How are cities making policies to garment urban agriculture


What are the policies of urban agriculture?

These policies include land-use policies that permit public land to be used for gardens or farms, land disposition policies that permit surplus municipal properties to be acquired by for urban agriculture, and policies and regulations that strengthen the infrastructure for widespread urban agriculture.

How can the state encourage urban agriculture?

State lawmakers have also encouraged urban agricultural activities through the appropriation of funds and establishment of grants. Another policy approach encourages land access by allowing the use of public land and vacant lots and property tax incentives.

Are zoning standards changing for urban agriculture?

A commonly cited barrier to urban agriculture has been its absence from, if not prohibition by, local zoning codes. However, a growing number of communities are revising zoning standards to formally acknowledge community gardens and urban agriculture uses as permitted uses in existing zoning districts.

What is the urban farming and gardens program?

B 158 (2015) provides for no more than $400,000 in 2016 and $350,000 in each fiscal year thereafter to be used to implement the Urban Farming and Gardens Program, Urban Farming Land Leasing Initiative and the real property tax abatement for urban agricultural uses.


How does urban farming make a city more sustainable?

On one side, urban farming is a response to food and livelihood insecurity. On the other side, urban farming grows a greener future because food grown locally requires less transportation (or fewer food miles) and therefore reduces ecological footprint.

How can urban agriculture affect big cities?

Community: Urban farming adds and preserves green space in cities, providing places for neighbors to come together, strengthen bonds, and build community cohesion. Urban agriculture connects people with the earth and the source of their food as well as with each other.

How does urban farming affect agricultural practices?

UA is thought to increase food security through two main pathways: improved access to food, and increased income [6]. Home-grown foodstuffs increase the total amount of food available to a household and thus can prevent hunger and malnutrition.

How can urban agriculture contribute to local economy?

Urban agriculture creates local jobs. More economic transactions occurring within a community means more income and work for local businesses. Indeed, the growing demand for safe, local food is leading to increased opportunity for local food start-ups, which is in turn fueling job creation.

How can we promote urban agriculture?

Increasing financial incentives could encourage urban farming to grow. Some public schools, hospitals, and other public institutions like universities receive tax breaks for obtaining a certain percentage of their food from urban farms. Such arrangements can create guaranteed markets for produce from urban farms.

How can urban agriculture reduce the negative attributes of a city?

By harnessing two sources of capital — social capital and the existing built environment — urban farming uses the inherent strengths of cities to solve some of their most serious problems. Studies have shown that nutrition, exercise, and mental and physical health are all augmented with urban farms.

Why urban agriculture is important?

Efficient use of land. With growing population and massive urbanization, fertile lands are diminishing every day. Urban farming is a probable solution for efficiently using the land available for feeding people. For instance, rooftop gardens not only take minimal space but also provide tones of fresh produce.

What is urban agriculture farming?

Urban agriculture refers to agricultural practices in urban areas and their surrounding regions (peri-urban), and is a centralized operation involving horticulture, animal husbandry, aquaculture, and other practices for producing fresh food or other agricultural products.

How does urban agriculture impact the environment and the food supply?

Providing healthy food in a way that reduces energy costs of food production is a major environmental benefit of urban farms. Growing food where it’s consumed can cut down transportation-related greenhouse gas emissions. Another benefit of urban agriculture is biodiversity.

How do communities benefit from urban farms?

Urban agriculture provides multi-dimensional benefits, especially as regards food security for low income groups, employment and training opportunities for disadvantaged and marginalised groups, enhanced access to fresh fruit and vegetables, and reduced environmental impacts through less transport, packaging and …

How does urban agriculture work?

“Urban agriculture generally refers to the cultivation, processing and distribution of agricultural products in urban and suburban settings, including things like vertical production, warehouse farms, community gardens, rooftop farms, hydroponic, aeroponic, and aquaponic facilities, and other innovations.

How does urban agriculture contribute to the community?

The ideal starting point for urban agriculture planning is a community engagement process through which planners identify how urban agriculture contributes to the social, economic, and environmental goals of a community. Local and regional governments play important roles in legitimizing urban agriculture as a recognized land use or community development strategy. By identifying existing community needs that urban agriculture can address, inventorying necessary local resources, and evaluating current policies and legislation, local governments can work to effectively integrate urban agriculture considerations into the plan-making process.

Why should Detroit promote urban agriculture?

This article makes the case that Detroit should actively promote the development of urban agriculture within its boundaries to boost the local economy, improve health, and help revitalize the city.

What is the role of local governments in supporting urban agriculture projects and policies?

This paper discusses local governments’ roles in supporting urban agriculture projects and policies as strategies to address pre-existing policy goals while dealing with the growing need for sustainable development and greening initiatives.

What are land use policies?

These policies include land-use policies that permit public land to be used for gardens or farms, land disposition policies that permit surplus municipal properties to be acquired by for urban agriculture, and policies and regulations that strengthen the infrastructure for widespread urban agriculture.

What are the sources of local food production?

In cities, important sources of local food production can range from individuals’ balconies or backyards to for-profit market gardens or urban farms , and many places are focusing on the promotion of community gardens for their grassroots nature and community development potential.

What is urban agriculture?

Urban Agriculture. Public interest in locally grown food, coupled with an awareness of the positive environmental, social, and economic impacts of agricultural uses on urban areas, has inspired many city residents to pursue small-scale agricultural activities on both private and public lands.

How can community health policies support access to fresh fruits and vegetables?

Community health goals and policies can support access to fresh fruits and vegetables through community gardening, sales of produce from urban farms, and education and outreach to residents about the benefits of healthy, fresh foods.

What is the Greening Food Deserts Act?

As of 2010, the Greening Food Deserts Act specifically targets a major problem addressed by urban agriculture. This bill could lead to a Department of Urban Agriculture as well as establish an Urban Agricultural Outreach Program.

What is the law affecting urban agriculture?

Law affecting urban agriculture is primarily municipal ordinances, but state law and even federal law play a role in accommodating or prohibiting urban agriculture. Federal law affecting urban agriculture is primarily embodied in the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.

What are the food deserts in cities?

Food deserts are urban regions which lack convenient access to grocery stores where residents can purchase fruit and vegetables. Urban agriculture may not be a permanent solution to this problem, due to limitations on growing seasons, but it can be an important way of injecting fresh fruits and vegetables into these communities and bring many other benefits of urban agriculture to these communities.

What cities are experiencing population reductions?

In the Midwest, cities such as Detroit and Cleveland are experiencing population reductions. Urban agriculture can put vacant properties to productive use. Smart shrinking recognizes that many cities must learn to grow in new ways. Cities, such as New York City and Boston, suffer from a phenomenon of food deserts.

What are the most common animals in urban areas?

Chickens and bees make up the most common animal production in urban areas, but some municipalities have branched out to accommodate fish, goats, and pigs. Beekeepers also address concerns related to the sustainability. Colony collapse disorder is a growing concern in the bee population.

What are some examples of commercialization of agriculture?

Farmers’ markets are a common example of the commercialization of agriculture taking place in urban areas. It is particularly interesting to see how urban agriculturalists have adapted food production to the urban landscape by conforming agriculture to the design features of buildings and lots.

Why did Victory Gardens disappear?

Victory Gardens disappeared after the war. In the 1970s, concerns about fertilizers and pesticides used in industrial-scale agriculture fueled a new wave of local agriculture. There was more emphasis on community development, personal health, and city beautification.

What is AB 2859?

AB 2859 (2011) authorizes the sale and lease of unneeded public property to nonprofits for gardening and urban farming. Exempts such urban farms from property taxation and authorized such nonprofits to sell fresh fruits and vegetables on the leased land, off the leased land, or both under certain conditions.

What is UAIZ in California?

California passed legislation in 2013 to create Urban Agricultural Incentive Zones (UAIZ). The bill authorizes cities and counties to enter into contracts with landowners to restrict their use of land for small-scale agricultural production. In return, the landowners have their land assessed at a lower rate based on the per-acre value …

What is HB 2774?

HB 2774 (2010), also known as the Oklahoma Certified Healthy Communities Act, created the Oklahoma Certified Healthy Community Advisory Committee. Criteria for eligibility include the establishment of community gardens and incentives and support for farmers’ markets.

Why is agriculture so popular in urban areas?

Agriculture in urban and suburban areas has risen in popularity in recent years due to an interest in increasing access to healthy foods, promoting sustainable community development and sourcing local produce.

What is HB 560?

HB 560 (2013) authorizes the Hawaii housing finance and development corporation to provide incentives for the development of housing projects that incorporate urban gardening programs. Requires the University of Hawaii at Manoa College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources to be consulted regarding best practices.

What is the goal of HB 3990?

HB 3990 (2009) sets a goal that 20 percent of all food products purchased by state agencies and state-owned facilities be local farm or food products by 2020. The bill removed a barrier to purchasing locally grown food by giving preference to locally grown food. The bill also created the Local Food, Farms and Jobs Council to help local farm and food entrepreneurs identify and secure resources and equipment to expand projects and build infrastructure and use of public lands for growing local food products, among other goals.

What is LB 699?

LB 699 (2016) allows municipalities to establish priorities for the use of real property conveyed by a land bank. Such ranking shall take into consideration the highest and best use that, when possible, will bring the greatest benefit to the community. The priorities may include, but are not limited to, use for urban agricultural activities including the establishment of community gardens.

Programs Promoting Urban Gardening and Farming

Many government agencies and nonprofit organizations have wholly embraced community gardens and urban farming. Local governments are in a great position to promote the cultivation of urban gardens and farms, either on public or private property.

What Else Can Local Governments Do?

If your city would like to promote community gardens and urban agriculture, you should ensure that existing codes don’t create unnecessary barriers to would-be growers. Most zoning codes continue to adhere to single-use zoning with separate residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural zones.


There are a number of ways a local government can facilitate growing food locally in a way that is compatible with surrounding uses. Per this helpful and comprehensive publication, a city wanting to promote community and urban agriculture should ask itself these five questions:

What is the zoning process?

The zoning process is highly localized, meaning cities often have their own procedures on how to go about amending or changing the zoning code. Generally speaking, however, zoning codes begin with the Planning Commission, an elected or appointed board of officials that draft and recommend changes to the City Council. 77

What are zoning laws for agriculture?

This resource summarizes zoning laws that promote and support agriculture in urban municipalities and highlights examples of strategies from around the country. Additionally, the resource furthers the Healthy Food Policy Project’s goal of identifying local policy options that support access to healthy food. 1 In order to provide the most current understanding of the national landscape and allow for comparison of practices and identification of potential barriers, this resource focuses specifically on urban agriculture zoning laws that local governments have passed within the last ten years (2009-2019).

What are the restrictions on keeping animals?

Restrictions on keeping animals can limit residents from producing additional food besides fruits and vegetables, such as: milk, eggs , honey , and/or fish products. These may be products that consumers have difficulty finding locally, especially if living in an area without access to fresh and affordable food. 49

What is Dillon’s rule?

Dillon’s rule is the legal principle that generally governs municipalities that do not have home rule authority. Under Dillon’s Rule, local governments have only the powers that are expressly delegated to them by the state, including powers that are incident to, or can be necessarily or fairly implied from, those expressly delegated powers.

What is home rule?

Home rule provisions provide for broad municipal autonomy in governance. Home rule provisions authorize municipal governments to establish systems of self-government, typically through charters, so long as they do not violate or conflict with state and federal law. States can provide for municipal home rule authority via state constitution or statute.

What powers does the federal government have?

Constitution, leaving states with a broad range of powers under the 10th Amendment. 2 Included in states’ authority is police power —the ability to create laws to protect the health, safety, and general welfare of the public. 3 The authority to regulate the use and development of land comes from states’ police power. As such, any land use regulation must be consistent with protecting public health, safety, and welfare, or could be declared unconstitutional if challenged. 4

What is the goal of urban agriculture?

It states that the goal of allowing urban agriculture is to “increase affordable, healthful, food for all, especially for those who may have limited options because of location, access, or income .” 69 This statement focuses on urban agriculture as a tool for food access, rather than a potential by-product.


What Is Urban Agriculture?

Benefits of Urban Agriculture

  • Environmental
    Authors in “Horticultural Reviews” called the case for the environmental benefits of urban agriculture more complicated than other areas, such as the social benefits. The reason is that, “while there can be clear environmental benefits from urban agriculture, there can also be clear r…
  • Economic
    It’s not difficult to find economically successful urban farms. Some are built on a rather small scale. For instance, Ben Hartman and Rachel Hershberger operate Clay Bottom Farm in Goshen, Indiana, where they cultivate 1 acre of a 5-acre subdivision, and their business is quite successf…

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Developing Policies That Support Urban Agriculture

  • As you saw in the previous section, a lot of researchers have found promise for urban agriculture. While further research is needed to state the benefits of urban farms unequivocally, the consensus is positive. Urban agriculture can help supply cities with fresh, locally grown food, and there are other various environmental, economic, and social benefits in reach. Another conclusio…

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