how are agricultural chemicals grouped

Contents

image

In the broadest sense, agricultural chemicals can be divided into two large categories, those that promote the growth of a plant or animal and those that protect plants or animals. To the first group belong plant fertilizers and animal food supplements, and to the latter group belong pesticides, herbicides

Herbicide

Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are substances used to control unwanted plants. Selective herbicides control specific weed species, while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed, while non-selective herbicides can be used to clear waste ground, industrial and construction sites, r…

, animal vaccines, and antibiotics.

Full
Answer

What are agricultural chemicals?

In the broadest sense, agricultural chemicals can be divided into two large categories, those that promote the growth of a plant or animal and those that protect plants or animals. To the first group belong plant fertilizers and animal food supplements, and to the latter group belong pesticides, herbicides, animal vaccines, and antibiotics.

What are the different types of agrochemicals?

Agricultural Chemicals. Agricultural chemicals are defined as chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, and fertilizers used in agriculture to control pests and disease or control and promote growth. From: Investigations: 150 Things You Should Know (Second Edition), 2018. Related terms: Cytochrome P450; Enzymes; Herbicides; Carcinogens

What is the importance of agrochemicals in agriculture?

Insecticides and rodenticides generally present a much greater danger to non-target animal species, including humans. This chapter covers the toxicologic pathology profiles of four major classes of agricultural chemicals: herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, and rodenticides.

Are agrochemicals used in animal husbandry?

The different types of chemicals used in agriculture are: Herbicides (To kill weeds) Insecticides: (To kill bugs) Fungicides: (To get rid of disease) Soil fumigants, desiccants, harvest aids, and plant growth regulators. Natural pesticides: Pesticides are not limited to conventional agriculture.

image

What are the two main classifications of agricultural chemicals?

In the broadest sense, agricultural chemicals can be divided into two large categories, those that promote the growth of a plant or animal and those that protect plants or animals.

What are the group of chemicals used in agriculture?

Agricultural chemicals are defined as chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, and fertilizers used in agriculture to control pests and disease or control and promote growth.

How are pesticides grouped?

Insecticides kill insects and other arthropods. Miticides (also called acaricides) kill mites that feed on plants and animals. Microbial pesticides are microorganisms that kill, inhibit, or out-compete pests, including insects or other microorganism pests. Molluscicides kill snails and slugs.

How are agrochemicals classified?

Classifications of Agrochemicals: In most of the cases, agrochemicals refer to pesticides which include insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, molluscicides, and nematicides. Agrochemical also includes fertilizers and soil conditioners.

How many different types of chemicals are used in agriculture?

There are three different kinds of pesticides; herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. All three of these pesticides are used to kill different kinds of pests that can be found on a farm. Farmers that make the decision not to use any chemicals are called organic farmers.

What is chemical method in agriculture?

(1) Definition of “agricultural chemicals”A InsecticidesAgents for controlling harmful insect pests that damage field crops.D HerbicidesAgents for controlling weedsE RodenticidesAgents for controlling rats and other rodentsF Plant growth regulatorsAgents to promote or inhibit the growth of field crops.5 more rows

What are Group 3 insecticides?

Pesticide Resistance ManagementGroup Number (chemical group)Chemical NameInsecticides/ Miticides3 (Pyrethroids)fenpropathrin4 (Neonicotinoids)thiamethoxamacetamiprid126 more rows

What is a Group 5 insecticide?

Group 5: Spinosyns. Spinosad is a metabolite produced during fermentation of the actinomycete, Saccharopolyspora spinosa, which is a soil-inhabiting microorganism. Spinosad is a mixture of spinosyns A (85%) and D (15%), which are the two biologically active metabolites responsible for insecticidal activity.

What is a Group 1 insecticide?

1 B. Organophosphates. Chlorpyrifos, Dimethoate, Maldison, Methidathion, Omethoate. 2B. Phenyl pyrazoles.

What are agro chemicals Name three agrochemicals and explain their effects on environment?

Agrochemicals and their Effects on the Environment They are the generic name given to chemicals such as fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides. Agrochemicals, as the name suggests, is used in agriculture to facilitate plant growth and protection. They are also called agricultural chemicals.

image

What are agricultural chemicals?

Agricultural Chemicals. Agricultural chemicals are defined as chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, and fertilizers used in agriculture to control pests and disease or control and promote growth. From: Investigations: 150 Things You Should Know (Second Edition), 2018.

What are the four classes of pesticides?

This chapter covers the toxicologic pathology profiles of four major classes of agricultural chemicals: herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, and rodenticides. In these limited pages we discuss a handful of pesticides within each class; materials that were chosen for their wide usage, diverse mechanisms, and often interesting toxicological profiles, and, occasionally, for their historical importance. Information on the sources, toxicology, pathology, and human risk as well as the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of significant unintended exposure is briefly synopsized for each selected chemical. A generous reference section will lead the curious into oceans of further reading.

How do pesticides affect the environment?

The use of agricultural chemicals, collectively known as pesticides, in the past several decades has led to significant reductions in crop losses resulting from insects, weeds, and plant diseases throughout the world. The toxicological properties that pesticides possess also present the potential for impacts upon human health and upon the environment. As an example, agricultural workers involved in the mixing, loading, and/or application of pesticides as well as those working in fields previously treated with pesticides face potential health risks resulting from excess exposure to the pesticides. Consumers are routinely exposed to pesticide residues in their foods, and the potential dietary risks from pesticide exposure have been the subject of considerable government study, regulation, and societal concern.

How many pesticides are there in the world?

The term “agricultural chemicals” has largely been replaced by the term “pesticides.” Approximately 1000 pesticides are available in various preparations such as dusting powder, emulsions, solutions, water dispensable powders, fumigants, and others. Pesticides are biocides capable of killing all forms of life. They are among the most widely used group of chemicals in the modern world and have provided immense benefits to humankind by enhancing food production and improving health via nutrition. However, their massive and indiscriminate use in crop protection, food preservation, and insect and pest control has led to acute or chronic poisoning incidents in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, and has resulted in widespread ecological adverse effects.

How much was pesticides used in 2001?

In 2001, world pesticide use exceeded five billion pounds, with a value of about US$32 billion. The many hundreds of agricultural chemicals, like pharmaceuticals, have evolved rapidly since the mid-20th century toward improved specificity, efficacy, and safety profiles.

How do environmental problems arise?

Environmental problems have been proliferating from the relatively localized problems, represented by industrial pollution, to global problems. Actually, these problems stem from long-term human activities, represented by global warming and ecosystem degradation. Many other environmental issues like management of wastes and hazardous substances have also become serious problems. To solve these issues, NIES is making use of the synergies within its institute, and paying attention to interdisciplinary collaboration.

Can fungicides be used on animals?

Current generation herbicides and fungicides are, of course, not designed to be active in animals. Consequently, with a few notable exceptions, animal toxicity is only observed at very high doses. Insecticides and rodenticides generally present a much greater danger to non-target animal species, including humans.

What are agrochemicals?

Agrochemicals are characterized by toxic characteristics, resistance to degradation and the ability to be bioaccumulated and transported through air, water, and organisms, across international boundaries and then deposited far from their place of release. Their use helps increase crop productivity in agricultural fields worldwide. Some agrochemicals such as rodenticides, POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants), OP’s (Organophosphate) and Carbamate compounds have posed serious conservation concern for species that are at the top of the food webs ( Smits and Naidoo, 2018 ).

How do agricultural chemicals affect water?

Agricultural chemicals have a high probability of affecting water supplies if they have a significant water solubility, are not rapidly degraded, and have a low affinity for soils. Fortunately, most chemicals currently used in agriculture do not fit this category. However, the large volume used of certain chemicals that are mobile in soils does result in adverse impacts on both surface water and groundwater. The most widespread example of this is nitrates derived from the use of fertilizers. The concentrations of nitrate in surface waters frequently exceed drinking water standards during certain times of the year. A more pervasive problem, however, is the relatively widespread contamination of groundwater by nitrate. These concentrations will remain high for years to come, even if practices introducing them into the groundwater were stopped today.

What chemicals are associated with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma?

Agricultural chemicals have been associated with an increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, and the strongest associations involve phenoxy herbicides such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), which was also a component of Agent Orange (Chapter 18 ). An increased risk has also been associated with ionizing radiation ( Chapter 19), organic solvents, hair dyes, and nitrates in drinking water, although contradictory results have been reported. Some studies have also linked non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas to high-fat diets and ultraviolet radiation (Chapter 183). The risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas is increased approximately 20-fold after treatment for Hodgkin’s disease (Chapter 192 ). Heavy smokers ( Chapter 31) have an increased risk of developing follicular lymphoma.

How much pesticides were used in 2001?

In 2001, world pesticide use exceeded five billion pounds, with a value of about US$32 billion. The many hundreds of agricultural chemicals, like pharmaceuticals, have evolved rapidly since the mid-20th century toward improved specificity, efficacy, and safety profiles. Current generation herbicides and fungicides are, of course, not designed to be active in animals. Consequently, with a few notable exceptions, animal toxicity is only observed at very high doses. Insecticides and rodenticides generally present a much greater danger to non-target animal species, including humans.

What chemicals are toxic to males?

Agricultural chemicals implicated in male reproductive toxicity include DDT, epichlorhydrin, ethylene dibromide, kepone, and the dioxins (Worton et al., 1977). DBCP, a nematocide widely used in agriculture, is a testicular toxicant and induces hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (Mattison, 1983; Potashnik and Yanai-Inbar, 1987 ). DDT, a commonly used pesticide, and its metabolites ( p, p ′-DDT and p,p′-DDE) have estrogenic effects in males by blocking the androgen receptors (Kelce et al., 1994; McLachlan and Arnold, 1996 ). The levels of serum free/bound toxicant will influence the androgen-blocking capacity ( Mattison, 1983). The plasma/tissue concentration of an estrogenic toxicant depends on the detoxification and elimination mechanisms in the organism. These agents can disrupt the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis shown in Fig. 1, thus affecting the endocrine and reproductive functions (Table 1 ).

Why do farmers use pesticides?

Conclusion: Farmers (both conventional and organic) must use pesticides in order to produce enough food to feed the world. Pesticide use peaked in the 1980’s and will continue to decline as farmers and scientists develop new and more effective methods.

What is the EPA’s continuous reevaluation of registered pesticides?

EPA’s continuous reevaluation of registered pesticides, combined with strict FQPA standards, major improvements in science, and an increase in the use of safer, less toxic pesticides, has led to an overall trend of reduced risk from pesticides. ”. – E.P.A.

Why are pesticides so toxic?

Glyphosate (the most popular herbicide in agriculture) is the least toxic agro-chemical on the list. This is one of the reasons farmers have used it so much instead of other chemicals over the years. Another reason is because glyphosate resistant plants (GMOs) were developed so that farmers could control weeds post emergence with a safer chemical like glyphosate. Household items more toxic than glyphosate include baking soda, table salt, Tylenol, and caffeine.

Why did pesticides decrease?

Reasons for the initial rise include no-till agriculture, herbicide resistant crops, and crops like corn and soybeans being planted over more acres. Reasons for the decline include more effective pesticides, better application technology, genetic engineering (GMOs) and new production methods like cover crops. (This is further explained in Part 2)

Why is glyphosate considered a safer chemical?

This is another reason glyphosate is considered a safer chemical, because it is a herbicide. Over the last 50 years, the use of safer herbicides has risen while the use of insecticides and fungicides has declined.

What percentage of pesticides were used in 1960?

Insecticides in 1960: 58 percent of pesticides – 2008: 6 percent of pesticides

Why do farmers wear protective gear?

This is why farmers wear protective gear when applying pesticides.

What are agricultural chemicals?

The Agricultural Chemicals Regulation Law defines “agricultural chemicals” as chemical agents such as fungicides and insecticides that are used to control crop-harming organisms (e.g., fungi, nematodes, mites, insects, and rodents) or viruses (hereinafter collectively referred to as “diseases and pests”) (the “crop,” as used herein, shall include wood and agroforestry products and those used to promote or inhibit the physiology of agricultural and other products, such as plant growth regulators and germination inhibitors (Hereinafter referred to as “agricultural and other products). The chemical agents here include those manufactured using the above chemical agents as raw materials or ingredients that are intended to control the diseases and pests that are stipulated in the ordinances. The law also includes “natural enemies” and “microorganisms” that are used to control diseases and pests of agricultural and other products, as the agricultural chemicals.

How did the advent of chemically synthesized agricultural chemicals affect the agricultural industry?

Postwar advances in technology saw the advent of chemically synthesized agricultural chemicals, which brought about an increase in crop yield and efficiency in farm work . Figure 1 shows the chronological changes in total labor hours and weeding time in the rice paddies. A weeding time of 50 hours per 10 are in 1949 dropped to approximately 2 hours per 10 are in 1999, showing that herbicides had made the weeding work more efficient. However, these agricultural chemicals were highly toxic to humans; some caused frequent accidents during use, some were highly residual in crops (crop residue), and some were highly residual in soils. This became a social concern in the decade from 1965.

What are the agents that attract mainly harmful insect pests by odor or other means?

Agents that attract mainly harmful insect pests by odor or other means. H Repellents. Agents for having repellent action on harmful mammals and birds that damage field crops. I Spreaders. Agents that are mixed with other agricultural chemicals to enhance the adherence of these chemicals.

What is the purpose of an agent?

Agents for controlling harmful insect pests that damage field crops. Agents for controlling diseases that damage field crops. Agents that simultaneously control harmful insect pests and diseases that damage field crops. Agents to promote or inhibit the growth of field crops.

How to protect field crops from disease?

These methods include breeding varieties resistant to pests and diseases, cultural control of diseases and pests by plowing and removing crop debris after harvest, weed control using vinyl sheeting and spreading straw, physical pest control such as soil disinfection using solar heating, and biotic control using natural enemies such as spiders. In addition, agricultural chemicals are used because they produce certain effects with less effort.

What was used to kill rice bugs?

In Japan, farmers used to walk around the rice paddies in procession yelling, with drums, alarm bells, torches to drive away rice bugs. This is called “mushi-oi” or “mushi-okuri” (meaning driving away noxious insects). In the Edo Era, a new method was invented, in which whale oil was sprayed on rice paddies to destroy harmful insect pests on rice, which was used until the early Showa Era. In the days before World War II, naturally-derived pesticides such as pyrethrums (the same ingredient as that in mosquito coils) and nicotine sulfate (from tobacco), or naturally derived fungicides such as copper and lime sulphur were used. However, weed control depended solely on hand weeding, and this continued until herbicides were developed after the war. Hand weeding under the scorching sun is very hard labor.

What is agricultural chemical?

An agricultural chemical or agriculture chemical is also called agrochemical or agrichemical. Agricultural chemicals are chemicals used in agriculture . Agriculture chemicals are produced by agrochemical industries which are useful individuals and businesses engaged in agriculture either on a small scale or large scale which are often referred to as subsistence agriculture or commercial agriculture respectively. The chemicals used in agriculture by agriculturists and / or farmers at different stages of farming and agriculture are essential for a number of reasons. These agricultural chemicals used in agriculture come in different compositions, quantities and qualities. Besides, these agriculture chemicals used in agriculture are used at different point in times. Also, agrochemicals used in agriculture have different methods or techniques in their applications in order to obtain the best results. Moreover, agrichemicals used in agriculture varies in prices. It is important to note that agriculture chemicals are mostly used for plant production. However, some agrochemicals are as well used in animal husbandry. As a matter of fact, the use of agricultural chemicals are very important in the production of agriculture products that are derived from animals or plants. It is on record that agricultural chemicals increase the yield of plants and animal production. Agriculture mechanization (use of agriculture equipment and agriculture machinery) or farm mechanization (use of farm equipment and farm machinery) are complemented with the use of agrochemicals since some of these agrichemicals are sometimes applied with the help of agriculture equipment and machinery especially in commercial farming.

Why are agricultural chemicals important?

Agrochemicals help increase soil aeration as well as increase the water holding capacity of the soil for plant growth and development. As a result of these, there is improve nutrients for organisms, increase in food production and availability thus ensuring food security, and of course increase in revenue for the economy.

What is the purpose of liming agents?

Thus these agents adjust the PH of the soil to optimum PH that will be best for the growth of plants . When there is too much acid in the soil, liming agent like Calcium Hydroxide is applied to neutralize the acidity. However, if the soil is have high alkalinity and a plant that will do better in slightly acidic soil is to be grown then acidifying agents containing sulphur compounds are applied to the alkaline soil in order to neutralize the soil alkalinity.

What is fertilizer used for?

Fertilizer is a type of agriculture chemical that is used mainly in agriculture for the growth of plants and thereby increase plant production . Fertilizers are normally applied on a prepared farmland before, during or after planting. One of the importance of fertilizers is to supplement soil nutrients or replenish lost soil nutrients. Fertilizers are provide major macronutrients such as Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium (NPK) which are referred to as the three main macronutrients. Fertilizers also provide secondary macronutrients such as Magnesium, Calcium and Sulphur. Apart from these macronutrients, fertilizers also provide micronutrients ( e.g boron, manganese, iron, zinc, etc) for plants when applied to the soil for plants to absorb. These nutrients are essential for a range of functions such as growth and development of all parts of a plant.

What are the disadvantages of agrochemicals?

Some of the disadvantages of agricultural chemicals are that some of these chemicals used in agriculture may reduce soil fertility, sources of pollution which are harmful to the environment and humans and so cause serious health problems if not used controllably.

What are plant hormones?

Plant hormones are also called phytohormones. Plant hormones are typical agriculture chemicals or chemical messengers produced in some parts of a plant which however have physiological functions on target tissues which may be away from the site where they are produced. With the exception of ethylene which is a growth inhibitor, typical plant hormones are growth agents in that they help stimulate and regulate growth and development of plants. Plant hormones are produced by different parts of a plant. These plant hormones have direct effects or indirect effects through secondary messengers on their target tissues or cells. Research has shown that plant hormones either work synergistically or antagonistically.

What is inorganic fertilizer?

Inorganic fertilizers or synthetic fertilizers are fertilizers obtained from chemical reactions hence they are also called chemical fertilizers or artificial fertilizers.

What is agricultural chemistry?

Agricultural chemistry is an important part of the global agriculture industry. Also known as the agrichemical industry or agrochemical industry, it encompasses the various chemical products used in the agricultural industry. The agricultural chemical industry is an important aspect of modern agriculture worldwide.

What is crop protection?

Crop protection as it applies to agricultural chemicals, including the various types of pesticides such as insecticides and herbicides, and biotechnology, is an important (and often controversial) part of industrial agriculture globally.

AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS

As a distributor of specialty chemicals, we have the right team to service the agricultural chemical market.

OUR MISSION IS TO BE THE PREMIER PROVIDER OF CROP PROTECTION CHEMICALS TO AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS

We are dedicated to developing long-term relationships with customers through competitive pricing, guarantees, and excellent customer service. We continue to assist the traditional market’s migration towards the use of cost-reducing technology.

What are chemically related groups of active ingredients?

Chemically-related Groups of Active Ingredients. Many pesticide active ingredients affect pests in similar ways, and we re-evaluate them together as a group. Examples of groups include: Carbamate insecticides are widely used in homes, gardens, and agriculture. They affect the functioning of the nervous system in ways similar to the organophosphates.

How do organophosphates affect insects?

They affect the insect’s nervous system. Organophosphates range in toxicity for insects and humans (some are highly toxic), and they usually are not persistent in the environment. Our evaluation of risks from organophosphates resulted in the cancellation of several organophosphates and restrictions on the use of others.

What pesticides kill bees?

They have been associated with some bee kill incidents. Neonicotinoid pesticide products are applied to leaves and are used to treat seeds. They can accumulate in pollen and nectar of treated plants, which may be a source of exposure to pollinators.

Definition of “Agricultural Chemicals”

Image
The Agricultural Chemicals Regulation Law defines “agricultural chemicals” as chemical agents such as fungicides and insecticides that are used to control crop-harming organisms (e.g., fungi, nematodes, mites, insects, and rodents) or viruses (hereinafter collectively referred to as “diseases and pests”) (the “crop,” as used h…

See more on acis.famic.go.jp

Why Are Agricultural Chemicals used?

  • People have long endeavored to protect field crops from disease, pests and weeds. These methods include breeding varieties resistant to pests and diseases, cultural control of diseases and pests by plowing and removing crop debris after harvest, weed control using vinyl sheeting and spreading straw, physical pest control such as soil disinfection using solar heating, and bioti…

See more on acis.famic.go.jp

What Is The Magnitude of The Damage Caused by Diseases, Pests and Weeds?

  • In the era in which no effective methods were available to control diseases and pests, in the Kyoho Era in Japan for instance, many people starved to death because planthoppers took a heavy toll on rice production. In other countries, in Ireland for instance, a severe potato blight (potatoes are the major food staple there) caused a devastating famine. Previous investigation r…

See more on acis.famic.go.jp

The History of Agricultural Chemicals

  • In Japan, farmers used to walk around the rice paddies in procession yelling, with drums, alarm bells, torches to drive away rice bugs. This is called “mushi-oi” or “mushi-okuri” (meaning driving away noxious insects). In the Edo Era, a new method was invented, in which whale oil was sprayed on rice paddies to destroy harmful insect pests on rice, which was used until the early Showa Er…

See more on acis.famic.go.jp

Leave a Comment