Did collectivisation improve soviet agriculture

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The Soviet leadership confidently expected that the replacement of individual peasant farms by collective ones would immediately increase the food supply for the urban population, the supply of raw materials for the processing industry, and agricultural exports via state-imposed quotas on individuals working on collective farms.

At the same time, collectivisation brought substantial modernisation to traditional agriculture in the Soviet Union, and laid the basis for relatively high food production and consumption by the 1970s and 1980s.

Full
Answer

How did collectivization of agriculture affect the Soviet Union?

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union had never been happy with private agriculture and saw collectivization as the best remedy for the problem. Lenin claimed “Small-scale production gives birth to capitalism and the bourgeoisie constantly, daily, hourly, with elemental force, and in vast proportions.”

What is collectivization in the Soviet Union?

It refers to a type of collective farming system introduced by the Soviet Union government. Small pieces of farming land were taken from the farmers and were turned into huge farming camps. During Stalin’s time, this system was emphasized on a large scale and independent peasants were forcibly organized into collectivization.

Why did collectivization lead to mass starvation in the USSR?

It was not the transition to collectivization that led to mass starvation in the USSR. On the territory of the Russian Empire, which turned into the USSR, famine occurred regularly. This country is in a zone of risky farming. In addition to the climate, wars also influenced the occurrence of famine.

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What was the result of the collectivization of agriculture?

Under collectivization the peasantry were forced to give up their individual farms and join large collective farms (kolkhozy). The process was ultimately undertaken in conjunction with the campaign to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly.


What effect did collectivization have on Soviet agriculture?

Merle Fainsod estimated that, in 1952, collective farm earnings were only one-fourth of the cash income from private plots on Soviet collective farms. In many cases, the immediate effect of collectivization was the reduction of output and the cutting of the number of livestock in half.


How did collectivisation benefit the Soviet Union?

Stalin ordered the collectivisation of farming, a policy pursued intensely between 1929-33. Collectivisation meant that peasants would work together on larger, supposedly more productive farms. Almost all the crops they produced would be given to the government at low prices to feed the industrial workers.


Was collectivisation successful in Russia?

The Communists would like to say that Collectivisation was a huge success as it made Russia’s agriculture more efficient, which it did in some aspects; it succeeded in providing the resources for industrialisation to occur (however, this view has been disputed as valuable resources were diverted to agriculture such as …


What agricultural changes were introduced in Soviet Union after 1917?

Following agricultural changes were introduced in the Soviet Union after 1917 are : 1. Large estates of landlords, nobility and farmers were occupied by the government and transformed into collective farms known as kholkoz. 2. These collective farms were transferred to peasants known as kulkas.


What are the disadvantages of collective farming?

Collective farming in and of itself is not bad….some of the disadvantages of mixed farming are listed below:decreased level of production as compared to monoculture.growth rate and optimal harvest date differ.inappropriate climatic condition.animals can be hazardous if they are not properly enclosed or tethered.More items…


What was collectivization of agriculture?

There are two broad types of communal farms: agricultural cooperatives, in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities as a collective, and state farms, which are owned and directly run by a centralized government. The process by which farmland is aggregated is called collectivization.


How was agriculture in Russia modernized by means of collectivization?

Collectivisation saw the creation of ‘collective’ farms. These, called kolkhozes, would replace smallholdings held by peasants with larger farms. The idea here is to have large fields in which crops can be sown, grown and harvested using modern machinery. Farm workers would live and work together.


How did Stalin’s Five Year Plan affect industry and agriculture?

In the Soviet Union the first Five-Year Plan (1928–32), implemented by Joseph Stalin, concentrated on developing heavy industry and collectivizing agriculture, at the cost of a drastic fall in consumer goods.


Why was collectivization a failure?

Failure of collective farms to meet procurement quotas had dire consequences for their members. It meant that no matter how many labordays (the unit of accounting according to which collective farmers were paid) kolkhozniks worked, there was nothing to pay them.


How did collectivisation affect the economy?

Collectivisation also had a dramatic effect on the Soviet Union socially as well as economically. As aforementioned, collectivisation was used to move resources from the rural areas to urban areas, thus ‘sucking the agricultural economy dry’ to allow rapid industrialisation.


How was collectivisation an economic failure?

However in terms of humanity, collectivisation caused millions to die unnecessarily; it took years for grain crops to reach pre-collectivisation levels, and even when they did they now had to feed millions of workers, be used for export and trade, and feed the peasants themselves, resulting in famines and deaths of …


What was the purpose of the concept of collectivization?

With an aim of transforming agriculture so that it produced a surplus, the concept of Collectivisation was introduced. Collectivisation saw the creation of ‘collective’ farms. These, called kolkhozes, would replace smallholdings held by peasants with larger farms.


Why did Stalin want to have more farms?

Stalin wanted the Soviet Union to have more efficient farms. Agriculture needed to embrace modern technologies . Russia and the other Soviet states had historically produced less food than the country required. Using new farming methods and introducing a new system was needed to change this.


What did the Kulaks hate about Stalin?

The peasantry had several tiers of ‘class’. Some had a reasonably good lifestyle in the system that Stalin was wanting to replace. The Kulaks hated Stalin’s idea. It would deprive them of the life they were accustomed to. They would lose the benefits that they had enjoyed of being the better off farmers. On the one hand you had angry Kulaks who did not want change. On the other, Stalin who had ideological reasons for changing the workings of Agriculture and an acute need to reform the sector.


What did Stalin want from the Soviet Union?

Collectivisation of Farms under Stalin. Stalin wanted the Soviet Union to have more efficient farms. Agriculture needed to embrace modern technologies. Russia and the other Soviet states had historically produced less food than the country required. Using new farming methods and introducing a new system was needed to change this.


What happened in 1930?

This slowed down the growth of towns and caused a supply problem for the new industrial workforce. In 1930, Pravda Newspaper announced a change of policy. Collectivisation would no longer be optional. All farms would hand over their land, crops and livestock.


Why did Soviet leaders advocate a gradual transition to collective farms?

Some Soviet leaders considered collective farms a socialist form of land tenure and therefore desirable; but they advocated a gradual transition to them in order to avoid disrupting the agricultural productivity necessary to stimulate industrial growth.


What was the Soviet Union’s policy of collectivism?

Collectivization, policy adopted by the Soviet government, pursued most intensively between 1929 and 1933, to transform traditional agriculture in the Soviet Union and to reduce the economic power of the kulaks (prosperous peasants). Under collectivization the peasantry were forced to give up their individual farms and join large collective farms …


When did collectivization begin?

Intensive collectivization began during the winter of 1929–30. Stalin called upon the party to “liquidate the kulaks as a class” (December 27, 1929), and the Central Committee resolved that an “enormous majority” of the peasant households should be collectivized by 1933.


What percentage of the population left the Kolkhozy in 1930?

Immediately, many peasants left the kolkhozy. In March 1930 approximately 58 percent of the peasant households had been enrolled in kolkhozy; by June only about 24 percent remained. In the southwestern “black earth” region the figure dropped from 82 percent in March to 18 percent in May.


What happened before joining the Kolkhozy?

In many cases, before joining the kolkhozy they slaughtered their livestock and destroyed their equipment. The losses, as well as the animosity toward the Soviet regime, became so great that Stalin decided to slow down the collectivization process.


What was the purpose of collectivization?

Source: Unknown author/The State Museum Of Political History Of Russia/ russiainphoto.ru. Collectivization entailed major reforms of the agricultural sector in the Soviet Union. Starting in 1927, collectivization was aimed at consolidating individual peasant landholdings and labor into collective farms, so called “kolkhozes.”.


When did collectivization become a large-scaled process?

Source: Arkady Shishkin/МАММ/ russiainphoto.ru. Collectivization became a large-scaled process in 1929, when Joseph Stalin’s article “The Year of the Great Break” was published.


What did Stalin do to modernize Russia?

Stalin confirmed the processes of collectivization and industrialization as the main means for modernizing the country. At the same time, he declared need to liquidate the class of affluent peasants known as “kulaks” (“fists” in Russian). Source: Arkady Shishkin/МАММ/ russiainphoto.ru.


How many people died in the Great Famine of 1932?

In 1932-1933, the country was struck by a great famine that killed about 8 million people, due in no small part to collectivization. Source: Arkady Shaikhet/МАММ/ russiainphoto.ru. Until the 1970s, a peasant at a kolkhoz – a so-called kolkhoznik – had no right to get a passport.


Was collectivization a doom and gloom?

Still, collectivization was not all doom and gloom. The bulk of the peasants, who didn’t suffer collectivization, moved to the towns and cities and became the drivers of the industrialization process. Source: Unknown author/S. Burasovsky’s personal archive/ russiainphoto.ru.


Did collectivisation improve Soviet agriculture?

At the same time, collectivisation brought substantial modernisation to traditional agriculture in the Soviet Union, and laid the basis for relatively high food production and consumption by the 1970s and 1980s.


Why did Stalin want Collectivise agriculture?

Stalin wanted the Soviet Union to have more efficient farms. Collectivisation saw the creation of ‘collective’ farms. These, called kolkhozes, would replace smallholdings held by peasants with larger farms. The idea here is to have large fields in which crops can be sown, grown and harvested using modern machinery.


Why did collective farming fail?

Blaming shortages on kulak sabotage, authorities favored urban areas and the army in distributing what supplies of food had been collected. The resulting loss of life is estimated as at least five million. To escape from starvation, large numbers of peasants abandoned collective farms for the cities.


How did collectivization affect peasants?

Collectivization profoundly traumatized the peasantry. The forcible confiscation of meat and bread led to mutinies among the peasants. They even preferred to slaughter their cattle than hand it over to the collective farms. Sometimes the Soviet government had to bring in the army to suppress uprisings.


Why did the kulaks resist collectivization?

Stalin and the CPSU blamed the prosperous peasants, referred to as ‘ kulaks ‘ (Russian: fist), who were organizing resistance to collectivization. Allegedly, many kulaks had been hoarding grain in order to speculate on higher prices, thereby sabotaging grain collection. Stalin resolved to eliminate them as a class.


Did the kulaks cause the famine?

The combination of the elimination of kulaks, collectivization, and other repressive policies contributed to mass starvation in many parts of Soviet Ukraine and the death of at least 7 to 10 million peasants in 1930–1937.


What was the purpose of collectivization Soviet agriculture?

Collectivization, policy adopted by the Soviet government, pursued most intensively between 1929 and 1933, to transform traditional agriculture in the Soviet Union and to reduce the economic power of the kulaks (prosperous peasants).


What was the effect of the forced collectivization and class war on the Soviet Union?

The forced collectivization and class war against (vaguely defined) ” kulaks ” under Stalinism greatly disrupted farm output in the 1920s and 1930s, contributing to the Soviet famine of 1932–33 (most especially the holodomor in Ukraine).


What was the Soviet Union’s agriculture system?

Agriculture in the Soviet Union was mostly collectivized, with some limited cultivation of private plots. It is often viewed as one of the more inefficient sectors of the economy of the Soviet Union. A number of food taxes ( prodrazverstka, prodnalog, and others) were introduced in the early Soviet period despite the Decree on Land that immediately followed the October Revolution. The forced collectivization and class war against (vaguely defined) ” kulaks ” under Stalinism greatly disrupted farm output in the 1920s and 1930s, contributing to the Soviet famine of 1932–33 (most especially the holodomor in Ukraine). A system of state and collective farms, known as sovkhozes and kolkhozes, respectively, placed the rural population in a system intended to be unprecedentedly productive and fair but which turned out to be chronically inefficient and lacking in fairness. Under the administrations of Nikita Khrushchev, Leonid Brezhnev, and Mikhail Gorbachev, many reforms (such as Khrushchev’s Virgin Lands Campaign) were enacted as attempts to defray the inefficiencies of the Stalinist agricultural system. However, Marxist–Leninist ideology did not allow for any substantial amount of market mechanism to coexist alongside central planning, so the private plot fraction of Soviet agriculture, which was its most productive, remained confined to a limited role. Throughout its later decades the Soviet Union never stopped using substantial portions of the precious metals mined each year in Siberia to pay for grain imports, which has been taken by various authors as an economic indicator showing that the country’s agriculture was never as successful as it ought to have been. The real numbers, however, were treated as state secrets at the time, so accurate analysis of the sector’s performance was limited outside the USSR and nearly impossible to assemble within its borders. However, Soviet citizens as consumers were familiar with the fact that foods, especially meats, were often noticeably scarce, to the point that not lack of money so much as lack of things to buy with it was the limiting factor in their standard of living .


Where did Khrushchev plant corn?

He established a corn institute in Ukraine and ordered thousands of acres to be planted with corn in the Virgin Lands. In 1955, Khrushchev advocated an Iowa-style corn belt in the Soviet Union, and a Soviet delegation visited the U.S. state that summer.


What was the limiting factor in Soviet society?

However, Soviet citizens as consumers were familiar with the fact that foods, especially meats, were often noticeably scarce, to the point that not lack of money so much as lack of things to buy with it was the limiting factor in their standard of living .


How many people died in the Soviet Union during the famine?

The human toll was very large, with millions, perhaps as many as 5.3 million, dying from famine due largely to collectivisation, and much livestock was slaughtered by the peasants for their own consumption. In the collective and state farms, low labor productivity was a consequence for the entire Soviet period.


How many people were killed in the Samizdat?

According to Soviet official accounts, 22 people were killed and 87 wounded. In addition, 116 demonstrators were convicted of involvement and seven of them executed. Information about the revolt was completely suppressed in the USSR, but spread through Samizdat and damaged Khrushchev’s reputation in the West.


How many people were killed in the Novocherkassk revolt?

The revolt was put down by the military. According to Soviet official accounts, 22 people were killed and 87 wounded.


Affect on USSR

Gross grain production declined, with cattle and horses reduced by about a third. Agriculture of the USSR lost a large number of workers. At the same time, the country’s agricultural overload migrated, and the city learned an incredible amount of cheap free labor, ready to work for a piece of bread.


Affect on the World

Despite the failure of collectivization, the country still grew rapidly. Stalin sent representatives of the nations abroad to bring international fame to the condition of the country from the economic point of view and civilization in comparison to European countries.


Conclusion

In this way, Stalin rebuilt Russia after Lenin. Although the collectivization program was unsuccessful Stalin was able to Give fame to Russia in the international world and made it a strong country. Even today Russia will always be indebted to Stalin for its new communist system.


How did collectivized agriculture lead to hunger?

The hunger was caused by collective agriculture, but the starvation was caused by politics.


What were the causes of the famine in the USSR?

The Famine in the USSR was the result of natural causes, the “golden blockade” and kulaks: “During the 1932 harvest season Soviet agriculture experienced a crisis. Natural disasters, especially plant diseases spread and intensified by wet weather in mid-1932, drastically reduced crop yields.


How did the population of Rome fall?

Between 400 and 800 AD, the population of the city of Rome fell by over 90%, mainly because of famine and plague! In 470 there was a famine in Gaul. In 800–1000 AD Severe drought killed millions of Maya people due to famine and thirst and initiated a cascade of internal collapses that destroyed their civilization.


What was happening in the battle between poor peasants and rich peasants?

What was happening was a new step in the fierce battle between poor peasants and rich peasants. For centuries, the poor had been systematically beaten and crushed when, out of sheer desperation, they dared revolt and rebel. But this time, for the first time, the legal force of the State was on their side.


What does “collectivized” mean?

Continue Reading. “Collectivization” meant forcible taking away from peasants all of their livestock, agricultural tools and much of personal property. And of course land. In many regions it also meant razing their very houses.


When did the first famine occur?

In 2200–2100 BC a global famine caused civilizational collapse worldwide! In 441 bc the first famine was recorded in Rome. In 370 AD there was a famine in Phrygia. In 372–373 AD there was a famine in Edessa. In 400–800 AD Various famines in Western Europe associated with the Fall of the Western Roman E.


How many horses were there in the USSR in 1928?

Between 1928 and 1933 the number of horses in the USSR declined from almost 30,000,000 to less than 15,000,000; of horned cattle from 70,000,000 (including 31,000,0000 cows) to 38,000,000 (including 20,000,000 cows); of sheep and goats from 147,000,000 to 50,000,000; and of hogs from 20,000,000 to 12,000,000.

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