200 BC) sites in archaeology, lies on the “Kachi plain of Baluchistan, Pakistan, and is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep and goats) in South Asia.


What is agriculture development?

Agricultural development is defined as the process that creates the conditions for the fulfilment of agricultural potential. Those conditions include the accumulation of knowledge and availability of technology as well as the allocation of inputs and output.


How did agriculture spread?

The Spread of Farming Modern genetic techniques suggest that agriculture was largely spread by the slow migration of farmers themselves. It also seems clear that in some times and places, such as in northern South Asia, it was spread by the passing on of agricultural techniques to hunter-gatherers.


When was agriculture developed?

around 12,000 years agoSometime around 12,000 years ago, our hunter-gatherer ancestors began trying their hand at farming. First, they grew wild varieties of crops like peas, lentils and barley and herded wild animals like goats and wild oxen.


Why did agriculture develop in so many places at about the same time?

Why do you think the development of agriculture occurred around the same time in several different places? People were changing and when it comes to agriculture there was global warming which helped crops to grow for longer periods of time. There was no bad weather to kill the crops.


How did agriculture develop in Mesopotamia?

The regular flooding along the Tigris and the Euphrates made the land around them especially fertile and ideal for growing crops for food. That made it a prime spot for the Neolithic Revolution, also called the Agricultural Revolution, that began to take place almost 12,000 years ago.


Why did people start farming?

In the Near East, for example, it’s thought that climatic changes at the end of the last ice age brought seasonal conditions that favored annual plants like wild cereals. Elsewhere, such as in East Asia, increased pressure on natural food resources may have forced people to find homegrown solutions. But whatever the reasons for its independent origins, farming sowed the seeds for the modern age.


What was the farming revolution?

Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the ” Neolithic Revolution.”. Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements …


What mutation occurred during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe?

But at some point during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe, a mutation occurred for lactose tolerance that increased in frequency through natural selection thanks to the nourishing benefits of milk.


Where did wheat come from?

The wild progenitors of crops including wheat, barley and peas are traced to the Near East region. Cereals were grown in Syria as long as 9,000 years ago, while figs were cultivated even earlier; prehistoric seedless fruits discovered in the Jordan Valley suggest fig trees were being planted some 11,300 years ago.


When did corn cobs first appear?

While maize-like plants derived from teosinte appear to have been cultivated at least 9,000 years ago, the first directly dated corn cob dates only to around 5,500 years ago . Corn later reached North America, where cultivated sunflowers also started to bloom some 5,000 years ago.


How long ago did goats come to Europe?

Dates for the domestication of these animals range from between 13,000 to 10,000 years ago. Genetic studies show that goats and other livestock accompanied the westward spread of agriculture into Europe, helping to revolutionize Stone Age society. While the extent to which farmers themselves migrated west remains a subject of debate, …


How long does a plant live?

plant with a life cycle of no more than one year, and often much less.


When did agriculture begin?

The first agriculture appears to have developed at the closing of the last Pleistocene glacial period, or Ice Age (about 11,700 years ago).


Why do archaeologists study agricultural origins?

Because some resource management practices, such as intensively tending nondomesticated nut-bearing trees, bridge the boundary between foraging and farming, archaeologists investigating agricultural origins generally frame their work in terms of a continuum of subsistence practices.


What is plant and animal management?

Plant and animal management was and is a familiar concept within hunting and gathering cultures, but it took on new dimensions as natural selection and mutation produced phenotypes that were increasingly reliant upon people.


Which Native American peoples developed complex methods to manage diverse sets of plants and animals?

For instance, Australian Aborigines and many of the Native American peoples of western North America developed complex methods to manage diverse sets of plants and animals, often including (but not limited to) cultivation.


Does agriculture have to be a response to food scarcity?

Notably, agriculture does not appear to have developed in particularly impoverished settings; domestication does not seem to have been a response to food scarcity or deprivation. In fact, quite the opposite appears to be the case.


Considering Muhammad had several wives who were well-educated and scholarly, how did sects of Islam become so hostile to educating women?

Upon reading about the wives of Muhammad, I was taken aback by how active and well educated many of his wives appeared to be. Particularly the scholarly background of Aisha bint Abu Bakr. Given that foundation, how then did certain sects of Islam come to demonize the education of women?


In Jarhead, a marine trainee in the scout sniper program stands up during a crawling exercise and gets shot. How common were such training exercise deaths from live ammunition at the time?

I think I’m in the clear on the 20-year-rule because the movie/book Jarhead covers a period of time more than 20 years ago. Nonetheless, I know it’s based on a memoir (and I read it a time ago) but can’t remember if this particular incident is in the book, nor how accurate it would be regardless.


The Jewish Temple at Elephantine postdates the Babylonian Exile, when the Jews are thought to have transitioned to monotheism. Yet the documents found at that temple attest to polytheistic worship of YHVH and his wife, Anat-Yahu. What does this reveal about the evolution of Judaism?

It is generally thought that the Jews were at first polytheistic, worshipping a large pantheon of Canaanite gods, with YHVH as the chief god.


How do we know that “Saturn Devouring One of His Sons” by Francisco Goya is in fact depicting Saturn and his Child if the ‘Black Paintings’ were not named and only found after his death?

It’s my understanding that the paintings in the Quinta Del Sordo were never meant to be seen by anyone, were not named, and also were not found until after Goya’s death. Could the paintings not have just been the artistic vision coming from a man losing his mind? how do we know it is in fact a painting of Saturn eating his Child?


My great grandfather was in the SAS, serving in Norway in WW2. He brought back a polar bear skin coat, which according to family legend came from a U-boat captain. Is this plausible? Can anyone identify it? (Image in text)

Hi, we’re clearing out my grandmothers house at the moment, and came across this coat in the attic – my uncle mentioned that it was brought back from Norway by my great grandfather who served there in the SAS in WW2, and he said it supposedly came from a U-boat captain..


When did agriculture start?

From as early as 11,000 BCE, people began a gradual transition away from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle toward cultivating crops and raising animals for food. The shift to agriculture is believed to have occurred independently in several parts of the world, including northern China, Central America, and the Fertile Crescent, a region in the Middle East that cradled some of the earliest civilizations. 1 By 6000 BCE, most of the farm animals we are familiar with today had been domesticated. 1 By 5000 BCE, agriculture was practiced in every major continent except Australia. 2


How long has agriculture been around?

It is thought to have been practiced sporadically for the past 13,000 years, 1 and widely established for only 7,000 years. 2 In the long view of human history, this is just a flash in the pan compared to the nearly 200,000 years our ancestors spent gathering, hunting, and scavenging in the wild. During its brief history, agriculture has radically transformed human societies and fueled a global population that has grown from 4 million to 7 billion since 10,000 BCE, and is still growing. 3


How did small settlements grow into cities?

1. Agriculture produced enough food that people became free to pursue interests other than worrying about what they were going to eat that day. Those who didn’t need to be farmers took on roles as soldiers, priests, administrators, artists, and scholars.


What was the driving force behind the growth of civilizations?

For better or for worse, agriculture was a driving force behind the growth of civilizations.


When was the plow used in Egypt?

Grave chamber of an Egyptian public official, circa 1250 BCE. The plow is believed to have been used as early as 4,000 years ago in ancient Egypt. Although it brought tremendous gains in short-term productivity, it has also been a major contributor to soil erosion.


When was synthetic fertilizer invented?

First introduced in the early 1900s, synthetic fertilizers dramatically increased crop yields (though not without consequences ), and have been credited with providing the lion’s share of the world’s food over the 20 th century. 27 The use of these and other chemicals has become a hallmark of industrial agriculture.


Who warned that unchecked population growth would outpace food production, setting the stage for widespread starvation?

In 1798, economist Thomas Malthus warned that unchecked population growth would outpace food production, setting the stage for widespread starvation. 21 What has kept Malthus’ scenario at bay? Synthetic fertilizers, first introduced in the early 1900s, have been credited with feeding the lion’s share of the global population as it grew from 1.6 billion to 6 billion over the 20th century. 27


What is the origin of agriculture?

origins of agriculture, the active production of useful plants or animals in ecosystems that have been created by people. Agriculture has often been conceptualized narrowly, in terms of specific combinations of activities and organisms—wet-rice production in Asia, wheat farming in Europe, cattle


Why is agriculture a cultural phenomenon?

Because it is a cultural phenomenon, agriculture has varied considerably across time and space. Domesticated plants and animals have been (and continue to be) raised at scales ranging from the household to massive commercial operations.


What is the process of domestication?

Domesticationis a biological process in which, under human selection, organisms develop characteristics that increase their utility, as when plants provide larger seeds, fruit, or tubers than their wild progenitors. Known as cultigens, domesticated plants come from a wide range of families (groups of closely related genera that share a common ancestor; seegenus). The grass(Poaceae), bean(Fabaceae), and nightshadeor potato(Solanaceae) families have produced a disproportionately large number of cultigens because they have characteristics that are particularly amenableto domestication.


Why are domesticated animals more docile than wild animals?

Domesticated animals tend to have developed from species that are social in the wild and that, like plants, could be bred to increase the traits that are advantageous for people. Most domesticated animals are more docile than their wild counterparts, and they often produce more meat, wool, or milk as well.


What are domesticated animals?

Domesticated animals tend to have developed from species that are social in the wild and that, like plants, could be bred to increase the traits that are advantageous for people. Most domesticated animals are more docilethan their wild counterparts, and they often produce more meat, wool, or milk as well. They have been used for traction, transport, pest control, assistance, and companionship and as a form of wealth. Species with abundant domesticated varieties, or breeds, include the dog(Canis lupus familiaris), cat(Felis catus), cattle(Bosspecies), sheep(Ovisspecies), goat(Capraspecies), swine (Susspecies), horse(Equus caballus), chicken(Gallus gallus), and duckand goose(family Anatidae).


Why do grasses have cultigens?

The grass ( Poaceae ), bean ( Fabaceae ), and nightshade or potato ( Solanaceae) families have produced a disproportionately large number of cultigens because they have characteristics that are particularly amenable to domestication.


What happens to plants and animals over time?

Over time, some plants and animals have become domesticated, or dependent on these and other human interventions for their long-term propagation or survival.


Where did farming originate?

The idea that farming began in a single population came from initial archaeological discoveries in one part of the Mideast — the Southern Levant , says Melinda Zeder, an archaeologist at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, who wasn’t involved in the study.


Where was the first farm in the world?

The Zagros Mountain range, which lies at the border between Iran and Iraq, was home to some of the world’s earliest farmers. The Zagros Mountain range, which lies at the border between Iran and Iraq, was home to some of the world’s earliest farmers. Sometime around 12,000 years ago, our hunter-gatherer ancestors began trying their hand at farming.


Where did the DNA of the ancient people live?

Burger and an international team of scientists analyzed ancient DNA from the remains of four individuals who lived about 10,000 years ago on the eastern edges of the Fertile Crescent — the Zagros Mountains on the border between Iraq and Iran. They compared the DNA of these individuals with that of skeletons that were a couple of thousand years younger and had been found way on the other end of the Fertile Crescent, a region that includes modern-day Turkey.


Where did the Zagros farmers move to?

An unpublished study by a team at Harvard Medical School confirms the genetic closeness of the early Zagros farmers with South Asians, and also shows that the early farmers of the Southern Levant (modern-day Syria and Palestine) moved to Africa, taking their farming traditions south with them. Clearly, the different populations in different parts of the Middle East migrated in different directions.


Where did farmers live?

The earliest farmers lived in the Fertile Crescent, a region in the Middle East including modern-day Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Israel, Palestine, southeastern Turkey and western Iran. And scientists had long assumed these early farmers were a homogenous group that traded and intermingled, swapping farming tools and tricks — as well as their genes. In other words, farming was long believed to have been started by one group of ancestral humans.


Where did the Stone Age farmers come from?

Just last month, he published a study that found that late Stone Age farmers from the Turkey region had migrated north into Europe and introduced farming there. So understandably, he had expected to be able to trace European agriculture all the way back to the eastern Fertile Crescent. But that’s not what the DNA said.


Did farming start in the fertile crescent?

In other words, farming was long believed to have been started by one group of ancestral humans. But a new study suggests something different — that multiple groups of people in the Fertile Crescent started agriculture, and these groups were genetically distinct from one another.


How long has agriculture been around?

Obviously not all groups switched to agriculture at all, but modern humans have been around for about 200,000 years, and yet between about 8,000-12,000 years ago farming first appeared in cultures as separated as Africa, India, China, and the Americas. From a layman’s perspective, there must have been some external stimulus to this because the odds of them all just happening to first make the change to agrarian societies in such a relatively small time frame is minuscule.


When did people start farming in the Northeast?

People didn’t really start farming in the Northeast until the Late Archaic, probably about 4000 BP. I’m more interested in the people who were living in the Northeast prior to the advent of agriculture, so that area isn’t really my strength. However, I know about the climate changes in general, things got progressively warmer and wetter over time, with some drier periods in between. Overall, the climate and environment became better suited to agriculture over time. At the same time, populations were expanding in the Northeast, which likely put at least some pressure on those populations to have more reliable food sources. John Hart at the NY State Museum does a lot of cool studies on the changes in settlement and subsistence after the advent of agriculture in the Northeast.


Who edited Foragers of the Terminal Pleistocene in North America?

Walker, Renee B. and Boyce N. Driskell (editors) 2007 Foragers of the Terminal Pleistocene in North America. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.


Is agriculture uniform?

In short, the rise of agriculture is not nearly as uniform as you assume. However, as /u/Mictlantecuhtli mentions, the huge shift in climate 10,000 years ago may have been an important factor.

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