How are biological organisms used to control pests in agriculture


Pest Control by Biological Methods in Agricultural Crops Pest control by biological methods involves the use of certain insects, fungi, bacteria, etc. against pests and can be an alternative to chemical treatments. The main pests fought by the biological means in vegetables are: the greenhouse moss, the red spider and the fleas.

There are three primary methods of using biological control in the field: 1) conservation of existing natural enemies, 2) introducing new natural enemies and establishing a permanent population (called “classical biological control”), and 3) mass rearing and periodic release, either on a seasonal basis or inundatively.


What is the purpose of biological pest control?

Biological pest control is aimed at conserving the ecosystem by protecting agricultural produce as well as conserving the natural enemy. Biocontrol employs ‘biological agents’ to reduce pests or eliminate their negative impact on agricultural productivity, such that it brings about an ecological balance.

What are the methods of pest control in agriculture?

The use of Water Wand is one of the modifications of the mechanical method of pest control in recent times. Trap Cropping – this is used to trap the pest by using a plant that draws the attention of pests so that they are distracted from the crops on the farm.

How do farmers use biocontrol to control pests?

Farmers have used biocontrol to control pests for centuries. Here are a few examples: In the 1880s, California citrus farmers introduced the Australian vedalia beetle to their plantations in an effort to decrease and control the population of cottony cushion scales in the area.

What is microbial control of insects?

Microbial control of insects is achieved through the inundative application of allowable formulations of insect-pathogenic bacteria (e.g., Bacillus thuringiensis ), insect-pathogenic fungi (e.g., Beauveria bassiana), or insect viruses. Information about rates and timing of release are available from suppliers of beneficial organisms.


What is the biological method of controlling pest?

Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms. It relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms, but typically also involves an active human management role.

What is the major method of pest control in agriculture?

Pesticides. Pesticides are the most common pest control method which can be done by anyone. They are very simple to use, especially the ones which come in a spray.

How are microbes used to control pest and disease?

Microorganism e.g., a bacterium, fungus, virus or protozoan as the active ingredient can control many different kinds of pests, although each separate active ingredient is relatively specific for its target pest. For example, there are fungi that control certain weeds, and other fungi that kill specific insects.

Which choice is an example of biological method of pest control?

The most successful example of biological management is the use of bacteria to kill caterpillars.

What are some examples of biological control?

Some notable examples of classical biological control include the use of decapitating flies (several Pseudacteon species) against red imported fire ants, and a group of flea beetles, thrips, and stem borers used against alligator weed.

How do you control pests in crops?

Pest control in agricultural crops is generally achieved by chemical pesticides which are effective and have a ‘knock-down’ effect on life stages of insects and mites. Recently, plant products have been experimented on in indoor cultivation and in fields.

How do biocontrol agents control the target species?

The biocontrol agents protect plants from their natural enemies like parasites, from predation, etc. They help in controlling the infestation of plant pests such as weeds, nematodes, insects, and mites. The biological control agents are specific to harmful organisms and do not kill useful organisms present in the soil.

What is the importance of biological control?

Biological control is the use of living organisms to suppress pest populations, making them less damaging than they would otherwise be. Natural enemies of insects play an important role in limiting the densities of potential pests. These natural enemies include predators, parasitoids, and pathogens.

How are microbes used as biocontrol agents give examples?

For example, Bacillus thuringiensis which is often referred to as Bt is a microbial biocontrol agent. Spraying the solution of Bt made of spores on plants will kill the butterfly caterpillars. The spores that are ingested release toxins in the guts of the larvae and kill them.

What is biocontrol in agriculture?

Biological control can be defined as the deliberate use of natural enemies – predators, parasites, pathogens, and competitors to suppress and maintain populations of a target pest species (insects, mites, weeds, plant pathogens, and other pest organisms).

What are the advantages of biological pest control?

Advantages of biological control?environmentally friendly because it causes no pollution and affects only the target (invasive) plant.self-perpetuating or self-sustaining and therefore permanent.cost-effective.More items…

What are the new biological control efforts?

New biological control efforts are currently needed for many existing pest problems, both for programs targeted against introduced pests and for additional work toward natural-enemy conservation in pest management systems. International man-assisted movement of plant material and insect pests will likely continue, and cause the unintentional eruption of new pests by shipping pest species to new locations while separating them from their natural enemies. Such pests eruptions will require research and action to locate and introduce natural enemies suitable for limiting the pests in their new environments. The dependence of civilization on agriculture, both in developed and developing countries, continues to press the need for integrated management systems for efficient and economical production. Such integrated systems increasingly rely on natural enemies to reduce both costs and pesticide use.

What is biological control?

Biological control is a form of pest control that uses living organisms (parasitoids, predators, or herbivorous arthropods) to suppress a pest׳s density to lower levels. There are four kinds of biological control, two of which – classical biological control and augmentative biological control – are …

What are the different types of biological control?

There are four kinds of biological control, two of which – classical biological control and augmentative biological control – are discussed in this article and two others – conservation biological control and biopesticides. Classical biological control is the deliberate importation and release of new species of natural enemies with the intention …

Why is biological control important?

Biological control has important advantages compared to other methods of pest control. Classical biological control is often cheaper and less polluting than use of pesticides, because pest control is relatively permanent and does not require annual retreatment. Initial costs of classical biological control are high, for discovery, importation, …

What are the major breakthroughs in molecular biology and biotechnology since the early 1980s?

Major breakthroughs in molecular biology and biotechnology since the early 1980s indicate that quick improvement in the competitive ability of biological control methods is possible , and that biopesticides can play a major role in crop protection in the future.

What are weaver ants?

Weaver ants are effective predators of a number of citrus pests, and these and similar ant species continue to play a very important role in the suppression of insect pests in citrus production in many parts of the world.

What animals are used to remove weeds?

Polyphagous agents (plant-feeding fish, sheep, cattle, geese, and other grazing animals) are useful in removing weeds in some situations (see later), but their numbers and actions must be carefully regulated to avoid damage to nontarget plants. Although these vertebrate grazers remove unwanted foliage, their inability to selectively regulate weed numbers limits their use in biological control.

What are nematodes in the soil?

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) live inside the infected insect host parasitically, and thus they are termed endoparasitic. They can infect many other different types of insects that are living in the soil like flies, butterflies, the larval forms of moths, and beetles. EPNs have been found all over the world and in a range of ecologically diverse habitats. They are highly diverse, complex, and specialized. The most commonly studied EPN’s are those that can be used in the biocontrol of harmful insects, which are the members of Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae. They are the only insect-parasitic nematodes that possess an optimal balance of biological control attributes.

What is an entomopathogenic nematode?

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are a group of nematodes also called threadworms, these can cause death to insects. The term entomopathogenic has a Greek origin, where the ‘entomon’ means insect, and pathogenic means causing disease. These animals are present in between microbial pathogens, parasitoids, and predators. These are habitually grouped with pathogens because of their symbiotic relationship with bacteria. Although many other parasitic threadworms can cause diseases in living organisms, the entomopathogenic nematodes are specific in infecting only insects.

What parasites lay eggs on insects?

Parasitoids: Parasitoids can lay their eggs on or inside the body of an insect host, which can further be used as food for the developing larvae. Whereas the insect host is killed ultimately. Most of the insect parasitoids are flies or wasps, and many of them have a very narrow host range. The most important groups are the ichneumonid wasps, which use caterpillars as their main hosts. The braconid wasps can attack caterpillars and a wide range of other insects that include aphids. The chalcid wasps can parasitize eggs and larvae of many of the insect species. Parasitoids are most effective at reducing pest populations while their host organisms have limited refuges to hide from them.

What is IPM in mosquito control?

Integrated pest management (IPM) is the use of the most environmentally appropriate method to control pest populations. Typical mosquito-control programs by using IPM involve conducting surveys, in order to determine the species composition that is affecting, relative abundance, and distribution of adult and larval mosquitoes that occur seasonally. After all these analyses the control strategy can be defined.

What are the predators of mosquitoes?

Biocontrol agents that have had lesser degrees of success include the predator mosquito Toxorhynchites and predator crustaceans such as Mesocyclops copepods, nematodes, and fungi. Predators such as bats, birds, lizards, and frogs have been used, but their effectiveness is only anecdotal. Invertebrate pathologists study the diseases that can affect mosquitoes in the hope that some of them can be utilized for mosquito management. Microbial pathogens of mosquitoes include bacteria, viruses, fungi, nematodes, protozoa, and microsporidia.

What are the three categories of enemies of arthropods?

Natural enemies of arthropods fall into three major categories such as predators, parasitoids, and pathogens.

How does biological control work?

Importation: Importation, also called classical biological control, involves the introduction of natural enemies of pests to a new locale where they are not capable of occurring naturally. Some of the early instances were often found unofficial and not based on research, and some introduced species became serious pests themselves. To be most effective at controlling a pest, a biological control agent requires a colonizing ability that allows it to keep pace with changes to the habitat in space and time. Control is the greatest if the agent has the temporal persistence to the cause. So that it can maintain its population even in the absence of the target species.

What is Biological Control?

Biological control is a method of pest control that manages the population of pests without chemical pesticides. This method can be used to control insects, small animals, and parasitic plants. This method typically involves introducing natural predators into the ecosystem.

How do farmers use biocontrol?

Farmers have used biocontrol to control pests for centuries. Here are a few examples: 1 In the 1880s, California citrus farmers introduced the Australian vedalia beetle to their plantations in an effort to decrease and control the population of cottony cushion scales in the area. The success of this example of classical biological control allowed the citrus industry in California to boom. 2 Nematodes that target insects have been used by farmers to control the populations of vine weevils. Specifically, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes, which release bacteria in the soil that infect and kill vine weevils, are used. 3 A spray of the entomopathogenic virus CpgV has been used successfully to control the population of codling moths, which infest apples and pears making them unsuitable for eating.

What is biocontrol in gardening?

Instead, biocontrol makes use of natural predators to control pest populations and protect garden plants. Rather than killing off the pest population entirely, you’re creating an ecological dynamic that maintains the pest population at a minimum. Here’s everything you need to know about the biological control of pests.

Why are predators used as biocontrol agents?

Most predators that are used as agents in biocontrol are used because they have the ability to eat large quantities of the pest. And the most optimal predator agents are those that can lower pest populations without causing an infestation of their own.

Why are trap plants important?

Trap plants are also used to keep pests away from the main crop. These plants are grown to divert a pest’s attention away from the main crops, minimizing damage to the main crop. Insectary plants. Insectary plants are used to boost and promote a pest’s natural enemies.

What are the best ways to control pests in your garden?

When controlling pests in your garden you have a few options: Chemical treatment (pesticides), or biological control . Pesticides are effective but can have an adverse effect on beneficial insects as well as the pests you’re targeting. They can also contaminate soil and water.

How to control pests?

If you want to try this method of controlling a pest population yourself, there are a few crucial steps you need to follow. Do your homework. Before you even plant your crops or purchase your control agents, you should do your research. Know which control agents work best with your crops and with your environment.

How to get rid of pests in a dirty environment?

Maintaining a clean environment – Most pests thrive in a dirty environment, so the best to get rid of them is to make it impossible for them to breed. Inter-cropping – This is a practice where different crops are planted on a piece of land. By inter-cropping, it will be difficult for the pest to survive.

How to get rid of pests on farm?

The best way to get rid of the trapped pest and prevent them from going back to the crops is to use pesticides on them.

What is the scale of agricultural production?

The scale of agricultural production. The effect on the product. For instance, if you are to use pesticides to control larvae pests in crops, you’ll need to take into consideration the effect of the chemical on the crop that will be consumed eventually. Pests can be divided into two main categories; Micro and Macro Pest.

Why is intercropping important?

By inter-cropping, it will be difficult for the pest to survive. Crop Spacing – When the crops are properly spaced, it will prevent the pests (especially micro pests) from traveling from one crop to the other. Cultural Pest Control is another natural and ecofriendly way of controlling the pest.

Why is macro pest control important?

On the other hand, MACRO PESTS are bigger; they also can cause monumental damage to agricultural produce. This is the reason why a pest control method must be adopted to eradicate pests or reduce their population to the barest minimum.

How do farmers win?

The only way farmers can win is when they can come up with the safest and most effective method of pest control in Agriculture. Pest Control is the strategy adopted to curtail or eradicate the presence of crops or animals destroying pests on the farm. Recently, there has been a lot of modification and improvement of pest control methods in …

What are some practices of cultural pest control?

Some of the practices of the cultural pest control method are; Crop rotation – The constant plantation of a different crop on the soil will help get rid of the pest. For instance, if the host crop of the pest was maize, the pest will be eradicated automatically once the farmer plants something entirely different.

How does push pull work?

The main characteristics of push pull strategy are efficiency, control efficiency, stability and without any environmental hazard. Moreover, the systems were found in Africa for sustainable agriculture. The Push pull strategy plays an important role in controlling stemborer. In this method, insects discharge two kinds of semiochemical when plants are damaged by herbivore such as ocimens and nonatriene. These compounds are responsible for highly stem borer colonization and used by parasitoids for foraging, would be repulsive to ovipositing stemborers. The components of push and pull are generally nontoxic and therefore, biological control connected with this strategy. In this tactics, the pests attract traps or trap crops to another area where they are detected and improving their control through spending attractive and highly motivations. In this strategy, plants are used combinedly as trap crops as well as intercrops that are suitable for the farmers. Recently, push pull strategies are being used by about ten thousand people to prevent cereal stemborer of maize and sorghum in eastern Africa. Agrobiodiversity and chemical ecology are exploited through push-pull strategy. In this method under plant chemistry, the trap plants secrete attractive volatiles and intercrops release repellent volatiles for control stem borer. Both gas chromatography (GC) and electroantennography that remain the antennae of stem borers and their natural enemies help to identify volatile chemicals which release from repellent and trap plants under the push pull ecology system. One experiment that was conducted by [ 20] showed that the reduction of damage in maize crops which occurred by stem borer ranged from 39.2% to 4.6%, whereas significantly higher level of stem borer was found in maize in that case 16.8% and 27.5% stem cutting and larval mining respectively, in the treatment as well as control plots, respectively.

How does tillage affect the environment?

Tillage has a great impact for increasing natural enemies and decreasing pest population. Tillage frequency, tillage types, tillage intensity influence the natural enemies and pest suppression. Particularly, less the amount of tillage affects the diverse species through providing a stable environment. The diversity of fauna and their availability depends on the tillage. The effects of tillage depend on the species to species and particularly their ecological characteristics. For instance, mostly pupal stage and larvae of a species which remain in soil are more vulnerable to tillage. A study was carried out by [ 17] reported that when parasite remained in soil during overwintering in the next spring, the rate of emergence reduced due to post harvest tillage. Proper application of tillage has a great impact on pest nematode management. The densities of plant-parasitic nematodes are greatly influenced by tillage practices. The number and types of insects are suppressed by reducing tillage or conservation tillage. The variation of conservation tillage has the potentiality to suppress specific pests. At the beginning of the reducing tillage influence the practices of basic pest management. Conservation tillage has great impact on insects. The higher amount of predator communities and 16% aphid predation more than in the field managed supported by conservation tillage [ 18] . It also enlarged the aphid parasitism rate. Under the condition of tillage conservation, vegetation of aphid predation and ground dwelling of arthropods were raised. Many insects destroyed through exposing them in weather and birds by deep ploughing. Besides this, many insects are hindered in soil physically.

How do cover crops help with pests?

Cover crops play a vital part not only for governing of insect pest but also decline hold soil nutrients, reduction soil compaction, soil erosion as well as produce organic matter. It basically harbors those insect pests which are harmful to the crops. On the other hand, natural enemies get shelter and resources from the cover crops resulting in decrease insect pest. The dispersion of cover crops within the perennial crops make a problem insecticide based pest management activities that suppress the natural enemies which remain in the field. Flowering cover crops is one component of farms aping that make farmland appropriate natural enemies in the whole growing season. More natural enemies were found particularly parasitoids in apple orchards connected with flowering borders than without flowering borders. Significant quantities of residue and surface vegetation are created by covering crops that can be achieved to increase control of pests. For instance, soil-dwelling herbivores namely colorado potato beetle suppressed by the cover crops through disturbing migration behavior and emergence resulting in increasing yield. Cover crops attack the pest’s capacity for colonize hosts by disrupting olfactory, visual cues, arresting physical barriers and generating diversions to noncrop hosts. Moreover, cover crops also destroy the established pest population by disrupting feeding, increasing mortality, inhibiting the reproduction and reducing dispersal from parasitoids and predators [ 14] . Conversely, cover crops with diversified agroecosystem decreased pest population in a similar way. Cover crops with conservation tillage decrease this regular disruption and help to enhance year round natural enemy and pest species interactions by supplying another hosts or prey as well as protection from adverse conditions. Thus, cover crops help to promote natural enemies and suppression of pest.

What is intercropping in agriculture?

Intercropping consists of multiple cropping systems in which two or more crops are grown at the same time in the growing season . It was reported by [ 15] that number of natural enemies and their richness are greatly influenced by intercropping resulting in wider reduction of pest species. Intercropping helps to reduce insect pest and increases natural enemies resulting in increased yield. It was observed that intercropping reduced pest and increased pest 53% and 18% experiments respectively, in comparison of the pure cropping [ 16] . The major pests such as Pseudococcus comstocki, Aphis citricola, and Psylla chinensis remarkably decreased due to intercropping whereas the numbers of their natural enemies (Phytoseiulus persimilisand, Coccinellan septempunctata and Chrysoperla sinica) enlarged and their frequency period late at varying degree. For instance, arthropod pest management could be improved considerably through intercropping including aromatic plants by influencing the community activity of valuable arthropod. One study about peach orchards of intercropping white clover indicated that the reduction of pest incidence resulting from increasing diversified arthropod community as well as natural enemies. Natural enemies also influenced by intercropping aromatic plants. In orchard ecosystems, intercropping would be more effective for pest management when the relationship between arthropods and aromatic plants remained. Intercropping crop plants along flowering species namely clove provide a suitable habitat for various natural enemies for biological control in the agroecosystems that helps to manage of natural pest.

How does habitat management affect natural enemies?

Habitat management influences the natural enemies through providing food, hibernation site, shelter and suppress the pests through arranging hedgerows, weed margin and alternative prey. Various forms of agricultural strategies such as crop rotation, intercropping, tillage are using for growing of natural enemies mainly predator and parasitoid that aids to suppress insect pest. The research question of my essay is how habitat management to enhance natural enemies and the effects of habitat management to suppress harmful insect pest in agricultural crops.

How to control insect pests?

Biological control through habitat management leads to sustainable insect pest control. Different types of land composition such as multiple landscapes, patchiness of landscapes enhance the natural enemies which ultimately lead to control of insect pest. Plant characteristics such as flower shape, flower color and blooming period ensures excess food for natural enemies like nectar and pollen. Moreover, some agricultural practices such as tillage, crop rotation, and intercropping influence the natural enemies especially parasitoid and preda-tors. Consequently, they increase longevity and fecundity of parasitoid and predator that help to control insect pest. One of the most important recently used methods is push-pull which consists of semiochemicals called Herbi-vore-Induced Plant Volatiles (HIPVs). This compound has been used to pre-vent pest and attract natural enemies.

How does a diversified landscape affect pest control?

Diversified landscape increased the higher and more diverse of natural enemy population resulting in increasing insect pest control. Besides these, it also helps to reduce pest population, reducing damage level and increasing yield or quality. Insect pest control function as well as biodiversity conservation is also potentially influenced by diversified landscape. The population of natural enemy as well as pest pressure in crops is also influenced by patchiness of the landscape. The results were reported from 24 studies that landscape composition improved natural enemy populations in 74% [ 8] . In addition, higher percentage population of natural enemy and less amount of pest pressure was observed. Complex patchy landscape influenced more natural pest control than simple large scale landscape.

What are the predatory mites?

Juan A. Morales-Ramos – Research Entomologists M. Guadalupe Rojas – Research Entomologists Most predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae and are highly effective predators used mainly to control the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae)in many different crops. However, phytoseiid mites have been shown to provide effective control of other mite pests as well as some insects including thrips and white flies (Bolckmans 2007). It is estimated that at least 20 species of phytoseiid mites are produced commercially and sold around the world for biological control of mite pests in different cultivars (Zhang 2003). Among the most important predatory mites produced commercially include Phytoseiulus persimilis(Figure 1), Amblyseius swirskii, Neoseiulus californicus, N. cucumeris, N. fallacis, Iphiseius degenerans, Galendromus helveolus, G. occidentalis, and Mesoseiulus longipes(Zhang 2003, Leppla 2014). Production methods range from open systems in greenhouses to fully enclosed using climate controlled rooms (Bolckmans 2007). Some predatory mites can be reared on alternative prey eliminating the need to culture plants for spider mite production. Others, like I. degenerans, can be reared solely on pollen. However some of the most important phytoseiid predators, like P. persimilis, must be produced on their natural prey (spider mites). This requires the use of multiple isolated greenhouses to culture bean plants, infest them with spider mites and then use them to feed the predators. A pure culture of spider mites (free of predators) must be maintained for inoculating the main production greenhouse, where predators are later introduced (Gilkeson 1992). A section of the bench is harvested when it has reached the maximum predator density. Introduction of P. persimilisinto the infested plants requires perfect timing to allow maximum spider mite reproduction without losing the plants to the mite infestation. Predator harvesting often exposes the predators to stressful conditions of starvation and many are lost to inefficient collection methods. Enclosed rearing systems offer the potential of greater control of environmental conditions and better containment preventing excessive losses. Several enclosed methods have been proposed to rear P. persimilisby introducing its natural prey into different types of enclosure (Theaker and Tonks 1977, Fournier 1985, Overmeer 1985, McMurtry et al. 1989, Shih 2001, Morales-Ramos and Rojas 2014). But, modifications to scale up those systems in order to achieve the required level of predator production have proven difficult. One promising example of an enclosed and continuous rearing system for phytoseiid mites has been developed in the National Biological Control Laboratory. This method relays on bean plants grown using trays and infested by spider mites. Plants are later cut from the soil base to release the trays, which are introduced into large cages where predatory mites are later introduced (Morales-Ramos et al. 2012) (Figure 2). Trays with freshly infested plants are introduced through a door to the upper part of the cage and after being exposed to the predatory mites for a week, they are removed from the bottom of the cage using a lower door. Trays are

What fungus can control Kudzu?

Figure 4. The bioherbicidal fungus, My rothecium verrucaria (MV), can control kudzu in the field. MV-treated plot (right); untreated control plot (left) Figure 5. Hemp sesbania, infected and killed by application of the bioherbicidal fungus, Colletotrichum truncatum in the field. Arrowheads depict infected, necrotic and/or dead seedlings

Why are ladybird beetles important?

Importance of Ladybird Beetles as Biocontrol Agents in Greenhouses and High Tunnels

What is a trichodermaspp?

Brad Elliot –Microbiologist Trichodermaspp., a cosmopolitan, filamentous fungi that is commonly isolated from soil, have been shown to enhance nutrient uptake, stabilise soil nutrients, promote root development and increase root hair formation (Harman, 2006) in plants. These attributes identify Trichodermaspp. as a promising biological control agent ideal for further research and product development for the control of insect pests. The drying of Trichodermaspp. on a large scale is a major constraint due to the loss of conidia viability at elevated temperatures, and can hinder the development of new products. Research conducted at the National Biological Control Laboratory has shown that the microencapsulation of the aerial conidia of Trichoderma harzianumthrough spray drying at elevated temperatures offers several advantages for formulation development and downstream processing of this organism (Jin, Custis, Biological Control 2011). Microencapsulation is generally defined as a process that encases one substance within another on a small scale. This process will normally produce encased materials ranging from less than one micron to several hundred microns in size. It is preferred that formulations of Trichodermaexhibit a level of 5 x 109cfu/g to be useful in a variety of applications (Harman and Custis, 2006). In order to achieve this density level the finished dried Trichodermaconidia must be greater than 90% pure conidia and be in the form of a flowable powder. Utilising different sugars as our microencapsulating agent we were able to develop a method for spray drying the conidia of Trichoderma harzianum. A two phase solid production system was used to produce the conidia needed for our research, utilising the liquid phase to produce our initial inoculums for the solid phase. Following liquid phase production in shake flasks solid media consisting of 50% Rice Chaff and 50% Extra Long Grain Enriched Rice was inoculated and incubated in growth rooms at 28OC for 10 days. Resulting conidia were washed from the solid media with DI water and poured through a 100 mesh screen. This conidial suspension was centrifuged to produce a paste which was then used for the subsequent microencapsulation and spray drying experiments. Varying levels of sucrose, molasses and glycerol solutions were analysed for their efficacy as microencapsulating agents, along with varying spray drying temperatures. Results indicated that Trichodermaconidia encapsulated with sugar solutions ranging from 0.5% to 8% resulted in higher survival rates (cfu/g) than the non-microencapsulated controls. Temperature studies indicated that optimum inlet drying temperatures are between 50OC and 80OC respectively. Our results demonstrated a spray drying process that could produce a flowable (particle size around 10-25µm) technical powder containing over 99% conidia ideal for use in formulation development.

What factors affect the success of ladybird beetles?

Successful suppression apparently depends on a number of biotic factors including host plant defenses (trichomes), predator/prey densities, and intraguild interactions of ladybirds with other biocontrol agents (predators and parasitoids) that could increase or even decrease suppression by ladybird beetles.

What is BCPRU in biology?

Michael Grodowitz – Research Entomologist The Biological Control of Pests Research Unit (BCPRU); whose main mission is the development of biological and biorational (i.e., having a minimal disruptive influence upon the environment and its inhabitants) components for sustainable and environmentally compatible pest management; is comprised of 10 scientists and 16 support personnel. The unit is housed within the USDA-ARS National Biological Control Laboratory (NBCL) located at the Jamie Whitten Delta States Research Center (JWDSRC) in Stoneville, Mississippi. The NBCL was officially formed in 2002. This laboratory is the first facility in the world to have both the infrastructure and the scientific specialisations needed to fully investigate integrated research on the use of biocontrol technologies. The BCPRU researchers develop practical methods of mass propagation, storage, delivery of beneficial organisms, targeted release strategies for integrated pest management, and application of classical biocontrol for the management of invasive insects and weeds. Current research activities include mass-rearing of economically important insect species, molecular biology of both insects and plant pathogens, fermentation, invasive ant management, and biocontrol of invasive weeds. In 2015, the BCPRU produced 17 publications; 1 patent; developed or modified artificial diets for three species; identified potential biorational compounds for invasive ant control; completed host-specificity studies on egg parasitoids of the kudzu and bagrada bugs; demonstrated cost effective strategies to reduce aflatoxin contamination; and furthered the use of pathogens for invasive plant management. Following are some prime examples of current and ongoing research activities at the BCPRU:

How many species of weeds are resistant to glyphosate?

Weeds present an enormous problem, but the development of herbicide resistance, on a worldwide basis has greatly intensified weed control issues. Currently, about 250 species of weeds have become resistant to various herbicides, with over 30 weeds documented as resistant to the herbicide, glyphosate (Heap 2015).

What is biological pest control?

What is a Biological Pest Control? – Definition from MaximumYield – Biological Pest Control Definition – Biological pest control is a method of maintaining pest populations below damaging levels by using living. The three main types of biological pest controls include classical biological control, conservation, and augmentation. Neem Oil: The Answer to a Pest-Free Organic Garden.

What is organic farming?

Organic farming: Organic farming, system of crop cultivation employing biological methods of fertilization and pest control as substitutes for chemical fertilizers and pesticides; the latter products are regarded by proponents of organic methods as injurious to health and the environment and unnecessary for

What is pesticide?

Pesticides are defined as mixtures of substances that are deployed to control, prevent, destroy, repel, and attract any biological organism classified as a.

Is organic farming an agricultural method?

Organic Farming Methods – Agriculture Goods – Organic farming can be explained as an agricultural method. Biological Pest Control:. Organic agriculture is being conducted by many countries with the.

Can organic farming grow potatoes?

If you want to grow a bigger potato, organic farming may be the way. The balanced mix of insects and fungi in organic fields does a superior job of keeping pests in check. pesticide use and include biological control as a.

Does organic farming increase biodiversity?

May 18, 2011. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid densities but long-term negative effects on.

Is ifoam a pesticide?

ORGANIC AGRICULTURE AND ITS. APPROACH TOWARDS PEST CONTROL. In Organic Agriculture no harmful synthetic pesticides are used. In organic systems, farms are managed to maintain and build soil fertility and prevent pest.

What is an inoculative approach?

An inoculative approach involves the release of natural enemies at a critical time of the season to augment natural populations already present, but in numbers too low for effective pest management.

What are parasitoids?

Many parasitoids are very small wasps and are not easily noticed. Tachinid flies are another group of parasitoids. They look like large houseflies and deposit their white, oval eggs on the backs of caterpillars and other pests. The eggs hatch, enter the host, and kill it.

How many nematodes are in a acre?

Insect-parasitic (entomopathogenic) nematodes are often applied at a rate of 1 million to 1 billion nematodes per acre.

What is the purpose of GV?

Nuclear polyhedrosis viruses (NPV) and granulosis viruses (GV) viruses are available to control some caterpillar pests. The insect-parasitic (entomopathogenic or insecticidal) nematodes, Steinernema and Heterorhabditis, infect soil-dwelling insects and occur naturally or can be purchased. As with all biological control agents, …

What are the main causes of insect disease?

The main groups of insect disease-causing organisms are insect-parasitic bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, and nematodes. Biological control using pathogens is often called microbial control.

What are some pests that can be found in soil?

However, high organic matter and abundant crop residues can favor some pests, such as slugs, cutworms, wireworms, and root maggots.

What are the habitats of farmscaping?

Other habitats provided by farmscaping include water, alternate prey, perching sites, overwintering sites, and wind protection. Some refuge planting can harbor pests, so the success of farmscaping efforts depends on knowledge of pests and beneficial organisms.

What do humans do to the environment?

What humans do is produce and release a massive amount of these insects into the natural environment, especially in agricultural production areas infested by pests. They’ve successfully controlled mites, butterflies, wasps, ants, and aphids, among others.

What is economic entomology?

Economic or Applied Entomology studies insects of interest to human beings, either by the products they provide or the impact they have on human goods. The following bugs are of particular interest for these kinds of studies:

Why is Raphidioptera called Snakefly?

Raphidioptera is commonly known as snakefly due to the similarity of their necks – an extension of their thorax – with this animal. They’re an order of holo-metallic insects, with transparent wings furrowed by marked vein patterns.

What are the different types of insects?

Economic or Applied Entomology studies insects of interest to human beings, either by the products they provide or the impact they have on human goods. The following bugs are of particular interest for these kinds of studies: 1 Bees 2 Insects that transmit epizootic and zoonotic diseases (diseases that pass from animals to humans) 3 Pests 4 Insects that control pests


Entomopathogenic Nematodes

  • Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are a group of nematodes also called threadworms, these can cause death to insects. The term entomopathogenic has a Greek origin, where the ‘entomon’ means insect, and pathogenic means causing disease. These animals are present in between microbial pathogens, parasitoids, and predators. These are habitually grouped with pathogens b…

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Biological Pest Control Types

  • There are three basic biological management strategies: 1. Importation:Importation, also called classical biological control, involves the introduction of natural enemies of pests to a new locale where they are not capable of occurring naturally. Some of the early instances were often found unofficial and not based on research, and some introduced species became serious pests them…

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Biological Weed Control Agents

  • The biological control of insect pests to maintain pest populations below damaging levels by the use of living organisms. Natural enemies of arthropods fall into three major categories such as predators, parasitoids, and pathogens. 1. Predators: Predators are mainly consuming prey in a large number directly during their whole lifetime, these are fr…

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Biological Control of Mosquitoes

  • Biocontrol is the use of the natural enemies of pests like mosquitoes in order to manage the population of pests. There are several types of biocontrol, this includes the direct introduction of parasites, predators, and pathogens to target mosquitoes. Effective biocontrol agents include certain kinds of predatory fish that feed on mosquito larvae such as mosquitofish also known a…

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  • Biological control agents are non-polluting ones and thus these are environmentally safe and acceptable. Usually, they are the species that are specific to targeted pests and weeds. Biological control discourages the use of chemicals that are unsuitable to the environment and ecologically by establishing natural balance. As both biological control agents and the pests are in the compl…

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What Is Biological Control?

Biological control is a method of pest control that manages the population of pests without chemical pesticides. This method can be used to control insects, small animals, and parasitic plants. This method typically involves introducing natural predators into the ecosystem. Biological control has the advantage of bei…

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Three Main Biological Control Strategies

  • While it seems simple, getting biocontrol right can be a challenge, especially if you’ve never done it before. There are three main strategies used in the biological control of pests, each having different steps and using different agents. These three strategies are classical biocontrol (importation), augmentative biocontrol (supplemental), and conservation biocontrol.

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Biocontrol Agents

  • Biocontrol agents can be predators, pathogens, parasites and parasitoids, and even other plants. The only requirement is that they work to eliminate a pest or augment a predator population. Here is a breakdown of different biocontrol agents and how they work.

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The Pros and Cons of Biocontrol

  • The goal of biocontrol is to decrease a pest population in a sustainable way that requires little human intervention in the long run, making it a cost-efficient method over time. Biocontrol is also environmentally friendly, since it doesn’t make use of harmful chemical pesticides. Because biocontrol can be complex, it may be daunting to gardeners. Many farm or garden owners tend t…

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How to Get Started

  • Learning how to use biological control involves a lot of research and is a continuous learning journey. If you want to try this method of controlling a pest population yourself, there are a few crucial steps you need to follow. Do your homework. Before you even plant your crops or purchase your control agents, you should do your research. Know which control agents work be…

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