Agriculture and climate change are internally correlated with each other in various aspects, as climate change is the main cause of biotic and abiotic stresses, which have adverse effects on the agriculture of a region.
How are bioclimatic zones related to agriculture?
When examining the distribution of crops, we often find that in a bioclimatic zone, similar types of agriculture tend to develop. However, these are general groupings, and as we zoom in on the map, we find specific areas that might have different conditions and activities.
What is the importance of agro-ecological zone in agriculture?
The knowledge of agro-ecological zone is essential to crop growing period, and provides a way of including seasonality in land resource appraisal.
How does the study verify the bioclimatic-zones concept?
The study verifies the Bioclimatic-Zones Concept through two scenarios for the same site. The first scenario will keep the existing site without any change. The second scenario will adapt the Bioclimatic-Zones Concept all over the site.
What is the bioclimatic zone for hot arid areas?
The Bioclimatic-Zone for hot arid areas identifies broad climatic zones defined primarily on solar radiation, wind airflows and evaporation. These zones correspond with potential, but not necessarily existing, vegetation boundaries. Both the type and location of plant material can have a substantial effect on micro- climate (Jusuf, 2006).
What is the relationship between climate and agriculture?
Changes in ozone, greenhouse gases and climate change affect agricultural producers greatly because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause habitat ranges and crop planting dates to shift and droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.
What is the relationship between agricultural regions and bioclimatic zones?
Agricultural production region simply refers to where agriculture is practiced. A bioclimatic zone is a broad zone of vegetation that corresponds to the average annual temperature at different latitudes and altitudes. production regions associated with major bioclimatic zones.
What climate zones are best for agriculture?
States that dominate wheat production include Kansas, North Dakota, Washington, Montana, Oklahoma, and Idaho. These states are found among temperate zones, dry zones (moisture is rapidly evaporated from the air and little precipitation) and continental zones (warm to cool summers and very cold winters).
What are three climate factors that impact agriculture?
Temperatures, precipitation, timing of frost, growing season length, soil moisture, pest pressures, and numerous other climate and climate-related variables influence agricultural productivity and agricultural management decisions.
How is geography and agriculture related?
Agricultural geography is defined as the study of the geographical and locational attributes, patterns, and processes of crop and animal farming, and related subjects such as farm land, farm-associated human geographers, environmental issues, and theoretical works on the location of agricultural activities.
What is the connection between physical geography and agricultural practices?
Physical geography features (access to water, climate, soil types, landforms) influence how people farm in a region. Irrigation, terrace farming, deforestation, desertification, and the drainage of wetlands have occurred as farmers try to increase production to feed an ever-growing human population.
What is bio climatic region?
Bioclimatic zones are areas with similar climates, vegetation, and soils. Some examples are deserts, savannas, tropical forests, steppes, temperate forests, and cold regions. Agricultural activity is closely related to the conditions of each zone.
What are climate zones uses?
What are Climate Zones? Plant hardiness zone maps were developed to help gardeners figure out in advance which plants could survive outdoors in their region. Many plants sold in nurseries are labeled with a hardiness range so that gardeners can find appropriately hardy selections for their garden.
How do climate zones work?
According to Lumen Learning, climate zones are determined by examining the factors that commonly influence climate itself. These factors include temperature, humidity, amount and type of precipitation, and passage of seasons within a specific area.
How different climatic factors influence agricultural development?
Climatic factors influence all aspects and stages of plant growth and hence affect agricultural productivity and stability of production. Their influence extends from the upper reaches of the atmosphere, in which spores and pollen are encountered, to the soil depth penetrated by the roots.
How does climate change affect agricultural production?
Negative impacts of global warming include reduced crop quantity and quality due to the reduced growth period following high levels of temperature rise; reduced sugar content, bad coloration, and reduced storage stability in fruits; increase of weeds, blights, and harmful insects in agricultural crops; reduced land …
How does climate change affect agriculture essay?
Climate change is affecting agriculture by interfering with the efficiency of crop production. Agriculture is facing droughts, flooding, sea level elevations, natural disasters, and health hazards for employees. All of these exponents lead to crop failure that creates famines and food prices to rise.
What are the agricultural production regions associated with major bioclimatic zones?
Some of them are:Deserts: Very dry with extreme temperature variations. … Savannas: High temperatures year-round and seasonal rainfall. … Tropical forests: High temperatures and precipitation. … Steppes: Temperate climate and often found between forests and deserts. … Temperate forests: Warm summers and cold winters.More items…•
What is the bioclimatic zone?
Therefore, in this study, we define the term “bioclimatic zone” as the area where environmental factors affecting the habitat and species distribution, such as climate, geology, and land cover, are homogenous.
What are the agricultural regions?
Total agricultural exports by region in 2019 are:Northeast: $6.1 billion.Delta: $6.5 billion.Southern Plains: $8.1 billion.Southeast: $17.2 billion.West: $38.1 billion.Midwest: $47.8 billion.
What is one of the defining factors of an agricultural region?
Similar climate is the most important factor, but soil types, topography, agricultural practices, and social norms all play a role in characterizing these regions.
What is an Agro-Ecological Zone?
Agro-ecological zones are geographical areas exhibiting similar climatic conditions that determine their ability to support rained agriculture. FAO on the other hand defines Agro-ecological zone (AEZ) as: a land resource mapping unit, defined in terms of climate, landform and soils, and/or land cover, and having a specific range …
What is the Northern Zone?
Northern zone covers Arusha, and Kilimanjaro regions. Southern zone has two regions: Lindi and Mtwara. Southern highlands zone which includes Mbeya, Iringa, Njombe, Ruvuma, and Rukwa regions. Due to changes in regional administrative boundaries, some regions were not present during the construction of the Agro-ecological map above.
What are the environmental factors that affect agriculture?
If we assume all the socio-economic factors to be constant, agriculture is majorly affected by environmental factors which are: climate, topography/relief (high lands, sloping lands or lower lands) and soil fertility. However, climate is made up of, among others; temperature, humidity and rainfall which are also the major factors influencing …
All climatic elements, whether singly or in combination, affect crop and animal production. The climatic elements of greatest significance to agricultural production in Kenya are rainfall, temperature and evapotranspiration. The balance between rainfall and evapotranspiration is particularly important.
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What is the purpose of bioclimatic classification in Egypt?
The primary aim of this paper was to analyse the bioclimatic classification of Egypt to extract appropriate landscape design strategies to enhance passive design of buildings . The bioclimatic psychrometric charts used in this study would facilitate a quick overall representation of the climate of Egypt, which can be used on a purely qualitative basis, to arrive at basic design decisions during landscape initial design stage, before a detailed analysis is performed. These qualitative decisions may relate to landscape elements’ orientation, pavement and finishing materials surrounding buildings, thermal properties of landscape structures such as fences, pergolas, sheds and kiosks, sun control and provisions for ventilations, etc. It is expected that this classification will help landscape architects to design climate responsive landscapes that should contribute to climate responsive buildings in different zones in Egypt in an appropriate manner. Future research is required to establish detailed design guidelines based on quantitative data for each zone.
What is the Northern Coast Zone?
The Northern Coast zone is generally warm and humid in summer, mild and humid in winter. The most important passive design strategy in warmer half of the year is sun shading (81.77%) and natural ventilation (31.25%). Yet in the colder half of the year the main passive design strategy is passive solar heating (22.29%). Landscape elements can contribute to sun shading in warmer half of the year by using shading trees that tolerate hot arid conditions (i.e., high sun exposure). This zone has relatively high rainfall rates in winter, and dry summer. The water requirement will be a significant factor in choosing plant species. Natural ventilation cooling is another key strategy in warmer half of the year in this zone, since it contributes to 31.35% of thermal comfort. This strategy can be achieved by arranging landscape site structures such as fences, retaining walls and trees to maximise air speed by reducing the area of air flow before it strikes building surfaces. Selected plants species should also allow natural ventilation to contribute to thermal comfort in warmer half of the year. Additionally, selected plants should moreover, allow solar rays to hit the surfaces in winter. Examples of such trees include deciduous trees like Acacia Farnesiana, Punica Granatum Nana and Taxodium Distichum. Evaporative cooling is not desired in summer. Therefore, landscape designers should avoid using fountains or dynamic water features in outdoor spaces in this zone.
What is the most important passive design strategy in the Delta and Cairo zone?
Yet in the colder half of the year the main passive design strategy is passive solar heating (20.93%) and natural ventilation (25.58%). Landscape elements can contribute to sun shading by using shading trees that tolerate hot arid conditions (i.e., high sun exposure). Similar to the Northern Upper Egypt zone, this zone is close to the river Nile and the water requirement will not be a significant factor in choosing plant species because the closer the site from natural water sources the less significant water requirement will be. Natural ventilation cooling is another key strategy in warmer half of the year in this zone, since it contributes to 26.00% of thermal comfort. This strategy can be achieved by arranging landscape site structures such as fences, retaining walls and trees to maximise air speed by reducing the area of airflow before it strikes building surfaces. Selected plants species should also allow natural ventilation to contribute to thermal comfort in warmer half of the year. Additionally, selected plants should, in addition, rays to strike the surfaces in winter. Examples of such trees include deciduous trees like Cassia Nodosa, Delonix Regia and Morus Alba.
What is the most important design strategy in Southern Egypt?
The Southern Egypt zone is primarily a very hot and very dry zone. The most important design strategy in warmer half of the year is sun shading (90.80%) and evaporative cooling (35.83%). Yet in the colder half of the year the main design strategies are passive solar heating (18.00%) and natural ventilation (22.50%). Landscape elements can contribute to sun shading by using shading trees that tolerate hot arid conditions (i.e., high sun exposure). Since this region is close to the river Nile, the water requirement will not be a significant factor in choosing plant species. Selected plants at the same time should allow solar rays to strike the surfaces in winter. Examples of such trees include deciduous trees like Albizzia Lebbeck, Acacia Farnesiana and Taxodium Distichum. Evaporative cooling is another key strategy in warmer half of the year in this zone, since it contributes to 35.83% of thermal comfort. This strategy can be achieved by using dynamic water features that combine water with the atmosphere. Fountains and artificial channels within the outdoor space should be used to allow maximum evaporation and decrease air temperature.
What are the bioclimatic zones of Egypt?
Egypt is classified into 8 major bioclimatic zones namely Desert, Southern Egypt, Southern Upper Egypt, Northern Upper Egypt, Delta and Cairo, Northern Coast, Eastern Coast and Highlands zones. This classification is founded on operative temperature, humidity, rainfall, winds peed, altitude and solar radiation and also considers the physical topography of the country. Most important outcome of the analysis of this bioclimatic classification is that it provides engineers and landscape architects the required information about the potential of passive design strategies that could be applied to landscape scope of work in respective climatic zones ( Table 2 ).
What is the temperature of the Sinai Peninsula?
The Highlands zone occupies the southern part of the Sinai Peninsula, the altitude ranges from 400 to 2000 above mean sea level. The maximum summer operative temperature varies from 37° to 39 °C while the minimum summer operative temperature varies from 12° to 16 °C. In winter months, the maximum operative temperature ranges from 22° to 29 °C and the minimum operative temperature range from 0° to 5 °C. The relative humidity ranges from 24 to 80%. The mean monthly global radiation ranges from 840 to 930 W/m 2 in summer, and from 500 to 800 W/m 2 in winter. The bioclimatic chart for this zone is shown in Fig. 11. Analysis of the chart shows that 12.76% of hours fall in the comfort zone in the summer time compared with 13.21% of hours in winter time. In summer months, sun shading contributes to 82.64% of thermal comfort. Evaporative cooling plays a significant role in maintaining thermal comfort (37.93% of summer time). Natural ventilation contributes to thermal comfort in this zone in the summer time during 13.79% of hours. Conventional air conditioning is not required in summer months. The conditions in winter are different. Passive solar heating is required during 22.64% of winter months, while conventional heating is significantly required in 54.10% of winter hours.
What is the temperature range of the Northern Coast Zone?
It has maximum operative temperature range from 33° to 37 °C and minimum from 18° to 23 °C in summer months and in winter months the operative temperature varies from 25° to 28 °C as maximum and 7° to 9° as the minimum. The altitude is ranging from 0 to 100 m above mean sea level. The relative humidity is at the higher side (55–90%). The mean global radiation varies from 800 to 890 W/m 2 in summer and from 500 to 750 W/m 2 in winter. Fig. 9 illustrates the bioclimatic chart for zone. In the warmer half of the year, only 9.10% of hours are within the comfort zone. Open spaces of the Northern Coast zone require significant sun shading (81.77% of summer hours) in order to protect the space from solar radiation that strikes it and will affect comfort. Natural Ventilation contributes to 31.25% of thermal comfort in this zone. Conventional air conditioning is required during 46.87% of summer hours. In the colder half of the year, the outdoor spaces require passive solar heating during 22.29% of winter hours. Conventional heating is required to maintain comfort during 26.50% of the winter hours. Natural ventilation is also required through 22.29% of winter hours.
What is a bioclimatic zone?
The Bioclimatic-Zones Concept is a primary part of designing and site planning in hot arid climates. The objective of this concept is to classify bioclimatic zones through landscape elements, such as vegetation, water bodies and light structures.
What is the author’s attitude towards landscape zones?
For landscape zones, the author’s attitude aims to create relative magnitudes of differences between plant associations and their climatic impact.
Why do plants prevent dust from being carried away by wind?
In general, plants prevent sand and dust from being carried away by the wind because of the difference of the land-surface characteristics such as particle size distribution, plant vegetation and surface soil moisture content and so on (Rizvi, 2006). Figure 2.a. Section in the Shelterbelt Zone, b.
What are the elements that are needed for a building interface zone?
Cool air reservoirs around buildings, such as fountains and pools of water, have a great cooling effect and can reduce the harshness of the micro-climate. Trellis, pergolas, ramadas, tents, canopies, car ports and other elements are also an essential design element for the Building Interface Zone.
How does outdoor space affect comfort?
The duration and intensity of the use of an outdoor space is greatly affected by the comfort or discomfort conditions already existing in the area. Therefore, minimizing the duration and level of uncomfortable conditions can greatly increase the benefits derived from the outdoor space.