how agriculture was born

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The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago.

Agricultural communities developed approximately 10,000 years ago when humans began to domesticate plants and animals. By establishing domesticity, families and larger groups were able to build communities and transition from a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle dependent on foraging and hunting for survival.Aug 19, 2019

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What were the very first forms of Agriculture?

The history of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa.At least eleven separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin.

When did humans start agriculture?

How agriculture and domestication began. Agriculture has no single, simple origin. A wide variety of plants and animals have been independently domesticated at different times and in numerous places. The first agriculture appears to have developed at the closing of the last Pleistocene glacial period, or Ice Age (about 11,700 years ago). At that time temperatures warmed, …

What was the origin of Agriculture?

Technological innovations like irrigation (circa 6000 BCE) and the plow (circa 3000 BCE) brought enormous gains in productivity, but when used irresponsibly they degraded soil—the very …

Who is father of Agriculture?

See all related content →. origins of agriculture, the active production of useful plants or animals in ecosystems that have been created by people. Agriculture has often been conceptualized …

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Where did agriculture start from?

The earliest evidence of agricultural cultivation is from around 21,000 BC with the Ohalo II people on the shores of the Sea of Galilee. By around 9500 BC, the eight Neolithic founder crops – emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chickpeas, and flax – were cultivated in the Levant.

When did agriculture start exactly?

Start of Agriculture About 11,500 years ago, people gradually learned how to grow cereal and root crops, and settled down to a life based on farming.

Who started farming?

Until now, researchers believed farming was “invented” some 12,000 years ago in the Cradle of Civilization — Iraq, the Levant, parts of Turkey and Iran — an area that was home to some of the earliest known human civilizations.

How did early human begin farming?

Farming began c. 10,000 BC on land that became known as the FERTILE CRESCENT. Hunter-gatherers, who had traveled to the area in search of food, began to harvest (gather) wild grains they found growing there. They scattered spare grains on the ground to grow more food.

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What is the origin of agriculture?

The word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, “field”, and cultūra, ” cultivation ” or “growing”. While agriculture usually refers to human activities, certain species of ant, termite and beetle have been cultivating crops for up to 60 million years.

When did agriculture start?

The scientific study of agriculture began in the 18th century, when Johann Friedrich Mayer conducted experiments on the use of gypsum (hydrated calcium sulphate) as a fertilizer. Research became more systematic when in 1843, John Lawes and Henry Gilbert began a set of long-term agronomy field experiments at Rothamsted Research Station in England; some of them, such as the Park Grass Experiment, are still running. In America, the Hatch Act of 1887 provided funding for what it was the first to call “agricultural science”, driven by farmers’ interest in fertilizers. In agricultural entomology, the USDA began to research biological control in 1881; it instituted its first large program in 1905, searching Europe and Japan for natural enemies of the gypsy moth and brown-tail moth, establishing parasitoids (such as solitary wasps) and predators of both pests in the USA.

How does livestock affect the environment?

A senior UN official, Henning Steinfeld, said that “Livestock are one of the most significant contributors to today’s most serious environmental problems”. Livestock production occupies 70% of all land used for agriculture, or 30% of the land surface of the planet. It is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases, responsible for 18% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO 2 equivalents. By comparison, all transportation emits 13.5% of the CO 2. It produces 65% of human-related nitrous oxide (which has 296 times the global warming potential of CO 2) and 37% of all human-induced methane (which is 23 times as warming as CO 2 .) It also generates 64% of the ammonia emission. Livestock expansion is cited as a key factor driving deforestation; in the Amazon basin 70% of previously forested area is now occupied by pastures and the remainder used for feedcrops. Through deforestation and land degradation, livestock is also driving reductions in biodiversity. Furthermore, the UNEP states that ” methane emissions from global livestock are projected to increase by 60 per cent by 2030 under current practices and consumption patterns.”

What is the basis of pastoral agriculture for several Arctic and Subarctic peoples?

Reindeer herds form the basis of pastoral agriculture for several Arctic and Subarctic peoples.

How does agriculture increase yield?

Agriculture seeks to increase yield and to reduce costs. Yield increases with inputs such as fertilisers and removal of pathogens , predators, and competitors (such as weeds). Costs decrease with increasing scale of farm units, such as making fields larger; this means removing hedges, ditches and other areas of habitat.

What was the Arab agricultural revolution?

The Arab Agricultural Revolution, starting in Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain), transformed agriculture with improved techniques and the diffusion of crop plants.

How many people were employed in agriculture in the 21st century?

At the start of the 21st century, some one billion people, or over 1/3 of the available work force, were employed in agriculture. It constitutes approximately 70% of the global employment of children, and in many countries employs the largest percentage of women of any industry.

When did agriculture begin?

The first agriculture appears to have developed at the closing of the last Pleistocene glacial period, or Ice Age (about 11,700 years ago).

Why do archaeologists study agricultural origins?

Because some resource management practices, such as intensively tending nondomesticated nut-bearing trees, bridge the boundary between foraging and farming, archaeologists investigating agricultural origins generally frame their work in terms of a continuum of subsistence practices.

What is plant and animal management?

Plant and animal management was and is a familiar concept within hunting and gathering cultures, but it took on new dimensions as natural selection and mutation produced phenotypes that were increasingly reliant upon people.

Which Native American peoples developed complex methods to manage diverse sets of plants and animals?

For instance, Australian Aborigines and many of the Native American peoples of western North America developed complex methods to manage diverse sets of plants and animals, often including (but not limited to) cultivation.

Where do dogs get their meat from?

When considered in terms of food management, dogs may have been initially domesticated as hunting companions, while meat and milk could be obtained more reliably from herds of sheep, goats, reindeer, or cattle than from their wild counterparts or other game animals.

Does agriculture have to be a response to food scarcity?

Notably, agriculture does not appear to have developed in particularly impoverished settings; domestication does not seem to have been a response to food scarcity or deprivation. In fact, quite the opposite appears to be the case.

When did agriculture start?

From as early as 11,000 BCE, people began a gradual transition away from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle toward cultivating crops and raising animals for food. The shift to agriculture is believed to have occurred independently in several parts of the world, including northern China, Central America, and the Fertile Crescent, a region in the Middle East that cradled some of the earliest civilizations. 1 By 6000 BCE, most of the farm animals we are familiar with today had been domesticated. 1 By 5000 BCE, agriculture was practiced in every major continent except Australia. 2

How long has agriculture been around?

It is thought to have been practiced sporadically for the past 13,000 years, 1 and widely established for only 7,000 years. 2 In the long view of human history, this is just a flash in the pan compared to the nearly 200,000 years our ancestors spent gathering, hunting, and scavenging in the wild. During its brief history, agriculture has radically transformed human societies and fueled a global population that has grown from 4 million to 7 billion since 10,000 BCE, and is still growing. 3

What is the name of the wild food that nourished our hunter-gatherer ancestors?

Left to right: Gingerbread plum ( mobola ), baobab seed, carissa fruit. These wild foods, native to Africa, may resemble the fruits, nuts, and seeds that nourished our hunter-gatherer ancestors. There is growing interest in cultivating these “lost” crops on a larger scale—the carissa fruit tastes a little like cranberry …

How did small settlements grow into cities?

1. Agriculture produced enough food that people became free to pursue interests other than worrying about what they were going to eat that day. Those who didn’t need to be farmers took on roles as soldiers, priests, administrators, artists, and scholars.

What was the driving force behind the growth of civilizations?

For better or for worse, agriculture was a driving force behind the growth of civilizations.

When was the plow used in Egypt?

Grave chamber of an Egyptian public official, circa 1250 BCE. The plow is believed to have been used as early as 4,000 years ago in ancient Egypt. Although it brought tremendous gains in short-term productivity, it has also been a major contributor to soil erosion.

When was synthetic fertilizer invented?

First introduced in the early 1900s, synthetic fertilizers dramatically increased crop yields (though not without consequences ), and have been credited with providing the lion’s share of the world’s food over the 20 th century. 27 The use of these and other chemicals has become a hallmark of industrial agriculture.

What is the origin of agriculture?

origins of agriculture, the active production of useful plants or animals in ecosystems that have been created by people. Agriculture has often been conceptualized narrowly, in terms of specific combinations of activities and organisms—wet-rice production in Asia, wheat farming in Europe, cattle

Why is agriculture a cultural phenomenon?

Because it is a cultural phenomenon, agriculture has varied considerably across time and space. Domesticated plants and animals have been (and continue to be) raised at scales ranging from the household to massive commercial operations.

What is the process of domestication?

Domesticationis a biological process in which, under human selection, organisms develop characteristics that increase their utility, as when plants provide larger seeds, fruit, or tubers than their wild progenitors. Known as cultigens, domesticated plants come from a wide range of families (groups of closely related genera that share a common ancestor; seegenus). The grass(Poaceae), bean(Fabaceae), and nightshadeor potato(Solanaceae) families have produced a disproportionately large number of cultigens because they have characteristics that are particularly amenableto domestication.

Why are domesticated animals more docile than wild animals?

Domesticated animals tend to have developed from species that are social in the wild and that, like plants, could be bred to increase the traits that are advantageous for people. Most domesticated animals are more docile than their wild counterparts, and they often produce more meat, wool, or milk as well.

What are domesticated animals?

Domesticated animals tend to have developed from species that are social in the wild and that, like plants, could be bred to increase the traits that are advantageous for people. Most domesticated animals are more docilethan their wild counterparts, and they often produce more meat, wool, or milk as well. They have been used for traction, transport, pest control, assistance, and companionship and as a form of wealth. Species with abundant domesticated varieties, or breeds, include the dog(Canis lupus familiaris), cat(Felis catus), cattle(Bosspecies), sheep(Ovisspecies), goat(Capraspecies), swine (Susspecies), horse(Equus caballus), chicken(Gallus gallus), and duckand goose(family Anatidae).

Why do grasses have cultigens?

The grass ( Poaceae ), bean ( Fabaceae ), and nightshade or potato ( Solanaceae) families have produced a disproportionately large number of cultigens because they have characteristics that are particularly amenable to domestication.

What happens to plants and animals over time?

Over time, some plants and animals have become domesticated, or dependent on these and other human interventions for their long-term propagation or survival.

Why did people start farming?

In the Near East, for example, it’s thought that climatic changes at the end of the last ice age brought seasonal conditions that favored annual plants like wild cereals. Elsewhere, such as in East Asia, increased pressure on natural food resources may have forced people to find homegrown solutions. But whatever the reasons for its independent origins, farming sowed the seeds for the modern age.

What was the farming revolution?

Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the ” Neolithic Revolution.”. Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements …

What mutation occurred during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe?

But at some point during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe, a mutation occurred for lactose tolerance that increased in frequency through natural selection thanks to the nourishing benefits of milk.

Where did wheat come from?

The wild progenitors of crops including wheat, barley and peas are traced to the Near East region. Cereals were grown in Syria as long as 9,000 years ago, while figs were cultivated even earlier; prehistoric seedless fruits discovered in the Jordan Valley suggest fig trees were being planted some 11,300 years ago.

When did corn cobs first appear?

While maize-like plants derived from teosinte appear to have been cultivated at least 9,000 years ago, the first directly dated corn cob dates only to around 5,500 years ago . Corn later reached North America, where cultivated sunflowers also started to bloom some 5,000 years ago.

How long ago did goats come to Europe?

Dates for the domestication of these animals range from between 13,000 to 10,000 years ago. Genetic studies show that goats and other livestock accompanied the westward spread of agriculture into Europe, helping to revolutionize Stone Age society. While the extent to which farmers themselves migrated west remains a subject of debate, …

How long does a plant live?

plant with a life cycle of no more than one year, and often much less.

What is the birth of agriculture called?

The birth of agriculture is often referred to as the Neolithic Revolution since it seems to coincide with the Neolithic period—or new stone age.

Where did agriculture originate?

We believe that it emerged independently and spread from places as varied as Mesopotamia, China, South America and sub-Saharan Africa. As we explore more, it is likely that scientists will find more places where agriculture may have emerged even earlier. The birth of agriculture is often referred to as the Neolithic Revolution since it seems to coincide with the Neolithic period—or new stone age. The Neolithic period’s name stems from the fact that stone artifacts were more smooth and refined than those of the Paleolithic period, or old stone age. Many of these tools facilitated early agriculture.

What is the name of the branch of agriculture that herds animals?

Pastoralism: a branch of agriculture. A branch of agriculture—called pastoralism—began around the same time as cultivation of plants. Pastoralism is the domestication and herding of animals such as goats, sheep, and cattle.

What was the first agriculture?

The first agriculture was likely cultivation of wild species of plants and basic herding of livestock. As time went on, humans became more and more sophisticated at breeding the plants and livestock that best met our needs. The corn you see in the grocery store and the pigs, cows, and sheep you see at a farm did not evolve independently in the wild. They are the product of thousands of years of human selection and breeding from original, wild forms.

Why did preagricultural societies need more energy?

For many of these preagricultural societies, a good bit of their energy went into just getting more energy—in other words, food—to keep going and reproduce. There also couldn’t be too many humans living in one area since there was only so much food to be found or killed .

What is the relationship between pastoralists and farmers?

Pastoralists’ military-related artifacts suggest that they may have come into conflict with farming societies; however, in other cases, pastoralists traded goods with farmers in a cooperative relationship.

Why is breeding plants and animals important?

This is because breeding plants and animals has significantly increased the availability of human consumable calories per square kilometer. One way to think about it is that we replaced things that weren’t consumable by humans with things that were.

What is the history of agriculture?

History of Agriculture: Farming Through the Ages. Advancing technology has been the biggest influence on farming through the history of agriculture. Not only does farming provide us food, but it also supplies materials to other industries, like cotton for textiles, making it an essential component of the economy.

What was the first crop in the Neolithic era?

The earliest known cultivated crops include wild ancestors of wheat, barley, and peas.

What crops were hybridized in the 20th century?

Some crops still commonly produced as hybrids include cucumbers, peppers and onions. In addition to seed modifications, the 20 th Century saw the fastest development of agricultural technology in history. For example, machines, such as grain combines and tractors, were modified to be more efficient and powerful.

What were the first animals to be domesticated?

At around the same time, cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs became the first animals to be domesticated. As farming spread and developed over the years, more and more varieties of crops were grown.

Why was hybrid corn favored over natural corn?

In the early 1900s, hybrid corn was favored over its natural counterpart because of its significantly higher yields. When farms were able to produce more corn, it could be sold for less, making it more accessible to the masses. Hybrid corn is created from breeding two different varieties of corn.

What was the first irrigation method?

The first irrigation methods involved underground channels called qanats.

What were the main things we started doing in the middle ages?

As we entered the middle ages, we started creating dams, reservoirs, and water raising machines, resulting in complex irrigation systems.

Where did agriculture develop?

Fertile Crescent where Agriculture Developed. The history of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent region of the Near Eastt, spanning modern-day Iraq, Syria, western Iran, southern Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, and Israel. This rise is a complex topic that fundamentally altered the course of humanity.

How did agriculture influence settlement?

Greater dependence on agriculture appears to have encouraged greater emphasis on settlement. With a greater dependence on plant and animal domestication, it became a greater hindrance to travel farther distances and exploit hunting and gathering resources. Therefore, settled societies became possible with the rise of agriculture. This had profound importance in social development, as it led to new household institutions, including nuclear and extended families, and adaptation to greater numbers of people in smaller spaces. The latter is significant because this ultimately leads to the rise of cities and the development of laws, governments, and formal religions.

What are some examples of agriculture?

This includes the domestication of sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, dogs, donkeys, onager, wheat, barley, oats, and others. Many of these varieties of plants and animals were domesticated between …

How does agriculture affect society?

In essence, agriculture creates new social problems, whereby greater numbers of people living in more confined spaces need to create new social practices to manage their social interactions. In many respects, the foundations to our societies whereby laws, governments, and social norms that regulate how we marry, interact and structure our families were initially developed at the time of agricultural domestication and its spread becoming the norm. In time, social structures created began to reinforce the need for agriculture, that is societies becoming dependent on them, encouraging people to stay settled and follow given social norms such as those that developed with the rise of agriculture.

Why is domestication occurring in the Near East?

One is the geography, where the Near East contains many wild progenitors of domesticates. The region along the Zagros and Taurus mountains, valleys, and lowlands is home to wild varieties of wheat, lentils, oats, barley, sheep, …

Why are cows considered domesticated?

Such a selective process and the fact that these types of animals lend themselves well to domestication enables the relatively early development of animals domestication. It is animal domestication that we first begin to see have an impact on agriculture, as it occurred more quickly than plant domestication.

Why did societies develop across the globe?

Societies have subsequently developed across the globe because of these agricultural advances and the factors that caused the rise of agriculture range from genetic circumstances, geographical factors, favorable climatic conditions, and social developments that encouraged greater dependence on agriculture over time .

Overview

Agriculture or farming is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculturebegan thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farm…

Etymology and scope

The word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager ‘field’ and cultūra ‘cultivation’ or ‘growing’. While agriculture usually refers to human activities, certain species of ant, termite and beetlehave been cultivating crops for up to 60 million years. Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to “produce commodities which maintain life, including food, fiber, forest products, horticultural crops, and t…

History

The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centers of origin. Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. From around 23,000 years ago, the eight Neolithic …

Types

Pastoralism involves managing domesticated animals. In nomadic pastoralism, herds of livestock are moved from place to place in search of pasture, fodder, and water. This type of farming is practised in arid and semi-arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia and some parts of India.
In shifting cultivation, a small area of forest is cleared by cutting and burning th…

Contemporary agriculture

From the twentieth century, intensive agriculture increased productivity. It substituted synthetic fertilizers and pesticides for labour, but caused increased water pollution, and often involved farm subsidies. In recent years there has been a backlash against the environmental effects of conventional agriculture, resulting in the organic, regenerative, and sustainable agriculturemovements. O…

Production

Overall production varies by country as listed.
Cropping systems vary among farms depending on the available resources and constraints; geography and climate of the farm; government policy; economic, social and political pressures; and the philosophy and culture of the farmer.
Shifting cultivation (or slash and burn) is a system in which forests are burnt, r…

Crop alteration and biotechnology

Crop alteration has been practiced by humankind for thousands of years, since the beginning of civilization. Altering crops through breeding practices changes the genetic make-up of a plant to develop crops with more beneficial characteristics for humans, for example, larger fruits or seeds, drought-tolerance, or resistance to pests. Significant advances in plant breeding ensue…

Environmental impact

Agriculture is both a cause of and sensitive to environmental degradation, such as biodiversity loss, desertification, soil degradation and global warming, which cause decrease in crop yield. Agriculture is one of the most important drivers of environmental pressures, particularly habitat change, climate change, water use and toxic emissions. Agriculture is the main source of toxins released into the …

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