Did china make agriculture

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Currently, China ranks first in the world in terms of the production of cereals, cotton, fruit, vegetables, meat, poultry, eggs and fishery products. Thanks to the great importance attached to opening agriculture to the outside world, China has increasingly closer links with other countries in this field.

Why was agriculture important to ancient China?

The development of ancient Chinese agricultural and water technology from 8000 BC to 1911 AD

  • Abstract. Technology developments have made significant impacts on both humans and the environment in which they live.
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  • Discussion and conclusions. …
  • Data availability. …
  • Acknowledgements. …
  • Author information. …
  • Ethics declarations. …
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What are the top five agricultural products of China?

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What was farming like in ancient China?

What was farming like in ancient China? Chinese Farming: Most farmers were very poor. They owned chickens and pigs and sometimes an ox or mule. In the North people grew crops of wheat or millet while in the South they grew rice. In the 16th century new crops such as sweet potatoes, maize and peanuts were introduced.

What are the chief agricultural products in China?

In 2018:

  • It was the 2nd largest producer of maize (257.1 million tons), second only to the USA;
  • It was the largest producer of rice (212.1 million tons);
  • It was the largest producer of wheat (131.4 million tons);
  • It was the 3rd largest producer of sugarcane (108 million tons), second only to Brazil and India;

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Did agriculture start in China?

The transition from hunting and gathering to cultivation of wild plants was initiated by semi-sedentary communities some 11,000 years ago. Among the earliest East Asian pioneering foragers were those who lived in North China who started cultivating wild millet.


Does China produce agriculture?

Although China’s agricultural output is the largest in the world, only 10% of its total land area can be cultivated. China’s arable land, which represents 10% of the total arable land in the world, supports over 20% of the world’s population.


Is China a birthplace of agriculture?

For 4,000 years China has been a nation of farmers. By the time the People’s Republic of China was established in 1949, virtually all arable land was under cultivation; irrigation and drainage systems constructed centuries earlier and intensive farming practices already produced relatively high yields.


Who Built agriculture?

Egyptians were among the first peoples to practice agriculture on a large scale, starting in the pre-dynastic period from the end of the Paleolithic into the Neolithic, between around 10,000 BC and 4000 BC. This was made possible with the development of basin irrigation.


What is China known for producing?

Today, China is the world’s largest manufacturing powerhouse: It produces nearly 50 percent of the world’s major industrial goods, including crude steel (800 percent of the U.S. level and 50 percent of global supply), cement (60 percent of the world’s production), coal (50 percent of the world’s production), vehicles ( …


How much of China is agriculture?

Agricultural land (% of land area) in China was reported at 56.08 % in 2018, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources.


Where is the origin of agriculture?

The wild progenitors of crops including wheat, barley, and peas are traced to the Near East region. Cereals were grown in Syria as long as 9,000 years ago, while figs were cultivated even earlier; prehistoric seedless fruits discovered in the Jordan Valley suggest fig trees were being planted some 11,300 years ago.


Did agriculture start in Asia?

Farming communities arose sometime before 8000 bp in China, but how much earlier is not yet known.


Does China produce its own food?

China has historically strived for self-sufficiency in domestic food production. In 1996, the government issued a white paper that established a 95 percent self-sufficiency target for grains including rice, wheat, and corn. China’s domestic production has for the most part risen to meet the country’s growing demand.


Who is the father of agriculture?

Norman Ernest Borlaug (25 March 1914 – 12 September 2009) was an American agricultural scientist, and humanitarian. He is considered by some to be the “father of modern agriculture” and the father of the green revolution.


Who are the first farmers?

Around 4,000 years ago, people in Britain started living in a new way. Instead of spending all their time hunting and gathering, they began to set up farms. The early farmers chopped down trees so they could grow crops and vegetables. They kept cattle, sheep and pigs.


Where did humans first start farming?

The Zagros Mountain range, which lies at the border between Iran and Iraq, was home to some of the world’s earliest farmers. Sometime around 12,000 years ago, our hunter-gatherer ancestors began trying their hand at farming.


What is the most important crop in China?

About 75% of China’s cultivated area is used for food crops. Rice is China’s most important crop, raised on about 25% of the cultivated area. The majority of rice is grown south of the Huai River, in the Zhu Jiang delta, and in the Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan provinces.


Why is farming so labor intensive in China?

Due to China’s status as a developing country and its severe shortage of arable land , farming in China has always been very labor-intensive. However, throughout its history, various methods have been developed or imported that enabled greater farming production and efficiency. They also utilized the seed drill to help improve on row farming.


What was the size of Beijing in 1956?

Such increases in the sizes of cities, such as the administrative district of Beijing ‘s increase from 4,822 km 2 (1,862 sq mi) in 1956 to 16,808 km 2 (6,490 sq mi) in 1958, has led to the increased adoption of peri-urban agriculture.


What were the improvements in the Tang Dynasty?

Improvements in farming machinery during this era included the moldboard plow and watermill. Later during the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), cotton planting and weaving technology were extensively adopted and improved.


How much of China’s land is arable?

China’s arable land, which represents 10% of the total arable land in the world, supports over 20% of the world’s population. Of this approximately 1.4 million square kilometers of arable land, only about 1.2% (116,580 square kilometers) permanently supports crops and 525,800 square kilometers are irrigated.


When did the government stop rationing?

In 1984, the government replaced mandatory procurement with voluntary contracts between farmers and the government. Later, in 1993, the government abolished the 40-year-old grain rationing system, leading to more than 90 percent of all annual agricultural produce to be sold at market-determined prices.


Where was rice first discovered?

Excavations at Kuahuqiao, the earliest known Neolithic site in eastern China, have documented rice cultivation 7,700 years ago. Approximately half of the plant remains belonged to domesticated japonica species, whilst the other half were wild types of rice.


Why is China important to the world?

China is a country with very limited arable land for its size , but needs to feed the largest population on earth. Therefore, the Chinese government attaches great importance to agriculture. Although considerable amounts of agricultural land get lost to new infrastructure, industries, and urban settlements every year, …


Is Brazil exporting to China?

On the contrary, imports from the European Union and South America have increased and Brazil is now by far the largest exporting country of agricultural products to China. Due to its agricultural limitations and growing consumer demand, China’s food imports will most likely further increase in the future.


What is FAS in agriculture?

FAS provides a range of information and programs to help build markets for U.S. agricultural products.


What was the priority of the Phase One Economic and Trade Agreement between the United States and the People’s Republic of China?

The resolution of these issues and expand ing China’s purchase of U.S. agricultural products were priorities in the negotiations of the Phase One Economic and Trade Agreement between the United States and the People’s Republic of China. Those issues are summarized in the USTR Fact Sheet.


What is the Agriculture Chapter of the Phase One Agreement?

The Agriculture Chapter of the Phase One Agreement addresses structural barriers to trade and supports a dramatic expansion of U.S. food, agriculture, and seafood product exports, increasing American farm and fishery income, generating more rural economic activity, and promoting job growth. In the agreement, a multitude of non-tariff barriers to U.S. agriculture and seafood products are addressed. A key outcome is China’s commitment to purchase and import on average at least $40 billion of U.S. food, agricultural, and seafood products annually for a total of at least $80 billion over the next two years. Products will cover the full range of U.S. food, agricultural, and seafood products. On top of that, China will strive to import an additional $5 billion per year over the next two years.


Is China a WTO country?

China’s agricultural imports, exports, and production have expanded greatly since acceding to the WTO in 2001. China was the third largest export market for U.S agricultural product in 2019 at $13.9 billion, down from second place only two years prior. Agricultural and food products face complex, non-transparent and ever-changing regulations in China, which much like other sectors present substantial market access barriers.


When did agriculture start in China?

The transition from hunting and gathering to cultivation of wild plants was initiated by semi-sedentary communities some 11,000 years ago .


When did the cultivation of wild plants begin?

60 George Street. The transition from hunting and gathering to cultivation of wild plants was initiated by semi-sedentary communities some 11,000 years ago. Among the earliest East Asian pioneering foragers were those who lived in North China who started cultivating wild millet. Within one or two millennia the annually cultivated millet became …


Which regions of China are plant and animal domesticates?

China, North China, and the Middle and Lower Yangtze regions, but plant and animal domesticates


What is the focus of China’s previous work?

Most previous work for China has focused on the archaeo-


What was the first cereal domesticated?

domestication of cereals—rice or millet—found in the Early


What was the main food source of the Lages?

lages. Although reliance on the cereals rice and millet was


Where is rice farming located?

Rice farming reaches to southernmost China (the. Shixia site, Guangdong), over water to Taiwan and be-. yond in the Austronesian dispersal, and northward into the. Middle and Lower Yellow River basin and possibly Korea, all.


Which was assumed to have the earliest domestication?

tion begins, was assumed to have the earliest domestication


Does subsistence still rely on domesticated plants?

subsistence still does not rely on domesticated plants. It is


What are the major crops in China?

Western China, comprising Tibet, Xinjiang, and Qinghai, has little agricultural significance except for areas of oasis farming and cattle raising. Rice, China’s most important crop, is dominant in the southern provinces, many of which yield two harvests per year. In North China wheat is of the greatest importance, while in the central provinces wheat and rice vie with each other for the top place. Millet and kaoliang (a variety of grain sorghum) are grown mainly in the Northeast and some central provinces, which—together with some northern areas—also produce considerable quantities of barley. Most of the soybean crop is derived from the North and the Northeast, and corn (maize) is grown in the centre and the North. Tea comes mainly from the hilly areas of the southeast. Cotton is grown extensively in the central provinces, but it is also found to a lesser extent in the southeast and in the North. Tobacco comes from the centre and parts of the South. Other important crops are potatoes, sugar beets, and oilseeds.


What percentage of China’s land is cultivated?

As a result of topographic and climatic features, the area suitable for cultivation is small: only about 10 percent of China’s total land area. Of this, slightly more than half is unirrigated, and the remainder is divided roughly equally between paddy fields and irrigated areas; good progress has been made in improving water conservancy. In addition, the quality of the soil in cultivated regions varies around the country, and environmental problems such as floods, drought, and erosion pose serious threats in many areas. Nevertheless, about two-thirds of the population lives in the countryside, and until the 1980s a large proportion of them made their living directly from farming. Since then many have been encouraged to leave the fields and pursue other activities, such as handicrafts, commerce, factory work, and transport; and by the mid-1980s farming had dropped to less than half of the value of rural output. Although the use of farm machinery has been increasing, for the most part the Chinese peasant depends on simple, nonmechanized farming implements.


What are the problems of mining in China?

However, several problems have also emerged regarding mineral extraction. One concern is that finds of new proven reserves have fallen short of the country’s long-term development needs. In addition, productivity has been low in a great majority of mining operations through mismanagement and the use of obsolete equipment, and the recovery ratio of commodity to ore has been low in many cases, resulting in considerable waste. The environment has been adversely affected both by the vast accumulations of waste rock and other mining debris that have been left on huge tracts of land and by the great volume of polluted wastewater produced by mining operations, which has fouled rivers and farm fields.


What are the resources of China?

China is well endowed with mineral resources , and more than three dozen minerals have proven economically important reserves. The country has rich overall energy potential, but most of it remains to be developed. In addition, the geographical distribution of energy places most of these resources far from their major industrial users. Basically, the Northeast is rich in coal and petroleum, the central part of North China has abundant coal, and the southwest has great hydroelectric potential. However, the industrialized regions around Guangzhou (Canton) and the lower Yangtze region around Shanghai have too little energy, while there is little industry located near major energy resource areas other than in the southern part of the Northeast. Thus, although energy production has expanded rapidly, it has continued to fall short of demand, and China has been purchasing increasing quantities of foreign petroleum and natural gas.


Where are the forests in China?

The principal forests are found in the Qin (Tsinling) Mountains and the central mountain ranges and in the uplands of Sichuan and Yunnan. Because they are inaccessible, the Qin forests are not worked extensively, and much of the country’s timber comes from Heilongjiang, Jilin, Sichuan, and Yunnan.


Where is millet grown?

Millet and kaoliang (a variety of grain sorghum) are grown mainly in the Northeast and some central provinces, which—together with some northern areas—also produce considerable quantities of barley. Most of the soybean crop is derived from the North and the Northeast, and corn (maize) is grown in the centre and the North.


Where does tea come from?

Tea comes mainly from the hilly areas of the southeast. Cotton is grown extensively in the central provinces, but it is also found to a lesser extent in the southeast and in the North. Tobacco comes from the centre and parts of the South. Other important crops are potatoes, sugar beets, and oilseeds.


How many agricultural technologies are there in China?

The total number of agricultural technologies in China was 1337 (Fig. 2 ). Among the five Level 2 subsystems, the number of ‘agricultural engineering’ technologies were the greatest (43%), with a focus on tools and irrigation infrastructure in Level 3 subsystems. This was followed by ‘agricultural practices’ (33%) that highly emphasised the Level 3 furrowing subsystem. Development of ‘agricultural theory’ (14%) was evenly distributed among biology, meteorology and soil science. There was relatively less attention given to technologies from the ‘agricultural protection’ (5%) and ‘agricultural crops’ (5%) subsystems; they focused on Level 3 ‘bio-physical protection’ subsystem and ‘cash crop’ subsystem, respectively.


How long has agriculture been around?

Originating between 10,000 and 8000 years ago, agriculture has been considered one of the most important stage developments in human history (Holdren and Ehrlich, 1974 ). Agriculture is the primary food source for our society (Conway, 1987 ). The development, diffusion and adaptation of agricultural technologies have modified our world more than any other human innovation (Weisdorf, 2005 ). The continued prosperity of society will have to be supported by the advancement of agricultural technology (Ray, 1998; Weisdorf, 2005 ). China, as one of the most ancient civilisations, is most integral and has the longest lasting recorded history. Agriculture dominated most of the pre-industrial history in China (Shen, 2010 ). Therefore, the historical patterns and trajectories of ancient Chinese agricultural technological development will be a suitable mirror when considering a more sustainable technological pathway in the future.


What were the main crops in the Neolithic period?

4f ). Both food crops and cash crops were actively domesticated. The main crops planted were millet and its varieties. Rice planting was discovered at approximately the same time, mainly in the southern parts of China. There were also cash crops such as beans, ramie, and melons planted during this period. During the XSZ and CQZG periods, crops for dryland farming were dominant, including varieties of millet, barley, wheat, and soy beans.


What is level 1 in agriculture?

Level 1 was referred to as ‘agriculture’ in general, with Levels 2 to 4 containing the theoretical understandings, engineering, practices, protection measures and crop varieties of the agricultural technology subsystems.


How many spatial regions were there in ancient China?

Six spatial regions were considered necessary to understand the spatial patterns of ancient Chinese agricultural technologies. As agriculture relied on rivers to develop, the regions were divided based on river basin boundaries: the Yellow River region, the Yangtze River region, the North-eastern region, the North-western region, the South-eastern region and the South-western region (Fig. 1 ).


How did technology develop in China?

This paper aims to uncover the evolutionary pattern of the ancient Chinese agricultural technology system that focused on land and water mobilisations from 8000 BC to 1911 AD. Our findings show that agricultural technology in China transitioned through an extremely slow, S-shaped pathway, increasing only ten fold in over 8000 years. The technology system was initially driven by tangible tools (40% of growth), then by technological theories and practices that contributed more than 50% of growth. Its development was spatially inclined to the Yellow River then to the Yangtze River region, where over 45% of technologies were developed. This study provides an empirical baseline for comparative studies between pre-industrial and industrial technologies. Greater understanding of the mechanisms of technology development will be required to reorientate technology development for present and future generations.


What is the classification of ancient Chinese agricultural technology?

The classification of ancient Chinese agricultural technology was developed based on the Chinese Classified Thesaurus (CCT) (China, 2010 ). The CCT was initially developed as an indexing thesaurus in 1996 and edited and digitised in 2005.


What was the importance of farming in ancient China?

Farming in Ancient China Facts. Farming was essential to life in Ancient China. Most people were farmers and very few people were noblemen and kings. During the Spring and Autumn Period (771- 476 BC) and the Warring States Period (475 -221 BC), farming became very sophisticated. Farming made life easier because people did not need to go and hunt.


What tools did Chinese farmers use?

Tools. Before the Iron Age, Chinese farmers used wooden hand ploughs. These were difficult to use and could not cut through hard soil. It was very hard work and the Chinese farmer would need to press in the plough with his foot while gripping the plough with his hand.


Why was it easier to farm after the iron plough was invented?

It became much easier to farm after the iron plough was invented. Farmers no longer needed to dig in hard with a wooden plough using their feet.


Why were ancient Chinese people so clever?

The Ancient Chinese people were very clever because they domesticated the silkworm (it was not wild anymore). The silkworm produced a fibre that was woven into silk. Chinese people were the first people to know how to use the threads produced by silkworms to weave silk.


How to grow rice?

To grow rice, you need fields flooded with water. These can either occur naturally or through man-made irrigation (water network) systems.


Why did farming make life easier?

Farming made life easier because people did not need to go and hunt.


When were tools used for growing millet?

Archaeologists have found tools that would have perhaps been used for growing millet and rice in the Palaeolithic period (2.6 million years ago!)


What is China’s growth?

Along the way, China is igniting new growth across Asia, Latin America, Africa and even the industrial West, thanks to the country’s colossal demand for raw materials, energy, trade and capital flows. China’s rapid growth has puzzled many people, including economists.


When did China become the No. 1 industrial powerhouse?

level. About 1980, China’s manufacturing started to take off, surpassing the industrial powers one by one, overtaking the U.S. in 2010 to become the No. 1 industrial powerhouse.


Why did the Revolutionaries of the educated elite believe that the monarchy’s failure to industrialize and China’?

The revolutionaries of the educated elite believed that the monarchy’s failure to industrialize and China’s overall backwardness were due to its lack of democracy, political inclusiveness and pluralism (exactly as the modern institutionalism theory has argued).


How did the British Industrial Revolution affect the world?

3 But the Industrial Revolution changed it all: Starting about 1760, the living standard in the United Kingdom began to increase dramatically, leading to an era of permanent growth in per capita income. Because of the almost magical increases in living standards and national income, among other things, almost every nation has tried to emulate the British Industrial Revolution.


What percentage of the world’s population is fully industrialized?

The reason is simple: Less than 10 percent of the world’s population is fully industrialized; if China can successfully finish its industrialization, an additional 20 percent of the world’s population will be entering modern times.


When was China the richest country in the world?

It is returning to its historical position: China had been one of the richest nations and greatest civilizations (alongside India) from at least 200 B.C. to 1800 , the dawn of the Industrial Revolution in England. ( See Figure 1 .)


Which countries have tried to emulate the British Industrial Revolution?

Unfortunately, only a few places have succeeded: Northern and Western Europe, the United States, Japan and the Asian Tigers, among others.

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Overview

For 4,000 years China has been a nation of farmers. By the time the People’s Republic of China was established in 1949, virtually all arable land was under cultivation; irrigation and drainage systems constructed centuries earlier and intensive farming practices already produced relatively high yields. But little prime virgin land was available to support population growth and economic dev…


History before 1949

Wheat likely “appeared in the lower Yellow River around 2600 Before Common Era (BCE), followed by Gansu and Xinjiang around 1900 BCE and finally occurred in the middle Yellow River and Tibet regions by 1600 BCE”.
The population doubled as new lands were settled in Fujian, Guangzhou, and Guangxi provinces, new crops were introduced, and irrigation systems were improved. The mountainous areas in so…


Since 1949

Since 1949 China’s political leaders have tried a variety of large-scale social experiments to boost agricultural production. First, a massive land reform program eliminated landlords and gave land to those who farmed it. Next, farm families were progressively organized into cooperatives, collectives, and finally people’s communes. After more than twenty-five years of experience with communes, officials abolished these institutions, which had become too bureaucratic and rigid t…


Reform of the agricultural economy in the 1980s

In the late 1980s, China remained a predominantly agricultural country. As of 1985 about 63% [percent] of the population lived in rural areas, and nearly 63 percent of the national labor force was engaged in agriculture (see Migration in China). Modern technology had spread slowly in the vast farm areas, and the availability of modern supplies was less than adequate, causing growth in agricultural output to lag behind production increases in the rest of the economy. The proporti…


Resources endowment

Arable land in China was particularly scarce; little more than 10 percent of the total land area, most of it in the eastern third of the country, can be cultivated. This compares with more than 20 percent for the continental United States, which is around the same size as China, despite having one billion fewer people. Further agricultural expansion was relatively difficult because almost no land that could be profitably cultivated remained unused and because, despite intensive cultivati…


Agricultural policies

Agricultural policy has gone through three broad phases: the 1950s, when agriculture was collectivized, ending with the Great Leap Forward (1958–60); the period from 1961 to the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, when more agricultural progress came to depend on the supply of capital and modern inputs; and the period under the post-Mao leadership, which has been characterized by greater reliance on markets, prices, and incentives to boost production and to diversify output. (…


Planning and organization

The state’s role in the mid-1980s was chiefly to plan production and manage resources. Among state institutions at the national level, the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, and Fishery was primarily responsible for coordinating agricultural programs. Other central bodies of importance in agricultural policy matters included the State Economic Commission; the State Planning Commission; the ministries of commerce, forestry, and the chemical industry; the State …


Operational methods and inputs

China’s farmers have long used techniques such as fertilization and irrigation to increase the productivity of their scarce land. Over time, many farming techniques have been modernized: chemical fertilizers have supplemented organic fertilizers, and mechanical pumps have come into use in irrigation. Government planners in the 1980s emphasized increased use of fertilizer, improved irrigation, mechanization of agriculture, and extension of improved seed varieties as lea…


Overview

China primarily produces rice, wheat, potatoes, tomato, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed, corn and soybeans.


History

The development of farming over the course of China’s history has played a key role in supporting the growth of what is now the largest population in the world.
Analysis of stone tools by Professor Liu Li and others has shown that hunter-gatherers 23,000–19,500 years ago ground wild plants with the same tools that would later be used for millet and rice.


Major agricultural products

Although China’s agricultural output is the largest in the world, only 10% of its total land area can be cultivated. China’s arable land, which represents 10% of the total arable land in the world, supports over 20% of the world’s population. Of this approximately 1.4 million square kilometers of arable land, only about 1.2% (116,580 square kilometers) permanently supports crops and 525,800 square …


Production

In its first fifty years, the People’s Republic of China greatly increased agricultural production through organizational and technological improvements.
However, since 2000 the depletion of China’s main aquifers has led to an overall decrease in grain production, turning China into a net importer. The trend of Chinese dependence on imported food is expected to accelerate as the water shortage worsens. Despite their potential, desalination pla…


Challenges

Despite rapid growth in output, the Chinese agricultural sector still faces several challenges. Farmers in several provinces, such as Shandong, Zhejiang, Anhui, Liaoning, and Xinjiang often have a hard time selling their agricultural products to customers due to a lack of information about current conditions.
Between the producing farmer in the countryside and the end-consumer in the …


International trade

China is the world’s largest importer of soybeans and other food crops, and is expected to become the top importer of farm products within the next decade. In a speech in September 2020, CCP leader Xi Jinping lamented the country’s reliance on imported seed.
While most years China’s agricultural production is sufficient to feed the count…


See also

• History of China
• History of agriculture
• Population history of China
• History of canals in China
• Lettuce production in China


Further reading

• Chai, Joseph C. H. An economic history of modern China (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011).
• Perkins, Dwight H. Agricultural development in China, 1368-1968 (1969). pmline
• The Dragon and the Elephant: Agricultural and Rural Reforms in China and India Edited by Ashok Gulati and Shenggen Fan (2007), Johns Hopkins University Press

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