Did helots perform agriculture

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There is consensus among modern historians that helots were slaves. Helots performed the menial chores in the Spartan

Sparta

Sparta was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece. In antiquity the city-state was known as Lacedaemon, while the name Sparta referred to its main settlement on the banks of the Eurotas River in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese. Around 650 BC, it rose to become the dominant military l…

society and took care of all construction and agricultural activities. This was critical in a militaristic culture like Sparta.

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Answer

What jobs did the Helots have?

Although the Helots were, generally speaking, peasants, they may be employed for other jobs, such as servants or grooms, as well. Additionally, the Helots could be conscripted into military duties at times of war.

How did helots reproduce?

Helots lived in family units and could, at least de facto, contract unions among themselves. Since helots were much less susceptible than other slaves in Greek antiquity to having their family units dispersed, they could reproduce themselves, or at least maintain their number.

Were there any attempts to improve the lot of helots?

Uprisings and attempts to improve the lot of the helots did occur, such as the Conspiracy of Cinadon . Several theories exist regarding the origin of the name “helot”. According to Hellanicus, the word relates to the village of Helos, in the south of Sparta.

Were the helots privately owned?

Additionally, the Helots were not privately owned, but belonged to the state. According to Strabo, “the Lacedaemonians held the Helots as state-slave in a way, having assigned to them certain settlements to live in and special services to perform.”

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Did the helots do the farming?

In Sparta, subject Greeks, the helots, formed major labour force for farming. In Athens, seems most farmland was controlled by the propertied rich, managed in separate units. Sometimes leased land to tenants but all made use of slaves.


What jobs did the helots have?

For example, Critias described helots as “slaves to the utmost”, whereas according to Pollux, they occupied a status “between free men and slaves”. Tied to the land, they primarily worked in agriculture as a majority and economically supported the Spartan citizens.


What did the helots do?

The helots did most of the farming for Spartans. The concerns of the Spartans turned out to be true. In 464 B.C., the helots started to rebel, and the Spartans could not suppress them until the next five years. To our knowledge, this was the only known slave rebellion in the Greek states.


Did helots performed agricultural work in Sparta?

Helots were servile agricultural workers who supported Spartan full citizens, called Spartiates or Homoioi ‘peers’, freeing them from working or managing property.


What is the role of the helots in ancient Sparta?

The helots were in a sense state slaves, bound to the soil and assigned to individual Spartans to till their holdings; their masters could neither free them nor sell them, and the helots had a limited right to accumulate property, after paying to their masters a fixed proportion of the produce of the holding.


How were helots different from slaves?

Unlike the slaves in Athens, helots had families and communities of their own, and they were no private property. Therefore, Pausanias calls them “slaves of the commonwealth”. Strabo of Amasia says they were “some sort of public slaves”, and other authors say they were a category between slaves and free people.


What are helots quizlet?

Helots were enslaved people in. Sparta. Helots were essential for. Agricultural Production.


Who were the helots answer?

Sparta : Example Question #1 Who were the Helots? Explanation: In ancient Greek society, the Helots were agricultural slaves (or serfs) who were tied to the land and did all the hard labor in Spartan society. Helots made up the vast majority of the inhabitants of Spartan territory.


What do helots mean?

Definition of helot 1 Helot : a member of a class of serfs in ancient Sparta. 2 : someone held in forced servitude : an enslaved person or serf.


Which of the following best describes Spartan helots?

Which of the following statements best describes the Spartan helots? They farmed the land as sharecroppers.


How did Sparta treat their slaves?

The Spartans were afraid the helots would revolt, so they treated them very harshly. The government sometimes declared war on the helots so that it could legally kill any slaves it thought might rebel. Once the Spartan government asked the helots to choose their best fighters.


Why did the helots revolt?

The report of Sparta’s lost gave encouragement to the Helots who started a revolt against Sparta, which is now known as the Second Messenian War​. The Spartans were fighting to gain back control, but they were outnumbered seven Helots to one Spartan.


Comparative approaches

As has been emphasised in a number of studies, such as Mark Golden’s salutary article (1992) on the uses of cross-cultural comparison in ancient social history, the enterprise of comparative history, and especially the methodology of comparison between unfree labour in antiquity and in more recent periods, is by no means straightforward.


The agrarian economy: social relations of production and the helot experience

One of the main puzzles concerning helot farming, and indeed of helot life more generally, is how it actually worked on the ground.


The character of economic exploitation

One relevant factor is the character of the economic exploitation of the dependent farming population, the nature of the obligations demanded by the master or landowner. Historically, there have been two main methods of exploitation.


Relationship to the land

Another relevant factor is the relationship of the farming population to the landholdings they worked, the extent to which they enjoyed practical fixity of tenure, whether de iure or simply de facto.


The formation of the agrarian economy

The evidence just considered comes, as already indicated, from just one small area of Spartiate territory and raises again the question whether we can extrapolate the evidence from an area close to Sparta to other areas for which we lack similarly {260|261} detailed published survey evidence.


Geographical distance, supervision and absenteeism

We should not imagine, however, that the modalities through which helotage was set in place necessarily exercised a determining impact on Spartiate-helot relations throughout the entire period of Spartan domination.


Residence and helot communities

The proposition that the persons chosen as mnôionomoi may have emerged from the structure of local helot society also raises the question whether their roles were confined to individual Spartiate estates or may have had a wider communal aspect.


Helots: The Slaves Who Built Ancient Sparta

Terra cotta tablet showing slaves working in Greek mines, dated 7th century B.C. Image source: Wikimedia Commons.


Who were the Helots?

Helots were the subjugated people of the territories of Laconia and Messenia, which comprised the state of Sparta. They were an Ancient Greek tribe defeated and conquered by the Spartans.


How did the Spartans treat the Helots?

They assign to the Helots every shameful task leading to disgrace. For they ordained that each one of them must wear a dogskin cap and wrap himself in skins ( diphthéra) and receive a stipulated number of beatings every year regardless of any wrongdoing, so that they would never forget they were slaves.


References

Talbert, R.J.A. “The Role of the Helots in the Class Struggle at Sparta”, Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, Vol. 38, №1 (1st Qtr., 1989).


What were helots assigned to?

Helots were assigned to citizens to carry out domestic work or to work on their klēroi, or portions. The klēroi, were the original divisions of Messenia after its conquest by Sparta. Various sources mention such servants accompanying this or that Spartan. Plutarch has Timaia, the wife of King Agis II, “being herself forward enough to whisper among her helot maid-servants” that the child she was expecting had been fathered by Alcibiades, and not her husband, indicating a certain level of trust. According to some authors, in the 4th century BC, citizens also used chattel -slaves for domestic purposes. However, this is disputed by others. Some helots were also servants to young Spartans during their agoge, the Spartan education; these were the μόθωνες / móthōnes (see below). Finally, helots, like slaves, could be artisans or tradesmen.


Where were the Helots?

The helots ( / ˈhɛləts, ˈhiːləts /; Greek: εἵλωτες, heílotes) were a subjugated population that constituted a majority of the population of Laconia and Messenia – the territories comprising Sparta.


What is a special case of Phylarchus?

A special case: mothakes and mothones. Phylarchus mentions a class of men that were at the same time free and non-citizens: the μόθακες / mothakes, who had undergone the ‘ agoge’, the Spartan educational system. Classical historiography recognizes that the helots comprised a large portion of these mothakes.


What was the Athenians garrison in Pylos?

During the same war and after the capitulation of the Spartans besieged in Sphacteria, the Athenians installed a garrison in Pylos composed of Messenians from Naupactus. Thucydides underlines that they had hoped to exploit the patriotism of the latter in order to pacify the region. Though the Messenians may not have triggered full-blown guerrilla warfare, they nevertheless pillaged the area and encouraged helot desertion. Sparta was forced to dedicate a garrison to controlling this activity; this was the first of the ἐπιτειχισμοί / epiteikhismoí (“ramparts”), outposts planted by the Athenians in enemy territory.


What was the name of the Spartan helots who were emancipated?

Generally, emancipated helots were referred to as “ neodamodes ” ( νεοδαμώδεις / neodamōdeis ): those who rejoined the δῆμος / dễmos ( Deme) of the Perioeci .


How many Helots heeded the call of Xenophon?

Xenophon in Hellenica (VI, 5, 28) states that the authorities agreed to emancipate all the helots who volunteered. He then reports that more than 6,000 heeded the call, leading to some embarrassment for the Spartans, who were initially overwhelmed by the number.


What did Critias describe Helots as?

For example, Critias described helots as “ slaves to the utmost”, whereas according to Pollux, they occupied a status “between free men and slaves”. Tied to the land, they primarily worked in agriculture as a majority and economically supported the Spartan citizens.


What were the Helots’ jobs?

The task of producing food was left to the Helots. Although the Helots were, generally speaking, peasants, they may be employed for other jobs, such as servants or grooms, as well. Additionally, the Helots could be conscripted into military duties at times of war.


What were the Helots?

The Helots: Slave Warriors of Ancient Sparta. The ancient Greek city state of Sparta had a social hierarchy that was different from many of its neighbors. The top of the social pyramid was occupied by the two kings, whose powers were checked by a ‘council of elders’. These elders were chosen from the next class, the Spartiates.


Why were Helots important to Sparta?

Although the Helots were crucial for the functioning of Spartan society , the other classes had an uneasy relationship with them. Given that the Helots greatly outnumbered their Spartan masters, the possibility of them revolting against their repressive rulers was ever present.


Why did the Spartans take precautions?

Given the precarious state of things, the Spartans took precautions to prevent the Helots from revolting. During the Persian Wars, for instance, the Spartans were not too eager to send their hoplites abroad to fight for the freedom of Greece.


How many Helots were at the Battle of Plataea?

Thus, there was a total of 35,000 Helots at that battle.


What was the largest revolt in the history of the Helots?

This was the largest revolt recorded. The Helots fortified Mount Ithome, which was besieged by Sparta.


When were the Helots emancipated?

The last Helots (the Helots of Laconia) were emancipated at the end of the 3 rd century BC by the reformer kings Cleomenes III and Nabis. Featured image: Screenshot from the movie 300 on the Spartan War which used Helots in combat on many occasions. ( ravencresttactical.com) By Ḏḥwty. References.


Who were the helots and what did they do?

In Ancient Sparta, the Helots were a subjugated population of slaves. Formerly warriors, the Helots outnumbered the Spartans considerably. During the time of the Battle of Plataea, which took place in 479 B.C., there were seven Helots for every Spartan.


Why were helots important to Sparta?

The helots ‘ work helped to make Sparta a wealthy city, and in time they became trusted members of Spartan families. On some occasions helots were able to purchase their freedom from the state. Helots could also seek their freedom by volunteering for military engagements.


What were helots in Greece?

The helots (/ˈhɛləts, ˈhiːləts/; Greek: εἵλωτες, heílotes) were a subjugated population that constituted a majority of the population of Laconia and Messenia – the territories comprising Sparta. Tied to the land, they primarily worked in agriculture as a majority and economically supported the Spartan citizens.


How did helots become slaves?

It tells a lot of how efficient Sparta was at controlling helots, by murdering them, terrorizing them, brainwashing them and beating them into submission. When the Spartans dominance eroded and Greece fell to Rome, helots still did not get their freedom. Instead of being slaves in Sparta, they became slaves in Rome.


Who did Sparta enslave?

Helot, a state-owned serf of the ancient Spartans. The ethnic origin of helots is uncertain, but they were probably the original inhabitants of Laconia (the area around the Spartan capital) who were reduced to servility after the conquest of their land by the numerically fewer Dorians.


Why did Spartans wear red?

The great Spartan lawgiver Lycurgus ordered that all Spartan clothing be crimson red because it least resembled women’s clothing and was most warlike. The blood red color also aroused terror in the opponent and disguised one’s own wounds so the enemy would never see their blood.


What is Sparta called now?

It lies at the site of ancient Sparta. The municipality was merged with six nearby municipalities in 2011, for a total population (as of 2011) of 35,259, of whom 17,408 lived in the city. Sparta, Laconia.


Where did the Helots live?

The surviving Helots were taken by Athens and settled on Naupactus on the Corinthian Gulf. Spartan treatment of Helots improved overtime, perhaps as a means of appeasing them. For instance, Helots could hope to be emancipated, and it is known that groups of Helots were sometimes liberated.


What was the largest revolt in the history of the Helots?

This was the largest revolt recorded. The Helots fortified Mount Ithome, which was besieged by Sparta.


How long did it take the Spartans to defeat the Helots?

The Helots seized on the occasion of Sparta’s defeat by Argos at the Battle of Hysiae to launch a revolt. It took the Spartans nearly 20 years to put down the rebellion. Given the precarious state of things, the Spartans took precautions to prevent the Helots from revolting.


What was the social hierarchy of Sparta?

The top of the social pyramid was occupied by the two kings, whose powers were checked by a ‘co uncil of elders’. These elders were chosen from the next class, the Spartiates. Below this aristocratic class was a middle class which was called the Perioeci. The lowest class, which was also the largest, in Spartan society was held a group known as the Helots.


Did the Helots own their families?

The Helots, by contrast, had their own families and communities. Additionally, the Helots were not privately owned, but belonged to the state. According to Strabo, “the Lacedaemonians held the Helots as state-slave in a way, having assigned to them certain settlements to live in and special services to perform.”.


Why were Helots encouraged to breed?

To keep their numbers up, helots would be encouraged to breed among themselves and even could have some form of a family unit. Just like the Spartans, they were subjects of a eugenics doctrine, or as we know it “selective breeding”. The strong would live and the weak would be throw out or put to death.


What does “helots” mean?

Others say that it simply means “a slave” or “a serf”. Maybe there is a truth in both of those statements, as one became the other. The actual origin of the helots, as a group of people, is even less known. They might have been the Messenians who were conquered during the Messenian Wars in the 8th century BC.


What did Sparta depend on?

Sparta depended on helots for pretty much everything that was not concerned with the warfare, even some aspects of administration. Some helots, those who lived outside of the cities and tendered the land could even do quite well for themselves and become somewhat rich.


What did the Spartans do?

Well, they did everything a respectful Spartan would not. They ploughed fields, grew olives, made wine, took care of homes, constructed buildings, worked as artisans or tradesmen, carried the Spartans weapons into the battle, cleaned their armour, cooked their food, and everything in between.


What does “helot” mean in Sparta?

Some say it came from the village called Helos that was conquered by the angry Spartans. Others say that it simply means “a slave” or “a serf”.


Did Helots get their freedom?

When the Spartans dominance eroded and Greece fell to Rome, helots still did not get their freedom. Instead of being slaves in Sparta, they became slaves in Rome. Their history interwove with those of the Romans slaves and soon enough their fate was forgotten and their existence faded into obscurity. Author: Paul Cathill.


What did the Helots learn?

They were the domestic works, they tended the fields, and they also learned simple trades that were necessary to support the economy of the city-state.


Where did the Helots come from?

One of the accepted theories is that they were the original inhabitants of the region on the Peloponnese where Sparta inhabited. There is also some debate as to the origin of the word, Helot. Some believe that the word was derived from a village that was located on the Peloponnese,


How many Helots were there in Sparta?

During the time of the Battle of Plataea, which took place in 479 B.C., there were seven Helots for every Spartan. Because of this, the Spartans often went through great lengths to make sure that they remained in check.


What happened to Helots if they exceeded the vigor proper to a slave’s condition?

Moreover, if any exceeded the vigor proper to a slave’s condition, they made death the penalty ; and they allotted a punishment to those controlling them if they failed. As you can see, the history of Helots is directly tied to the Spartans.


Who were the Helots?

In Ancient Sparta, the Helots were a subjugated population of slaves. Formerly warriors, the Helots outnumbered the Spartans considerably.


Did the Helots slaughter the Spartans?

As mentioned above, during the time of the Battle of Plataea, the Helots outnumbered the Spartans seven to one. In order to keep them from uprising, the Spartans often mistreated and slaughtered them.

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