- 1 Guava Fruit Farming – Tips & Guide for Beginners
- 2 Let us know, How Guava Farming(How To Plant Guava and Earn Maximum Profit)
- 3 Health Benefits of Guava
- 4 Guava Other Names
- 5 Climate Requirement For Guava Farming
- 6 Soil Requirement for Guava Farming
- 7 Guava Varieties
- 8 Land Preparation & Soil Sterilization in Guava Farming
- 9 How to Grow Guavas?
- 10 Irrigation in Guava Farming
- 11 Application of Manure & Fertilizer in Guava Farming
- 12 Pests & Diseases in Guava Farming
- 13 Harvesting & Yield in Guava Farming
Guava Fruit Farming – Tips & Guide for Beginners
Currently, guavas ( the apple of the tropics) are the most popular tropical fruits, which can be grown all over the world. One can easily earn a big profit through growing guava fruit plants. Since guava farming requires minimum plant care and management during the growing period.
Commercial guava farming has pretty success over the other fruit because of low maintenance and input with higher fruit yields. So, it is a good idea to follow Guava farming rather than going for any other fruit farming such as Apple, Orange, Mango, Banana, etc.
These fruits plants are hardy and are able to produce more numbers of quality fruits with minimum plant care and management. They can grow well under both, irrigated and rainfed conditions in the tropical and subtropical region.
Let us know, How Guava Farming(How To Plant Guava and Earn Maximum Profit)
Little About Guava Farming
The guavas are common fruits are listed as most eaten fruits by the people throughout the globe. Basically, these fruits are hardy in nature and are a rich beneficiary fruits.
Guava farming acquires significant place in the world of commercial fruits farming.
They are mostly eaten for exclusive medicinal value.
Fruits are rich in vitamin C, pectin, calcium, phosphorus and many significant minerals & vitamins.
Growing guava plants is not a hard working job.
But, it requires some practical base knowledge to obtain a decent profit from it.
In the present time, modern, innovative & hi-tech farming techniques and methods should be adopted to get obtain higher fruit production.
Nowadays, farmers follow the high-density guava plantation (HDP) along with appropriate plant density, use of quality planting material, canopy management in the field, support, pruning and farm management skills with appropriate inputs to obtain an excellent yield from guava cultivation.
With this planting method, one can grow more numbers of plants and later higher production.
As results of HDP technology, there is maximisation of unit & yield per hectare (yield per acre). It also fetching a better price.
It is assumed to be the native of Mexico, Central, and South America. Fruits are eaten as a fresh and also used in making of many kinds of beverages, ice creams, candies, dried snacks, desserts, fruit bars, etc. When it comes to shape and size, fruits measures from 5 cm to 10 cm length & are round oval in shape, depending on the cultivar, selected for cultivation.
High density guava plantation is give less crop than low density planting.
Scientific Name & Botanical Name of Guava
The scientific name and botanical name of guava is Psidium guajava and it belongs to the family “Myrtaceae” and to the genus “Psidium”.
In addition to growing guavas on the large open field, it is also possible to grow these fruits in containers, pots, greenhouse, poly houses, and also in backyards.
Health Benefits of Guava
Learn some of the health benefits of eating Guavas regularly.
- It restrains the growth of cancerous cells present in the body so is found to be beneficial in preventing prostate cancers, breast cancers, and also oral cancers.
- The vitamin C content of Guava is about 3 to 4 times higher than that of Orange. So, helps in boosting the immune system and heart health.
- They are also high in dietary fiber content, so it is also beneficial for those, who are suffering from diabetes.
- Guavas are also an excellent source of vitamin A. So, they are also beneficial in boosting the eye health and eye vision.
- It is also helpful for healthy blood regulation of the body. It also reduces blood pressure and maintains blood fluidity.
- They are also rich in copper content which is helpful in regulation of metabolism via controlling hormone production and its absorption.
- It is supposed to be the best remedy for curing of the disease, scurvy, cause because of vitamin C deficiency.
- It also Excretes Diarrhea and Dysentery because guavas are also loaded with significant astringent properties
- Guavas are also one of the richest sources of dietary fiber content among citrus fruits and guava seeds serve as excellent laxatives.
- The vitamin B3 and vitamin B6 present in guava are beneficial for working of the brain and brain health.
- It can be used as mood freshener.
- It also treats cold and cough
- It has an excellent combination of minerals, vitamins, and dietary fibers which is excellent for weight loss quicker…
So, eating guava can keep us healthy in many ways. Add it to your regular diet to stay healthy and be happy.
Guava Other Names
Local Name of Guava
It is mostly known as the apple of tropics & subtropics. However, it is also known as Guava, Goiabeira, Guayabo, Guyava, Red Guava, and Kuawa.
Guava Other Names in Various Language
Amrud & Paere (India, Hindi), Amroud (Urdu), Ambaa (Nepali), 番石榴 (Chinese), Guave (Dutch), quả ổi (Vietnamese), Bayabas (Filipino), Guave (German), Guajaav (Estonian), 반석류 (Korian), Peira (Sinhalese), Jambu kampuchia (Malay), Goiaba (Portuguese), Guayaba (Spanish), 番石榴属 (Taiwanese), Guava (Turkish), Гуава (Bulgarian), Gujava (Albanian), Guava (Norwegian), Trapaek sruk (Cambodian), Guaba (Japanese), gwɑ və (Romanian), Gujávafa (Hungarian), Guyyava (Uzbek), Gvajave (Latvian), Nkouáva (Greek), Farang (Thai), گواوا (Persian), Goyave (French), Zaytoon (Somali), جوافة (Arabic), Guaiava (Italian), Guavasläktet (Swedish), etc
Major Guava Producing Countries
Guavas are hardy in nature and can be grown all over the world with varying climate conditions and soil types. However, when it comes to production, India tops the list of production followed by China & Thailand. It is also produced widely in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Mexico, Brazil, Indonesia, Philippines, Nigeria along with many other portions of the world.
Climate Requirement For Guava Farming
Guava fruit plant can be grown over a wide variety of soil. But it thrives it best in the tropical and subtropical region under both, irrigated and rainfed conditions. However, there is a need of 800 mm to 1000 mm of annual rainfall from June to Late September for excellent plant growth and fruit production.
For growing in elevation, they can be grown at an elevation of 1300 m above MSL. But, take care that young plants are very sensitive to the long drought spell and cold conditions. Low temp at night during the winter season is beneficial in improving fruit quality and quantity.
But, older plants have higher resistance towards high temp and long drought conditions. But, take care that too high temp during flowering stage & fruit set may result in dropping down of fruits and later lower down the production.
For growing guavas under rainfed conditions, there is a need for minimum rainfall of about 100 cm. And, for growing under irrigated conditions, drip irrigation should be followed for better fruit yield and quality.
Soil Requirement for Guava Farming
As we know that these fruit plants are hardy in nature, can be grown over a wide variety of soil ranging from heavy clayey soils to light sandy soils. However, they can thrive their best in a deep loamy soil with a facility of proper drainage with good aeration. To ensure excellent fruit yield, try to cultivate these fruits plants on the fertile & productive soil.
To obtain higher yield, always avoid waterlogging. Since water stagnation may results in root rot in the crop.
A soil pH ranging from 5.0 to 6.8 is considered as the ideal one for higher production of quality fruits. But, alkaline soils are not suitable for higher fruit production. Usually, river basins are most preferred for growing guavas on large scale. However, go for the at least single soil test. This can help you in learning of any deficiency of soil if present to minimize the problem while growing period.
There are many high yielding varieties of guava are available, which are known for growing on varying climate conditions and soil type. And, cultivars of Guava are classified on the basis of their flesh color. A guava may be with white, pink or red colored flesh.
There is about more than 10 red to pink colored flesh cultivars, available in the world. But, all of these are known to grow in particular region. Like Beaumont & Ka Hua Kula are famous for growing in Hawaii. The Red Indian cultivar is popular for growing in Florida. It is famous for producing medium to large size quality fruits. The Ruby X is hybrid from two Florida cultivars named, Supreme and Ruby. The “Uma” cultivar is a vigorous variety with heavy fruit yields and is famous for cultivating in California.
When it comes to varieties with white flesh, there are about more than 12 cultivars are available. Sweet White Indonesian bear large size fruits with soft & thick delicious flesh. Giant Bangkok & Donrom variety of guavas are known for bearing fruits with firm green and white flesh. The Mexican Cream cultivar produces small to med size and yellow skin having yummy, sweet & creamy flesh.
The Detwiler cultivar of guava produces green to yellow fruits with a medium, sweet yellow-to-salmon flesh. This cultivar was originated from Riverside, California, in around 1900s.
However, there are many other cultivars of guavas are available throughout the world, famous for growing commercially. It Includes White Malaysian (San Francisco), Ruby Supreme, Vietnamese, Purple Malaysian, Turnbull White, etc (Southern California), Benjamin, Giant Bangkok & Mexican Cream (Florida), etc.
Note: In Asian continent, with the different growing conditions, the popular varieties are Allahabad Safeda, Chittidar, Lucknow 46, Lucknow 49, Hafshi, Harijha, Nagpur seedless, Saharanpur Seedless, Arka Amulya, Arka Mridula, Banaras, Baptla, Apple guava, Arka Kiran, Lalit, TRY (G) – 1 etc. The Allahabad Safeda is especially known for its high yielding capacity under Indian climate conditions.
Land Preparation & Soil Sterilization in Guava Farming
The growing soils should be plowed deeply, harrowed and also leveled. Bring soils in the fine tilth form and in friable conditions. And, remove extra material, present in the field of the previous crop.
Make sure to drain out any excess water from the field. Also, try to supplement farmyard manure at the time of land preparation to increase the soil fertility and productivity of the soil. Try to add it the last plow only.
Make growing pit having size with a dimension of 1 meter each. And, fill it with 25 kg to 30 kg of compost with topmost soils.
Before planting, Soil sterilization is very important to increase soil temp. Soil sterilization also kills all kinds of soil-borne organisms, plant pathogens, pests, and other harmful insects. This can be done by means of a physical method and chemical method. The physical method involves treatments with solar energy and steam whereas the another involves treating with suitable fumigants and herbicides. However, mulching with the plastic film has more advantages over both of these ways.
How to Grow Guavas?
Propagation in Guava Farming
Guava fruit plants are mainly propagated through quality seeds. However, it is also possible to grow with vegetative means of propagation. But, growing with seedling is more helpful in producing quality and quantity fruits with variable shape and size. But, they have the short economic life with yielding more numbers of fruits per tree per season as compare to the plants grown from seeds.
For growing fruits plants through a vegetative method of propagation, suitable propagation method should be followed. It can be done best by cutting, grafting, air layering, and budding method. In doing so, Air-layering is supposed to the best and most successful over other in commercial guava cultivation. However, stooling or mound layering in nursery beds in guava farming is the cheapest one for rapid multiplication of plants.
Guava Planting Season & Spacing
The deeply and cross plowed followed by harrowing and leveling of soil should be carried out before digging planting pits. Prepare planting pits of 0.75 M X 0.75 M X 0.75 M before monsoon season starts. Filled the previously made pits with 25 kg of manure. 1/2 kg of superphosphate with topmost soil.
Try to dig a bigger size for growing on less fertile soil. And, add organic manure and fertilizers to increase the productivity of the soil. The size of the pit should be of 1 Meter X 1 Meter X 1 Meter. And start planting as sooner as the monsoon starts.
Guava planting spacing varies from variety to variety. Usually, farmers adopt planting distance from 5 to 8 meters. For commercial cultivation of guavas, the planting spacing of 5 meters X 5 meters & 6 meters X 6 meters should be adopted. However, they can be also grown in the hedge-row system at planting spacing of 2 meters X 6 meters & 3 meters X 6 meters.
Planting with high-density planting system and ultra-high density planting system between rows & plants maximise the production, as lower the spacing between. It should be 2 meters X 1 meter for planting with ultra-high density.
High-Density Planting (HDP) in Guava Farming
With the ease of modern farming technology, farmers can adopt plantation with high-density planting method and ultrahigh-density planting method. HDP is helpful in obtaining high fruit yield from the same area.
- By Planting spacing of 3 meters X 3 meters, one can accommodate about more than 550 fruit plants per hectare land. With this planting method, it is also possible to get a plant yield of more than 150 kg of fruits per plant.
- And, with normal planting spacing that is of 6 meters X 6 meters planting spacing, one can accommodate about more than 275 plants per unit hectare land. With this planting method, one can get fruit yield of about 120 kg of fruits per unit fruiting plant.
Irrigation in Guava Farming
A special care to be taken while growing guavas. Since water supply at the proper time leads to higher fruit production with excellent plant growth.
Usually, there is no need for water to plants during the growing period. But, supply water about 10 to 12 times in a year to newly planted young ones for healthy growth. Try to maintain constant moisture during hot summer. And, hand watering should be provided on light soils.
However, the frequency and interval of irrigation depend on season, soil type, plant age and plant growth stage.
- 1st irrigation should be done, just after planting seedlings on the main field. It enhances the % of establishment on the field.
- Irrigating guavas field with drip irrigation method has many advantages over traditional method of irrigation.
- Since it uses water in an efficient way. It also saves water and precious time. It is also an efficient way to control weed and other diseases effectively.
- For supplying water with drip irrigation method, irrigate field on alternate days to maintain proper soil moisture.
- However, a fruiting guava plant needs about 25 to 30 liters of water per day for healthy growth.
- Irrigate fruiting plant at an interval of 7 to 10 days in hot summer season.
- And, at an interval of 15 days in winter increase the fruit quality and quantity
Application of Manure & Fertilizer in Guava Farming
This fruit plants responding very well to the application of organic manure, and inorganic fertilizers. Always carry out plantation on fertile and productive soils. There are several ways to learn the nutrient status of soils like leaf analysis, soil test, etc.
Learn the chart about manuring and fertilizer in guavas production. And, apply it at the base of plants, as recommended doses. Nitrogen should be given in two equal splits of dose.
|Plants Age in Years||FYM (kg)||N (grams)||P (grams)||K (grams)|
|1st year||5 kg||100 gm||50 gm||50 gm|
|2nd year||10 kg||200 gm||100 gm||100 gm|
|3rd year||15 kg||300 gm||150 gm||150 gm|
|4th year||20 kg||500 gm||300 gm||300 gm|
|5th year and above||30 kg||750 gm||500 gm||300 gm|
Note: For good growth of guavas plants, it is essential to provide all the mentioned above micronutrient time to time. However, you may go higher dose, if your soil is less fertile.
A minor zinc deficiency may result in lower fruit production and bad quality fruits. So, Zn deficiency should be corrected by spraying 450 gm of zinc sulfate with 350 gm of slaked lime in 75 liters of water, directly on plants. Although, the frequency of spray depends on the extent of Zn deficiency.
Spraying Pre-flowering sprays such as 0.4 % of Boric Acid along with 0.3 % of Zinc Sulphate are found to beneficial in enhancing fruit production and quality.
Spraying of CuSO4 (copper sulfate) @ 0.2 to 0.4 % is also beneficial in enhancing plant growth and fruit production, quality, and quantity.
Pests & Diseases in Guava Farming
The major pests and insect observed in guava fruiting plant are:
- Fruit borers (Conopomorpha Sinensis)
- Fruit Piercing moths
- Eudocima (Othreis)
- Eudocima Salaminia (Cramer)
- Fullonia (Clerck)
- Eudocima Jordani (Holland)
- Leaf feeding caterpillars
- Beetle borers
- Scarab beetles
- Soft scales
- Gall flies
- Fruit flies
- Scale insect
Guava Diseases(Which Diseases Can Harm Guava Fruit)
There is no major disease, observed in guavas production. However, followings are few diseases of this yummy fruit plants:
- Brown blight
- Tree decline
- Parasitic algae and
Learn how to protect guava fruit from insects, pests, and diseases. Since present of any of one in your yummy field may lower down production to a big extent.
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Harvesting & Yield in Guava Farming
The harvesting in guavas production depends on plant growth of selected variety. However, it is observed that hybrid starts fruits bearing faster that grown from seedlings.
Usually, grafted, budded and layered guavas plants start yielding at their age of 2 to 2.5 year old. Whereas plants grown with seedlings take about 4 years. However, they start bearing fruits heavily at their age of 8 years.
How to Harvest Guavas In Your Farm?
These fruits cannot be maintained on the tree longer in ripen stage. So, fruit picking should be done, as sooner as they attain maturity.
The changing of the color from green to light yellowish green is an indication of their tender age.
There are several ways to harvest fruits. One can go for manual hand picking of fruits at an interval of few days. Fruit plucking machine is also available in the market to harvest fruits.
But, avoid any kind of damage to fruits. It can lessen down fruit quality and hence the market price.
Yield of Guava Farming
The yield of this fruit crop depends on the plant age, soil fertility, soil type, frequency of irrigation, pest and disease control, growing climate conditions along with some orchard management practices. Yield is always different from variety to variety.
However, the way of propagation plays a vital role in the production. Yield per guava tree is about more than 300 kg for grafted grown plants. Whereas this figure comes to 100 kg when it comes to Yield per guava tree, grown with seedlings.
However, on can easily obtain about more than 25 tonnes of fruits from a unit hectare land. This figure rises up for planting with High-Density Planting in guavas production.