- 1 Ginger Farming About Ginger Farming Guide, Process ,Profit
- 2 Health Benefits of Ginger
- 3 Major Ginger Producer of World
- 4 Where Does Ginger Grow?
- 5 How to Start Ginger Cultivation?
- 6 Irrigation in Ginger Farming
- 7 Application of Manure and Fertilizer in Ginger Farming
- 8 Pests, And Diseases in Ginger Farming
- 9 Ginger Harvesting
- 10 Yield of Ginger Farming
Ginger Farming About Ginger Farming Guide, Process ,Profit
Ginger is one of the spices crops which is grown throughout the different portion of the world, mostly in the Asian continent such as India, China, etc. It is one of the important commercial spice crops which is mostly grown for producing its excellent aromatic rhizomes. Gingers are supposed to have an excellent proven medical value which is beneficial for the healthy human life. Because of excellent medicinal value, there is great demand for ginger roots in the market all time throughout the year, especially during the cold months.
In addition to the great market demand of raw ginger, there is also a big market of ginger products such as dry ginger, ginger powder, bleached dry ginger, ginger oil, ginger candy, ginger oleoresin, ginger ale, ginger beer, ginger wine, brined ginger, ginger flakes, ginger squash, etc. Apart from this, it is also used in the preparation of many kinds of food items. It is also used as flavoring agent due to its unique and extraordinary aroma.
What Is Ginger?
Basically, this commercial crop is native to the Asian Continent, especially to southern and eastern Asia. Ginger plant is a herbaceous perennial crop that belongs to Zingiberaceae. This crop needs rhizomes for vegetative propagation.
The plants have leafy stems having an avg height of 60 to 90 cm with leaf base, sheathing the stems. Ginger leaf has narrow and lanceolate dark green color with 20 cm length with a noticeable midrib along with speckled and yellowish small flowers, each having a purple speckled lip. After plantation on the main field, within an interval of 8 to 10 months, this commercial crop becomes ready for harvesting. At its maturity, green leaves change to yellow.
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Commercial ginger farming or cultivation is not a hardworking job, but to make gold out of it, there is need of good farm management skills to be practiced. Apart from being grown on the large scale, ginger can also be grown in containers, greenhouses, pots, indoors and even backyards also.
Ginger | Scientific Name And Botanical Name
The scientific name and the botanical name of ginger is Zingiber officinale which belongs to the family “Zingiberaceae” and the genus “Zingiber”.
Health Benefits of Ginger
Ginger is an extraordinary medicinal plant which is praise for excellent health benefits. However, the following is a list of some of the health benefits of eating ginger…
- Ginger is well known for boosting the bone health and giving relief from joint pain.
- From the ancient time, this medicinal plant is being used to cure diarrhea.
- Gingers are also very strong carminative that is are beneficial in causing excess gas elimination.
- Gingers are also good for the healthy digestive system.
- Ginger is also found to be beneficial in providing protection from some kinds of cancer such as colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer, etc.
- Gingers are also beneficial in keeping skin healthy and free from any type of infections.
- From the ancient times, gingers are well known for increasing the sexual activity in the human and also for the good circulation of blood.
- It also helps in preventing Menstrual Cramps.
- Gingers are helpful in treating the migraine and also preventing us from cold, cough and various flu.
- Ginger is also the home remedy for the diabetic patients which is also beneficial in reducing morning sickness problems.
Major Ginger Producer of World
When it comes to production, India tops the list of ginger production followed by China and Nepal.
- Thailand and
India is the largest ginger producer, producing more than 33 % of total ginger production in the world.
Ginger | Local Names
Adrak (Hindi), Jiang (Chinese), Aduwa (Nepali), Inguru (Sinhalese, Sri Lanka), Jiāng (Mandrian), Khing (Thai), 薑 (Taiwanese), ادرک or Adrak (Urdu), цагаан гаа (Mangolian), kŏn’gang (Korean), Zanjabeel(Arabic), Halia (Malay, Malesia), Can khuong (Vietnamese), Zencefil (Turkish), Kha Nhei (Cambodian), Shōga (Japanese), Inji (Tamil), Adu (Gujarati).
Where Does Ginger Grow?
Climate Requirement For Ginger Farming
Ginger is a perennial warm crop which thrives it best in warm and humid climatic conditions. This crop can be cultivated well in the tropical area from the sea level to an avg altitude of 1500 MSL under both irrigated conditions and rainfed conditions. However, a moderate rainfall is required for the optimum root production at the time of sowing on the main field till the rhizomes sprout along with well-distributed rain during its growing period. Before harvesting this crop, dry weather and climate condition are also required for around one month for good production.
Soil Requirement For Ginger Farming
Gingers are able to grow on a large variety of soils ranging from sandy and clayey loamy soils to red loamy soils. However, it thrives it best in a deep, friable and well-drained loamy soils which are also full of all the essential organic matters. Since they are not able to grow on alkaline soil, ginger plantation should be avoided on such types of soil for better yield.
Also, crop rotation is necessary for the excellent production of ginger farming. Never cultivate ginger on the same field in repeated years.
The ideal pH for growing ginger is a pH, ranging between 5.3 to 6.8 that is almost neutral soils for the excellent growth of plants. However, the facility of well-drained soil is the key factor that plays an important role in successful ginger cultivation.
Intercropping in Ginger Farming
Intercropping in ginger farming is as a basic requirement for obtaining higher yield or production. Since they thrive their best in shade, cultivation should be followed a mixed crop with shade-providing crops such as castor farming, pigeon pea farming or banana farming, cluster bean farming, etc.
However, ginger can also be grown as a mixed crop with coconut farming, coffee farming, and orange farming. For ginger farming on higher height, intercrop this crop with chilies and tomatoes.
How to Start Ginger Cultivation?
Selecting a Suitable Ginger Variety
There are numbers of improved varieties of ginger available in the market throughout the different portion of the world. For commercial cultivation, China, and Rio-De-Janeiro are two most important varieties which are praised for producing high-quality roots.
However, Nadia, Maran, Karakkal are known for a High quantity of dry ginger. China, Rio-De-Janeiro, Ernad China, etc are well known for producing High oleoresin. The Sleeve Local, Himachal, Narasapattam, etc are grown for producing High volatile oil ginger. Whereas Rio-De-Janeiro, Wynad Local, China, Maran, Varadha are grown for producing green ginger.
Land Preparation For Ginger Farming
Land preparation plays an important role in deciding the yield of any crop. Likewise other crops, land preparation plays a vital role. Follow minimum tillage operations in the land preparation for ginger production.
Prepare beds having 1 m width, 15 cm height, and with good length. The spacing between each of the beds should be 40 to 45 cm. Left it open to the sunlight so that pests and diseases organism died off.
However, beds Solarisation is the best way to learn the pests and disease organism present in the soil. It is a technique, by which moistened beds on the field are covered through polythene sheets and are exposed to the sun for about one month. keep the polythene sheets safely at proper place after their use in solarization.
Planting Material In Ginger Farming
High quality and preserved seed rhizomes are used in the ginger plantation. The seed rhizomes should be free from all types of pests and diseases. And are also collected from organically cultivated ginger farms for healthy ginger production.
However, after collecting high-quality seed rhizomes, do not treat them with any chemical before planting on the main field. Select only fast growing and high yielding seed rhizomes for excellent ginger production.
While selection, make sure of, seed rhizomes should not be broken into pieces, each having 3 sprouted buds on each of these seed rhizomes. The piece should have 5 cm length and weigh from 20 to 30 gm.
How to Plant Ginger?
Before plantation, add about 30 to 40 gm of powdered neem (Azadirachta indica) cake into each prepared pit and mix it well with soil. After that, ginger plantation should be followed in row system plantation, at 25 cm row distance. For cultivating ginger in irrigated conditions, the ridges method of plantation should be followed at a distance of 45 cm. For plantation, the collected ideal seed rhizomes should be planted by keeping the suitable spacing between them. The seed rhizomes should be well mixed with rotten farmyard manure and after putting in shallow pits, covered with soil and leveled.
Around 1500 kg of quality seed rhizome is needed for doing cultivation on one-acre land. However, for planting at higher heights, more quality seeds should be planted to maintain the plant density. Before plantation, these collected rhizomes should be treated well with 25 % of a gallon with Monocrotophos for half an hours to control the early pests and diseases in ginger production.
Ginger Growing or Planting Season
The sowing season of ginger varies according to the climate conditions and weather. However, to meet the market demand, the sowing should be done in April to May.
An immediate irrigation should be given after sowing on the main field. Whereas for the rainfed crop, mulching should be done to provide protection from heavy rains and sun for a healthy enrichment of essential organic matter content in the soil and also to control moisture loss. This will also enhance the germination percentage. Also, provide shade to this crop for better plant growth. Usually, the shoots or seedling appears in two to three weeks of the plantation.
Irrigation in Ginger Farming
The facility of well-drained soil is the basic necessity of the ginger production. And the first irrigation should be done immediately after the plantation on the main field for better germination in the crop. Then after succeeding irrigations should be followed on the regular basis like supplying water once a week or an interval of 10 days.
On an average, around 20 irrigations in ginger production are essential throughout the growing period of roots. Whereas ginger cultivation in rainfed conditions, well-distributed rainfall is required during its complete growing period.
However, irrigating with the Sprinkler or drip method of irrigation is best and ideal one for maximum production in ginger cultivation.
Application of Manure and Fertilizer in Ginger Farming
The timely application of suitable manure and fertilizers plays a vital role in the ginger production. However, they can thrive their best in a deep and loamy soil, rich in all the essential organic matter content. So, to increase the soil fertility and productivity, add about 30 tonnes of well rotten farmyard manure at the time of land preparation only.
However, following is a schedule for the application of manure and fertilizers in ginger cultivation.
|Application Time||Nitrogen (kg/ha)||Phosphorous
|During Ginger Plantation||70||70||70|
|45 days after planting of roots||60||–||–|
|120 days after planting of roots||45||–||–|
Note: A less fertile soil may require manure and fertilizers at a higher amount. Learn the fertility of your soil through a soil test.
Pests, And Diseases in Ginger Farming
The ginger crop is very prone to pests and diseases and the presence of any pests and diseases in crop directly impact on the production.
Pests Observed in Ginger Farming
Shoot borer makes holes in the pseudostem and the grass is thrown out of the holes and also, the central shoot of affected plants becomes yellow and withers.
For controlling shoot borer in the ginger crop effectively, spray 0.1 % malathion once a month on the regular basis between July to August.
Such kinds of caterpillar totally feed on the leaf through folding of the leaf.
For controlling leaf roller, spraying 0.05 % Dimethoate has effective results.
Chinese Rose Beetle
The ”Shot-hole” coming of leaves and the entire leaf is consumed, excepting the leaf veins. Whereas adult insects are a reddish-brown beetle in appearance which used to feed on the plants during the night.
Chinese rose beetles get attracted towards dim light. So, try to keep shining bright light in the field to control them effectively.
They totally feed on the rhizomes via make bore into the seed rhizomes
For controlling measures, spraying of 0.05 % methyl parathion, @ about 3 times from July onwards is found to be beneficial.
They used to suck sap from seed rhizomes and further causing them to dry up.
Dip the affected ones into 0.05 % dimethoate at the time of plantation onwards for controlling them effectively.
Diseases Observed in Ginger Farming
This disease of ginger is one of the most destructive diseases which may cause major loss, even total destruction of affected clumps. The symptoms of this diseases include the light yellowing of plant tips and downwards spreading of leaf blades.
If not controlled timely, then it may spread to the entire crop and follow by withering, drooping and drying of leaves. Moderately, it spreads to the entire crop and leads to lower down the production.
For controlling soft rot disease of ginger, follow the below instruction:
- Provide well-drainage soil for cultivation
- Always select disease-free rhizomes for cultivation
- Treat the selected rhizomes with 0.3 % Dithane M-45 for 45 minutes before planting on the field.
- Also, beds drenching should be done with a suitable fungicide such as 0.1 % Captafol.
Root Knot Nematode
This disease cause water-soaked lesions of ginger roots. This also reduces the plant vigor via yellowing of plants.
The best of controlling this disease it to perform solarization of soil.
Leaf Spot of Ginger
This disease causes small oval formation and white center with dark brown margin on the leaves.
For controlling this disease effectively, spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture, uniformly throughout the crop.
The mild curling and dropping of leaves from the base leaves. Which further spreads to the upwards and finally to the pseudostem of plants
Spray Streptocycline at 200 ppm for controlling this diseases effectively.
One can start harvesting ginger after about five months of the plantation. However, this crops takes about 9 months to became fully mature for harvesting. The maturing period for different ginger variety varies in accordance with the climate and weather conditions. And, for optimum production, harvesting at fully maturing age is essential.
When to Harvest Ginger
Harvesting of ginger roots should be done at their full maturity. Usually, at their full maturity, the leaves changes to yellow and pseudostems start drying gradually.
How to Harvest Ginger
Give a light irrigation before harvesting to loosening of the soil. For harvesting ginger, the Rhizomes should be lifted with the help of a spade or a digging-fork.
Post Harvesting Tasks in Ginger Farming
After harvesting, the roots should be washed. The skin should be discarded from the green ginger by soaking it in water. The scraped developed while harvesting should be washed away and roots are dried for about five days in the open sunlight. Again, wash in clean water, dry and rubbed it with hand to remove all the remaining skin bits on roots.
Peeling of roots should be done carefully because excessive and careless scraping of roots will result in damage to epidermal cells which are praised for the extraordinary and aromatic ginger oil. Avoid use of steel knives and ginger storage for a longer time period.
Yield of Ginger Farming
The yield of ginger farming depends on the soil fertility, facility of drainage and shade, the variety used for cultivation, farm management skills, etc. However, the yield of dry ginger is not more than 30 % of total fresh ginger harvested.
Bottom Line of Ginger Farming
By following Ginger Farming or cultivation, farmers can really make gold out, but some care to be taken while growing and planting ginger on the field.