How are agricultural pesticides formulated and applied


Some liquid pesticide formulations commonly used by farmers and commercial applicators are applied with a compressed air sprayer, fogger, or soil injector. 6 Other liquid pesticide formulations used by farmers may require the use of aircraft, low pressure boom sprayer, high-pressure sprayer, or ultra-low-volume sprayer. 6


What are pesticide formulations?

Pesticide formulations are a combination of one or more active ingredients (a.i.), which control pests, and several inert ingredients. Many a.i.s are not soluble in water. Some may be toxic or unsafe to handle.

Why are pesticides used in agriculture?

As a result, the immense burden of diseases caused by these vectors has been substantially reduced or eliminated. They have been used by farmers to control weeds and insects in agricultural cultivation, and remarkable increases in agricultural products have been reported as a result of pesticide use.

What are the factors that affect pesticide formulation?

The type of surface, training, equipment, runoff, drift, habits of the pest, and safety are all considered when a manufacturer designs a pesticide formulation. 3 Some formulations are more effective on certain surfaces than others.

What is a pesticide?

Pesticides are chemical substances intended for fighting insects, pests, fungi, rodents and microbes. A lot of pesticides are found to be harmful to the health of humans and animals or dangerous for the environment.


How are pesticides formulated?

What makes up a formulation? The pesticide formulation is a mixture of active and other ingredients (previously called inert ingredients). An active ingredient is a substance that prevents, kills, or repels a pest or acts as a plant regulator, desiccant, defoliant, synergist, or nitrogen stabilizer.

How are pesticides applied?

Applications of pesticides directly on or in the soil are soil applications. There are several types of soil appli- cations. Pesticides applied with this technique may be soil-active herbi- cides, systemic insecticides taken up by the roots, or pesticides targeting soil organisms.

How are pesticides prepared?

Pesticide is a chemical that kills pests. In the firm of pesticides firstly an active ingredient is synthesized in a chemical factory. Then, active ingredient and carrier (for liquid pesticides or with inert powder or dry fertilizer) mixes by a formulator for dust pesticides. Then bottles or packages it.

How are pesticides used in agriculture?

Pesticides are used in agriculture to control weeds, insect infestation and diseases. There are many different types of pesticides; each is meant to be effective against specific pests. Some examples include: Algaecides to kill and/or slowing the growth of algae.

How are pesticides applied to soil?

Pesticides in soil may be taken up by plant roots and moved to other plant tissues, including the fruit. Pesticides applied to sandy or course-grained soils are more likely to leach through the soil and contaminate groundwater.

What are the safety measures in formulating fertilizer and organic pesticides?

Mix pesticides outdoors or in well-ventilated areas. Mix only what you need to use in the short term to avoid storing or disposing of excess pesticide. Be prepared for a pesticide spill. Have paper towels, sawdust or kitty litter, garbage bags, and non-absorbent gloves on hand to contain the spill.

What are the types of pesticides formulation?

Pesticides are available in various “formulations”. A formulation is simply the form of a specific product that you use. Some insecticide formulations include dusts, gels, granules, liquids, aerosols, wettable powders, concentrates, and pre-mixed solutions.

What are the types of formulation?

Types of Pharmaceutical FormulationsOral drugs.Parental Formulations.Topical Formulations.Modified release Formulations.Modified release Formulations.Modified release Formulations.Novel Drug Formulations.Oncological Formulations.

Why formulation of pesticides is important?

The purpose of formulating pesticide active ingredients for crop protection is to uniformly spread a small amount of an active chemical over a large area. The goal is to ensure safety in handling and during application and to optimize pesticide efficacy.

How much pesticides is used in agriculture?

About 1 billion poundsPesticides Active. About 1 billion pounds of conventional pesticides are used each year in the United States to control weeds, insects, and other pests.

How are pesticides distributed?

Pesticides are usually distributed in the organism by binding with plasma proteins, blood cells, and lipids in different organs and peripheral tissues [113]. The strength of binding is determined by the lipophilicity of molecules.

How do pesticides and chemicals help farmers in producing crops?

Farmers use pesticides to: protect crops from insect pests, weeds and fungal diseases while they are growing. prevent rats, mice, flies and other insects from contaminating foods whilst they are being stored. safeguard human health, by stopping food crops being contaminated by fungi.

What is the compatibility table for a range of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides?

Compatibility tables for a range of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides are included in annual NSW DPI production guides such as Orchard Plant Protection Guide, Weed Control in Winter Crops, Insect and Mite Control in Field Crops and Weed Control in Summer Crops.

What is ULV solution?

ULv solutions consist of the active ingredient in a small amount of organic solvent. ULvs are exclusively insecticides. They are not diluted and are are included under risks. the heading ‘Mixing’,Organic found in the General Instructions section of the label. The general instructions for Logran, a water dispersible granule, typically read:

What is a microencapsulate?

Microencapsulates are essentially a granule in a plastic or starch coating, usually in a pre-mix where they are suspended in water. Once diluted and sprayed out, the capsule provides a slow release of the active ingredient, e.g. Penncap-M (microencapsulated parathion).

What is an emulsifiable concentrate?

Emulsifiable concentrates consist of an oil-soluble active ingredient in a solvent ( neither of which is soluble in water) with an emulsifying agent. They are diluted with water, the droplets of the concentrate being dispersed through the solution. The emulsifying agent keeps the oil droplets suspended in the water rather than separating out and forming

What is a pellet?

Pellets are like granules but are mixed as a slurry or thick liquid which is then extruded under pressure like a long sausage and cut into a uniform shape, e.g. snail pellets and mouse baits.

What is suspension concentrate?

Suspension concentrates are essentially a water dispersible granule in a pre-mix. Fine granules (1-3microns) are suspended in water, to be further diluted in the spray tank. Another very popular formulation, used for most types of pesticide.

What is the active ingredient in a pesticide?

The active ingredient or constituent is the part of the formulation that is responsible for the pesticide’s biological activity, e.g. in an insecticide it is the part that kills the insect and in a herbicide the part that kills the weed.

What is emulsifiable concentrate?

Emulsifiable concentrates (ECs) represent 28% of total pesticide formulations (Knowles, 2009) and are particularly suitable for water-insoluble products. It is a formulation that combines an active substance dissolved in a water-immiscible solvent with emulsifiers.

What is Bt pesticide?

Bt is a common Gram-positive, spore-forming aerobic bacterium that is found in the soil ( Federici and Siegel, 2008). The bacteria produce a variety of related crystal (Cry) insecticidal proteins in parasporal bodies. The diversity among these Cry proteins provides control against a range of larval insect pests (Federici and Siegel, 2008 ). The first commercial Bt microbial formulation was launched in France in 1938 ( Sanchis, 2010 ). Bt microbial pesticides are highly regarded as environmentally friendly due to their species-specificity (controlling only target insect pest species) and their lack of environmental persistence (WHO/IPCS, 1999; Betz et al., 2000; OECD, 2007; Federici and Siegel, 2008 ). China has been probably the biggest user of Bt microbial pesticides where, over the last few decades, tens of thousands of tons of various Bt microbial formulations have been topically applied on agricultural food crops (rice, vegetables, maize, etc.) in forests and to potable water to control mosquitoes and other larval insects that are vectors of human disease (WHO/ICPS, 1999; Ziwen, 2010 ). According to data, there are at least 180 registered Bt microbial products in the US ( EPA, 1998) and over 120 microbial products in the European Union. There are reported to be approximately 276 Bt microbials registered in China ( Huang et al., 2007 ). Bt microbial pesticides were first registered in the US in 1961 ( Betz et al., 2000 ). They are also widely used in certified organic agricultural food production in the US, Europe, and other countries.

What is the most common method of pesticide delivery?

Spray application is the commonest method of pesticide delivery. It is convenient, flexible, and simple, but it lacks selectivity and there is a risk of contaminating nontarget areas. Hydraulic sprayers give a range of pesticide drop sizes, at the smallest extreme of which there is a tendency to drift away from the target area. Controlled droplet application (CDA) sprayers are much rarer, but they control drop size and as a consequence may reduce drift and increase efficiency.

Why is pesticide formulation important?

Pesticide formulation, which plays a vital role in determining the method and success or failure of application, is in itself quite important in ensuring safe and efficient performance of pesticides. Tropical conditions pose particularly difficult problems involving stability, physical condition, and otherwise satisfactory qualities of the products.

What is the method of achieving selectivity in control?

Manipulation of a pesticide’s formulation, timing, or method of application is another method for achieving selectivity in control. Granular formulations of pesticides that fall to the soil, for example, are unlikely to damage natural enemies that forage for hosts or prey on the foliage.

How long does it take for an animal to flush its eyes?

The treated eye is not washed; rather, the animal’s own tear secretions are allowed to flush the eye. The untreated eye serves as a control. Generally, the eyes are irrigated with 0.9% physiological saline after 24 hours. Both eyes are examined at 1, 24, 48, and 72 hours following treatment.

What is the nonionic component of a surfactant?

For instance the nonionic component could be nonyl phenol hydrophobic chain plus ethylene oxide and the anionic component, calcium salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid.

What is a pesticide formulation?

Formulation. A pesticide product as sold. Usually, a formulated product contains both active and inert ingredients. (Many formulations also contain one or more adjuvants – chemicals added to increase the effectiveness or safety of the product.)

What is an inert ingredient?

Inert ingredients. “inactive” components of a pesticide formulation that are used to dilute or extend the pesticide; make it more effective; and/or make it safer or easier to handle (measure, mix, and apply.) Inert ingredients have no direct affect on target pests.

What is suspension in science?

Suspension. a non-uniform (noncolloidal) dispersion of relatively coarse particles in a solvent; usually, suspension mixtures will settle without agitation or some other treatment; cloudy. An emulsion is a type of suspension; it is a mixture of two or more liquids that are not soluble in one another.

What is a WDG pesticide?

Like wettable powders, they suspend–but do not dissolve–in water. DFs & WDGs are basically WPs compressed into small, “dust-free” particles. DF/WDG products are sold with a pre-calibrated measuring device.

What is an oil soluble active ingredient?

an oil-soluble active ingredient, dissolved in one or more organic solvents; when added to water, form an emulsion (fine liquid particles suspended in another liquid) (ex. homogenized milk: in this case, milk fats and other compounds are suspended – but not dissolved – in a water-based medium)

What is a thick liquid suspension?

A thick, liquid suspension of a finely-ground active ingredient, suspended in a small amount of liquid (w/ inert ingredients, to facilitate further dilution with water prior to application).

What is an emulsifier?

Emulsifiable Concentrates (EC or E) Liquid in which the active ingredient is dissolved in oil or another organic solvent, with emulsifier (s) added to make it easier to mix with water. EC’s usually turn white or cloudy when mixed with water.

What is an emulsifier?

Emulsifiable Concentrate (E or EC) EC formulations usually contain an oil-soluble liquid active ingredient, a petroleum-based solvent, and an emulsifier (mixing agent). The emulsifier allows the active ingredient in the solvent to mix with water, these form an emulsion.

Why are adjuvants added to pesticides?

Although adjuvants themselves lack any direct pesticidal activity , they are added to pesticide formulations to improve product performance. You should know when and how to use an adjuvant. You must consider several factors when choosing a pesticide formulation. These include.

What are some examples of RTU?

Example RTU formulations include aerosols (A), granules (G), and most baits (B). Most pesticide formulations are liquid or dry materials. Some pesticides are available in more than one. Cost is always a consideration but safety and pest management concerns should come first.

What is an aerosol?

Aerosol (A) These formulations contain one or more active ingredients and a solvent. Most aerosols contain a low percentage of active ingredient. There are two types of formulations. Ready-to-use (RTU) aerosol formulations are usually small, self-contained units that release pesticide when the nozzle valve is triggered.

What is the purpose of an emulsifier?

An emulsifier allows the active ingredient and the solvent to mix evenly with water before application. Some agitation may be necessary to keep an emulsion from separating.

How does inert gas work?

An inert pressurized gas pushes the pesticide through a fine opening when the gas is released, creating fine droplets. These products are effective in greenhouses, in small areas inside buildings, or in localized outdoor areas. Commercial models, which hold 5 to 10 pounds of pesticide, are usually refillable.

How much pesticide can be refilled?

Commercial models, which hold 5 to 10 pounds of pesticide, are usually refillable. Smoke or Fog Generator formulations are used in machines that use a rapidly whirling disk or heated surface to produce and distribute very fine droplets.

What is AI formulated with?

The AI is usually formulated with other materials and this is the product as sold, but it may be further diluted in use. Formulations improves the properties of a chemical for handling, storage, application and may substantially influence effectiveness and safety.

What is the biological activity of pesticides?

The biological activity of a pesticide, be it chemical or biological in nature, is determined by its active ingredient (AI – also called the active substance ). Pesticide products very rarely consist of pure technical material. The AI is usually formulated with other materials and this is the product as sold, but it may be further diluted in use.

How are pesticides classified?

Pesticides can be grouped or classified in several different ways, including by the pests they control, their chemical structure, how/when they work, or their mode of action (site of action).

How are pesticides grouped?

Pesticides can be grouped according to their mode of action or the way a pesticide controls the target pest. This is also referred to the primary site of action. For example, one insecticide may affect an insect’s nerves while another may affect moulting. One herbicide may mimic the plants growth regulators and another may affect the plants ability to convert light into food. The MOA of a pesticide is listed on the label as a group number or letter. Products with a similar MOA will have the same group number.

What is the difference between active ingredient and inert pesticide?

When a pesticide active ingredient (a.i.) is manufactured, it is not in a usable form. It may not mix well with water or may be unstable. Therefore the active ingredient is mixed with other compounds to improve its effectiveness, safety, handling and storage. This mixture of active ingredient and inert (inactive) ingredients is called a pesticide formulation. Some formulations come ready to use while others must be mixed before use. One active ingredient is often made into several different formulations.


Using Pesticide Formulations

Pesticide formulations are a combination of one or more active ingredients (a.i.), which control pests, and several inert ingredients. Many a.i.s are not soluble in water. Some may be toxic or unsafe to handle. Others may be unstable during storage. The inert ingredients are included in a formulated product to solve these problems. Some inert ingre…

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Liquid Formulations

  • Most liquid formulations are diluted with water to make a finished spray. However, some labels direct users to mix the product with another solvent such as crop oil or other light oil as a carrier. The three main types of liquid formulations are solutions, suspensions, and emulsions: A solutionis made by dissolving a substance in a liquid. A true solution is a mixture that cannot be separated by a filter or other mechanical means. Normally, it will not se…

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Pesticide Tank Mixtures

  • Combining two or more pesticides in a tank mix can be convenient and cost-effective, saving time, labor, fuel, and equipment wear. Combined applications also reduce soil compaction and the risk of mechanical damage to crops or treated areas. Situations appropriate for tank mixing include combining a fungicide and insecticide to treat fruit trees or field crops or to combine two (2) or more herbicides to increase the number of weed species controlled …

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Additives / Adjuvants

  • Additives / adjuvants are chemicals that may improve the action of a pesticide OR change the characteristics of a pesticide formulation or a spray mixture. Before using any adjuvant, consult the pesticide product label. Some products have very specific recommendations or prohibitions for adjuvants. If a label instructs you to use an adjuvant, use the type called for at the directed rate. Many products already contain those adjuvants that the ma…

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  • The components of a formulated pesticide include both active and inert ingredients. The active ingredient controls the pest. Inert ingredients include carriers or diluents and adjuvants. The type of formulation may be provided in the identifying information on the front panel of the label. Learn what formulations are available for the pesticide active ingredients you will use. To decide which formulation is best for a specific site and situation, you must kn…

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