Did agriculture start independently in othe reigions

Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa. At least 11 separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin. Some of the earliest known domestications were of animals.

Full
Answer

Where did agriculture begin?

Where Did Agriculture Begin? Oh Boy, It’s Complicated. The Zagros Mountain range, which lies at the border between Iran and Iraq, was home to some of the world’s earliest farmers. The Zagros Mountain range, which lies at the border between Iran and Iraq, was home to some of the world’s earliest farmers. Sometime around 12,000 years ago, our …

What are the different hypotheses about the origin of Agriculture?

Origin hypotheses. Scholars have developed a number of hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an antecedent period of intensification and increasing sedentism; examples are the Natufian culture in the Levant,…

Did multiple groups of people start agriculture?

In other words, farming was long believed to have been started by one group of ancestral humans. But a new study suggests something different — that multiple groups of people in the Fertile Crescent started agriculture, and these groups were genetically distinct from one another.

What is the history of organic agriculture?

For most of its history, agriculture has been organic, without synthetic fertilisers or pesticides, and without GMOs. With the advent of chemical agriculture, Rudolf Steiner called for farming without synthetic pesticides, and his Agriculture Course of 1924 laid the foundation for biodynamic agriculture.


Where did agriculture develop independently?

Agriculture began independently in both North and South America ∼10,000 years before present (YBP), within a few thousand years of the arrival of humans in the Americas. This contrasts with the thousands of years that people were present in the old world before agriculture developed.


Did agriculture develop independently around the world?

Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa. At least 11 separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin. Some of the earliest known domestications were of animals.


Did religion or agriculture develop first?

Systematic domestication of pigs, cattle and sheep also took place. In other words, agriculture and animal husbandry followed religion. First, came religion and then came economic, political and agricultural activities.


How was religion related to agriculture?

Throughout the region, the traditional farmers who see farming as a religious act see the crops from their farmlands not as mere material for food but as blessings accruing from God. By performing the traditional religious ceremonies, the ritual priests made a spiritual investment into farming.


Why did agriculture begin independently around the world about the same time?

Overall, the climate and environment became better suited to agriculture over time. At the same time, populations were expanding in the Northeast, which likely put at least some pressure on those populations to have more reliable food sources.


When did agriculture start in history?

approximately 10,000 years agoAgricultural communities developed approximately 10,000 years ago when humans began to domesticate plants and animals. By establishing domesticity, families and larger groups were able to build communities and transition from a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle dependent on foraging and hunting for survival.


How was agriculture started?

The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago.


What was the first religious effect of the Agricultural Revolution?

The first religious effect of the Agricultural Revolution was to turn plants and animals from equal members of a spiritual round table into property.


When did the Agricultural Revolution start?

about 12,000 years agoThe Neolithic Revolution—also referred to as the Agricultural Revolution—is thought to have begun about 12,000 years ago. It coincided with the end of the last ice age and the beginning of the current geological epoch, the Holocene.


How does culture affect agriculture?

Farmers’ attitudes and desires are influenced by their society’s culture. If it is customary in a certain community for farmers to scatter seed and plough it into the soil, people will grow up to believe that that is the only correct way of planting.


When did the agricultural revolution start and end?

The Agricultural Revolution: What is it? The Agricultural Revolution, from 1750 on to 1850, can best be explained as a massive success in the development of European populations. In pre-revolution England, the population was basically capped by the ability of the British to provide homegrown food.


In which region agriculture is most Favourable?

Agriculture is more fertile on plain region.


When did agriculture begin?

The first agriculture appears to have developed at the closing of the last Pleistocene glacial period, or Ice Age (about 11,700 years ago).


Why do archaeologists study agricultural origins?

Because some resource management practices, such as intensively tending nondomesticated nut-bearing trees, bridge the boundary between foraging and farming, archaeologists investigating agricultural origins generally frame their work in terms of a continuum of subsistence practices.


What is plant and animal management?

Plant and animal management was and is a familiar concept within hunting and gathering cultures, but it took on new dimensions as natural selection and mutation produced phenotypes that were increasingly reliant upon people.


Which Native American peoples developed complex methods to manage diverse sets of plants and animals?

For instance, Australian Aborigines and many of the Native American peoples of western North America developed complex methods to manage diverse sets of plants and animals, often including (but not limited to) cultivation.


Where do dogs get their meat from?

When considered in terms of food management, dogs may have been initially domesticated as hunting companions, while meat and milk could be obtained more reliably from herds of sheep, goats, reindeer, or cattle than from their wild counterparts or other game animals.


Does agriculture have to be a response to food scarcity?

Notably, agriculture does not appear to have developed in particularly impoverished settings; domestication does not seem to have been a response to food scarcity or deprivation. In fact, quite the opposite appears to be the case.


Why did people start farming?

In the Near East, for example, it’s thought that climatic changes at the end of the last ice age brought seasonal conditions that favored annual plants like wild cereals. Elsewhere, such as in East Asia, increased pressure on natural food resources may have forced people to find homegrown solutions. But whatever the reasons for its independent origins, farming sowed the seeds for the modern age.


What was the farming revolution?

Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the ” Neolithic Revolution.”. Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements …


What mutation occurred during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe?

But at some point during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe, a mutation occurred for lactose tolerance that increased in frequency through natural selection thanks to the nourishing benefits of milk.


Where did wheat come from?

The wild progenitors of crops including wheat, barley and peas are traced to the Near East region. Cereals were grown in Syria as long as 9,000 years ago, while figs were cultivated even earlier; prehistoric seedless fruits discovered in the Jordan Valley suggest fig trees were being planted some 11,300 years ago.


When did corn cobs first appear?

While maize-like plants derived from teosinte appear to have been cultivated at least 9,000 years ago, the first directly dated corn cob dates only to around 5,500 years ago . Corn later reached North America, where cultivated sunflowers also started to bloom some 5,000 years ago.


How long ago did goats come to Europe?

Dates for the domestication of these animals range from between 13,000 to 10,000 years ago. Genetic studies show that goats and other livestock accompanied the westward spread of agriculture into Europe, helping to revolutionize Stone Age society. While the extent to which farmers themselves migrated west remains a subject of debate, …


When did rice and millet farming start?

The origins of rice and millet farming date to around 6,000 B.C.E.


Where did farming originate?

The idea that farming began in a single population came from initial archaeological discoveries in one part of the Mideast — the Southern Levant , says Melinda Zeder, an archaeologist at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, who wasn’t involved in the study.


When did hunter-gatherers start farming?

Sometime around 12,000 years ago, our hunter-gatherer ancestors began trying their hand at farming. First, they grew wild varieties of crops like peas, lentils and barley and herded wild animals like goats and wild oxen. Centuries later, they switched to farming full time, breeding both animals and plants, creating new varieties and breeds.


Where did the DNA of the ancient people live?

Burger and an international team of scientists analyzed ancient DNA from the remains of four individuals who lived about 10,000 years ago on the eastern edges of the Fertile Crescent — the Zagros Mountains on the border between Iraq and Iran. They compared the DNA of these individuals with that of skeletons that were a couple of thousand years younger and had been found way on the other end of the Fertile Crescent, a region that includes modern-day Turkey.


Where did the Zagros farmers move to?

An unpublished study by a team at Harvard Medical School confirms the genetic closeness of the early Zagros farmers with South Asians, and also shows that the early farmers of the Southern Levant (modern-day Syria and Palestine) moved to Africa, taking their farming traditions south with them. Clearly, the different populations in different parts of the Middle East migrated in different directions.


Where did farmers live?

The earliest farmers lived in the Fertile Crescent, a region in the Middle East including modern-day Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Israel, Palestine, southeastern Turkey and western Iran. And scientists had long assumed these early farmers were a homogenous group that traded and intermingled, swapping farming tools and tricks — as well as their genes. In other words, farming was long believed to have been started by one group of ancestral humans.


Where did the Stone Age farmers come from?

Just last month, he published a study that found that late Stone Age farmers from the Turkey region had migrated north into Europe and introduced farming there. So understandably, he had expected to be able to trace European agriculture all the way back to the eastern Fertile Crescent. But that’s not what the DNA said.


Where was the first farm in the world?

The Zagros Mountain range, which lies at the border between Iran and Iraq, was home to some of the world’s earliest farmers. The Zagros Mountain range, which lies at the border between Iran and Iraq, was home to some of the world’s earliest farmers. Sometime around 12,000 years ago, our hunter-gatherer ancestors began trying their hand at farming.


Where did agriculture originate?

We believe that it emerged independently and spread from places as varied as Mesopotamia, China, South America and sub-Saharan Africa. As we explore more, it is likely that scientists will find more places where agriculture may have emerged even earlier. The birth of agriculture is often referred to as the Neolithic Revolution since it seems to coincide with the Neolithic period—or new stone age. The Neolithic period’s name stems from the fact that stone artifacts were more smooth and refined than those of the Paleolithic period, or old stone age. Many of these tools facilitated early agriculture.


What was the first agriculture?

The first agriculture was likely cultivation of wild species of plants and basic herding of livestock. As time went on, humans became more and more sophisticated at breeding the plants and livestock that best met our needs. The corn you see in the grocery store and the pigs, cows, and sheep you see at a farm did not evolve independently in the wild. They are the product of thousands of years of human selection and breeding from original, wild forms.


What is the name of the branch of agriculture that herds animals?

Pastoralism: a branch of agriculture. A branch of agriculture—called pastoralism—began around the same time as cultivation of plants. Pastoralism is the domestication and herding of animals such as goats, sheep, and cattle.


What is the birth of agriculture called?

The birth of agriculture is often referred to as the Neolithic Revolution since it seems to coincide with the Neolithic period—or new stone age.


Why did preagricultural societies need more energy?

For many of these preagricultural societies, a good bit of their energy went into just getting more energy—in other words, food—to keep going and reproduce. There also couldn’t be too many humans living in one area since there was only so much food to be found or killed .


Why is breeding plants and animals important?

This is because breeding plants and animals has significantly increased the availability of human consumable calories per square kilometer. One way to think about it is that we replaced things that weren’t consumable by humans with things that were.


Why is the Neolithic period called the Neolithic Period?

The Neolithic period’s name stems from the fact that stone artifacts were more smooth and refined than those of the Paleolithic period, or old stone age. Many of these tools facilitated early agriculture.


When was agriculture possible?

In the drier regions, agriculture was only possible with irrigation canal systems, which are attested from the mid-1st millennium BCE, including aqueducts. The Jerwan aqueduct, the oldest known aqueduct in the world, was constructed by king Sennacherib I of Assyria between 703 and 690 BCE. Jerwan Aqueduct.


Where did agriculture originate?

The Origins of Agriculture. The birth of agriculture was a pivotal moment in human history that allowed the earliest civilizations to arise in the Fertile Crescent. Despite Mesopotamia being called the “Cradle of Civilization “, we now know that agriculture (and human civilization) also arose independently in other regions of the world.


What type of agriculture did Mesopotamia have?

Due to its varied geography, Mesopotamian agriculture was highly diverse in terms of food sources, regional crop yields, and annual rainfall or irrigation variation (agricultural production could be up to 100x higher in particularly good years). There were two types of agriculture: 1 Dry agriculture without irrigation, where people mostly cultivated cereals and relied on rainfall, which was primarily practiced in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. 2 Irrigation agriculture, which was centered in lower Mesopotamia.


How was irrigation first conducted?

Irrigation was at first conducted by siphoning water from the Tigris-Euphrates river system directly onto the fields using small canals and shadufs; crane-like water lifts that have existed in Mesopotamia since c. 3000 BCE. In the drier regions, agriculture was only possible with irrigation canal systems, which are attested from the mid-1st millennium BCE, including aqueducts. The Jerwan aqueduct, the oldest known aqueduct in the world, was constructed by king Sennacherib I of Assyria between 703 and 690 BCE.


What is the birthplace of agriculture?

The ancient Near East, and the historical regions of the Fertile Crescent and Mesopotamia in particular, are generally seen as the birthplace of agriculture. In the 4th millennium BCE, this area was more temperate than it is today, and it was blessed with fertile soil, two great rivers (the Euphrates and the Tigris), as well as hills and mountains to the north.


What were the crops that were grown in Mesopotamia?

The main types of grain that were used for agriculture were barley, wheat, millet, and emmer. Rye and oats were not yet known for agricultural use.


How was grain harvested?

Harvest required significant manpower, as there was immense time pressure on completing the harvest before winter set in. Grain was cut with a sickle, dried in shacks, and threshed by driving animals over it to “tread out” the grain. After threshing, the grain was separated from the chaff by winnowing, which was only possible in windy weather. The grain was then either stored in granaries or transported away along the waterways (sometimes even exported to other countries). In the granaries, cats and mongooses were used to protect the store from mice.


Which region started farming independently?

It would appear West Africa is another one of those regions that mysteriously started farming independently. In fact, West Africa started this whole process around the same time it had begun in the Americas, and before it had begun in many other regions of the world.


When did agriculture start in Africa?

The independent origin of African agriculture. However, farming did eventually emerge independently in West Africa in about 3000 BCE (some estimates state even a little earlier), in the fairly lush and habitable savanna on the border between present-day Nigeria and Cameroon.


How long have humans lived in Africa?

As long as humans have existed, some of them have always called Africa their home. We evolved in Africa from a long lineage. Homo erectus, Homo habilis, and Australopithecus are just a few milestones over the past 3.5 million years – many times longer than Homo sapiens have existed (approximately 200,000 to 250,000 years). Africa is the cradle of our species, and our first home. In fact, we are a very closely related family, much more than usual in nature. DNA testing tells us that a disaster 74,000 years ago, which many think was the super-eruption of Mount Toba, reduced the hu- man population to a few thousand. That was 10,000 years before the biggest human migration out of Africa. As a result, there is more genetic diversity between two different groups of chimpanzees separated by a few hundred miles than there is in the entire human species now spread across Earth. With humans having spent such a long time in Africa, and with such a “recent migration” out, why didn’t something like agriculture evolve there first?


What was the population of sub-Saharan Africa in 500 BCE?

In 500 BCE, it is estimated sub-Saharan Africa had a population of only 7 million.


Why did Africa develop agriculture?

In fact, Africa developed agriculture a little later because it was the cradle of our species. Humans evolved in Africa, alongside the many other animals there. That meant that for millions of years, these animals had evolved to cope with Homo habilis, Homo erectus, the Neanderthals, Homo sapiens, and many others in their environment. It is the same reason why tons of megafauna still exist in Africa, whereas much of it was wiped out in Australia and the Americas when humans arrived there. Animals need generations to adapt their instincts to humans. African animals had a lot of time for that adaptation so it was much more difficult for humans to domesticate a wide variety of animals, and that domestication is one of the first crucial steps for farming.


How many people lived in Africa in 500 BCE?

In 500 BCE, it is estimated sub-Saharan Africa had a population of only 7 million . This is quite low and is due to the fact that foragers need a lot of land to support themselves because they stay on the move, searching for food sources, rather than intensifying the output of a single stretch of land.


How many years before the biggest human migration out of Africa?

That was 10,000 years before the biggest human migration out of Africa. As a result, there is more genetic diversity between two different groups of chimpanzees separated by a few hundred miles than there is in the entire human species now spread across Earth.


Where did agriculture originate?

From its origins in China, agriculture moved south, eventually spreading across the Polynesian islands. In contrast, agriculture passed either slowly or not at all through the tropical and desert climates surrounding early agricultural sites in Egypt, sub-Saharan Africa, Central America, and the Andes.


When did people start farming?

People began farming at different times in different parts of the world. Around 8500 b.c. hunter-gatherers in the area of southwest Asia known as the Fertile Crescent began to cultivate wild grains and domesticate animals. One thousand years later, people in northern and southern China were growing rice and millet and raising pigs.


What were the first crops in the world?

Their first crops were emmer wheat and barley, which were high in protein and easy to domesticate compared to plants native to other parts of the world. Cultivated emmer wheat, for example, is very similar to its wild ancestor, while it took thousands of years for modern corn to evolve from its half-inch-long ancestor.


How did agriculture spread?

From its origins in China, agriculture moved south, eventually spreading across the Polynesian islands. In contrast, agriculture passed either slowly or not at all through the tropical and desert climates surrounding early agricultural sites in Egypt, sub-Saharan Africa, Central America, and the Andes. Domesticated animals did not reach South Africa until around a.d. 200, the same time corn reached the eastern United States. It was therefore the plants, animals, and farm-related technologies of the Fertile Crescent and China that had the greatest impact on future civilizations.


What were the first crops that were domesticated in the eastern United States?

The only crops domesticated in the eastern United States were squash and a few seed plants.


Why did animals evolve?

Animals also evolved in response to their new environments, some becoming larger and others smaller. The first domesticated animal was the dog, which was bred for hunting and food in several places around the world.


How did domestication affect the spread of diseases?

The domestication of animals also influenced the rise of epidemic diseases like smallpox, influenza, and measles. Using manure and human waste as fertilizer infected people with harmful bacteria. Once people started to live in close contact with animals, they were exposed to animal viruses that over time mutated into new ones causing human epidemics. When carriers of these diseases invaded unexposed populations—again, as the Spanish did in Central and South America—the result was devastating. For example, the natives of Hispaniola were entirely wiped out by germs carried by Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) and his sailors. The same process of virus mutations in farm animals is believed to occur today in southern China, where certain influenza viruses periodically shift to new forms that require new vaccines.


Who Invented Agriculture?

Who first selected wild grains and domesticated them? We know that before the Neolithic era, people sometimes gathered the seeds of wild grains and used them for food. The problem with wild varieties is that their seeds ripen at different times so that they don’t all get broadcast at once. So people (usually women) had to go through fields and shake the ripest pods, which was a time-consuming method. Some genius (probably a woman, see above) started saving seeds from the relatively rare stalks that did all pop at once, and replanted them. It worked, and agriculture was born.


How did agriculture help the Neolithic world?

Remove that limit and population can increase in a geometric progression. And it did with people when agriculture provided a reliable new source of food. But that was only the start. A fertile region could support a much larger population by farming than by hunting and gathering, but in a few generations the population would multiply and something would have to give. When the Neolithic world was still young the most obvious answer when there wasn’t enough land any more was to move on into fresh territory, and of course that happened and explains the rapid expansion of the Neolithic way of life throughout Eurasia and even into the New World. This is how biological evolution works. But in our case there was another dimension to the process, cultural evolution. The uniquely human capacity for intentional thinking enabled our forebears to adapt much more rapidly to new environments and new circumstances. And it enabled the people who stayed behind, when the young folk wandered off in search of new land, to grow and prosper as well.


Where did the Neolithic civilizations start?

The combination of naturally occurring grains, and animals that were relatively easy to domesticate, was more favorable there than anywhere else in the inhabited world. Farther east, other Neolithic settlements appeared a millennium or two later, starting in the Indus Basin and in central China. Each of these regions also harbored a combination of easily domesticated plants and animals that was almost as favorable as the first Garden of Eden in Iraq. 1 The trigger that started it all was climate change. Around 10,000 BC the weather changed dramatically for the better, so much so that we mark that period as the beginning of a new geological era, the Holocene. The planet warmed up, rainfall patterns settled down, and so did our ancestors. There’s still some debate whether the new way of life evolved independently in each of the three areas or whether it spread from the first one. History and prehistory are studded with examples of cultural diffusion. However, the archeological evidence supports the idea that the three areas developed agriculture independently. For one thing, the suite of grains and animals that were first domesticated is rather different in each of the three areas. 2 Once established, the new way of life spread rapidly. Some of the expansion involved absorption of resident hunter gatherer populations as the agriculturists took over their lands, but another common outcome was simple displacement, pushing the older populations back into less desirable turf. Our own takeover of North America from the existing Native American peoples was essentially a re-enactment of a drama that had been going on in many parts of the world for a dozen millennia. In virtually all cases, the odds were heavily tilted in favor of the agriculturalists, because there were generally a lot more of them when push came to shove.


What is cultural evolution?

Cultural evolution began earlier, with the emergence of human intelligence (or intentionality), but was developing at a more stately tempo until agriculture and the domestication of animals came along and changed almost everything.

Leave a Comment