How can photorespiration be a problem in agriculture

Photorespiration significantly impacts crop productivity through reducing yields in C3 crops by as much as 50% under severe conditions. Thus, reducing the flux through, or improving the efficiency of photorespiration has the potential of large improvements in C3 crop productivity.

Explain how photorespiration can be a problem in agriculture. Rice, wheat, and soybeans are C3 plants that are important in agriculture. When their stomata partially close on hot, dry days, C3 plants produce less sugar because the declining level of CO2 in the leaf starves the Calvin cycle, limiting growth.


What are the effects of photorespiration on plants?

It uses up fixed carbon, wastes energy, and tends to happens when plants close their stomata (leaf pores) to reduce water loss. High temperatures make it even worse. Some plants, unlike wheat and soybean, can escape the worst effects of photorespiration.

What is photorespiration and how does it occur?

Photorespiration is a wasteful pathway that occurs when the Calvin cycle enzyme rubisco acts on oxygen rather than carbon dioxide. The majority of plants are plants, which have no special features to combat photorespiration.

How do CAM plants avoid photorespiration?

However, plant species that use CAM photosynthesis not only avoid photorespiration, but are also very water-efficient. Their stomata only open at night, when humidity tends to be higher and temperatures are cooler, both factors that reduce water loss from leaves. CAM plants are typically dominant in very hot, dry areas, like deserts.

Why does photorespiration increase when carbon dioxide is low?

Although some amount of photorespiration occurs in many plants regardless of conditions, photorespiratory rates increase any time that carbon dioxide levels are low and oxygen levels are high. Such conditions occur whenever stomata (specialized pores for gas exchange) remain closed, or partially closed, while photosynthesis is under way.

Why is photorespiration a problem for plants?

Thus, photorespiration is a wasteful process because it prevents plants from using their ATP and NADPH to synthesize carbohydrates. RuBISCO, the enzyme which fixes carbon dioxide during the Calvin cycle, is also responsible for oxygen fixation during photorespiration.

How does photorespiration affect agriculture?

Photorespiration significantly impacts crop productivity through reducing yields in C3 crops by as much as 50% under severe conditions. Thus, reducing the flux through, or improving the efficiency of photorespiration has the potential of large improvements in C3 crop productivity.

Why do farmers consider photorespiration to be a major problem?

Photorespiration is an energy-demanding process This produces waste products such as glycolate and ammonia, which can be toxic to plants and slow or stunt their growth.

What is photorespiration what are its problem?

Photorespiration (also known as the oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle or C2 cycle) refers to a process in plant metabolism where the enzyme RuBisCO oxygenates RuBP, wasting some of the energy produced by photosynthesis.

How does photorespiration reduce photosynthetic efficiency?

Photorespiration reduces the efficiency of photosynthesis for a couple of reasons. First, oxygen is added to carbon. In other words, the carbon is oxidized, which is the reverse of photosynthesis—the reduction of carbon to carbohydrate.

Why is photorespiration necessary?

Photorespiration is necessary because an auto-inhibitory metabolite, 2-phosphoglycolate (2PG), is produced when Rubisco binds oxygen instead of CO2 as a substrate and must be removed, to avoid collapse of metabolism, and recycled as efficiently as possible.

What is photorespiration Why is it a wasteful process?

In the photoresspiratory pathway, there is neither synthesis of sugars nor of ATP Rather , it results in the release of CO2 with the utilization of ATP Therefore, photorespirtion is a wasteful process.

Why is photorespiration more of a problem for a plant when their stomata are closed?

Why is photorespiration more of a problem for a plant when their stomata are closed? Oxygen levels increase from photosynthesis and compete with carbon dioxide for rubisco’s active site. Carbon dioxide levels increase from photosynthesis and compete with oxygen for rubisco’s active site.

Which one of the following is wrong in relation to photorespiration?

Photorespiration is absent in C4 plants due to the presence of a special structure called as kranz anatomy in their leaves.

Why is photorespiration a wasteful process how do C4 plants overcome this problem?

C4 plants overcome photorespiratory losses by having the mechanism that increases the concentration of CO2 at the enzyme site. During the C4 pathway, when the C4 acid from the mesophyll cells is broken down in the bundle sheath cells, it releases CO2 this results in increasing the intracellular concentration of CO2.

When and why does photorespiration take place in plants How does this process in a loss to the plants?

(i) It is a threat to plants although it occurs in angiosperms because it has some disadvantages. (ii) No energy rich compound is produced in this process. (iii) Half of the photosynthetically fixed CO2 may be lost by photorespiration.

Is photorespiration necessary for survival?

Photorespiration is essential for all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis. The evolution of photorespiratory metabolism began among cyanobacteria and led to a highly compartmented pathway in plants.

What is the reaction that uses Rubisco?

The reaction that uses is the first step of the photorespiration pathway, which wastes energy and “undoes” the work of the Calvin cycle. Rubisco can bind to either carbon dioxide or oxygen depending on environmental conditions. Binding to carbon dioxide and initiation of the Clavin cycle is favored at low temperatures and at a high carbon …

How many phosphoglycolate molecules are in a 3-PGA?

In the photorespiration pathway, 6 O2 molecules combine with 6 RuBP acceptors, making 6 3-PGA molecules and 6 phosphoglycolate molecules. The 6 phosphoglycolate molecules enter a salvage pathway, which converts them into 3 3-PGA molecules and releases 3 carbons as CO2. This makes for a total of 9 3-PGA molecules.

What is the name of the compound that Rubisco adds to the Calvin cycle?

Rubisco adds whichever molecule it binds to a five-carbon compound called ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP). The reaction that uses is the first step of the Calvin cycle and leads to the production of sugar. The reaction that uses is the first step of the photorespiration pathway, which wastes energy and “undoes” the work of the Calvin cycle.

What enzyme is used to clean up photosynthesis?

You wouldn’t stop being friends with them for these reasons, yet from time to time, you might find yourself wishing they would clean up their act. RuBP oxygenase-carboxylase ( rubisco ), a key enzyme in photosynthesis, is the molecular equivalent of a good friend with a bad habit.

How many carbon atoms can be regenerated from a rubp?

Instead, only 5 RuBP acceptors can be regenerated, with 2 leftover carbon atoms. The 3 carbons released as CO2 have been “stolen” from the cycle. Photorespiration is definitely not a win from a carbon fixation standpoint. However, it may have other benefits for plants.

How does phosphoglycolate recover carbon?

To recover some of the lost carbon, plants put phosphoglycolate through a series of reactions that involve transport between various organelles. Three-fourths of the carbon that enters this pathway as phosphoglycolate is recovered, while one-fourth is lost as . [See the details of this pathway]

What is the process of carbon fixation?

In the process of carbon fixation, rubisco incorporates carbon dioxide () into an organic molecule during the first stage of the Calvin cycle. Rubisco is so important to plants that it makes up or more of the soluble protein in a typical plant leaf.

What is photoacclimation in plants?

Photoacclimation refers to the processes by which photosynthesis is adjusted to different light conditions by alteration of the composition of the leaf ( Murchie et al ., 2002, 2005; Walters, 2005 ). Photosynthetic capacity is not fixed, but is determined by the irradiance a plant receives during growth, or any sustained period during growth. Factors such as season, solar angle, shading and aspect determine the temporal and spatial alterations in the spectral quality and quantity of light available for absorption by photosynthetic pigments. Mechanisms exist within plants that respond to such changes, altering the composition and morphology of the leaf to balance incident irradiance with the capacity for utilization of photosynthetic product, and so maintain the efficiency of radiation conversion, whilst at the same time providing protection from photoinhibition by the excess light. Studies of large numbers of species show that there are two interlinked parts to photoacclimation – leaf-level acclimation and chloroplast-level acclimation ( Murchie & Horton, 1997 ). Chloroplast-level acclimation refers to the differences in the contents of thylakoid proteins, pigments, Calvin cycle enzymes, etc., on a per chloroplast basis. Parameters such as chlorophyll (Chl) a:b ratio, PSII:PSI ratio, or Pmax per unit chlorophyll are indicative of chloroplast-level acclimation ( Murchie & Horton, 1998 ). Leaf-level acclimation refers to the markedly different anatomies of high- and low-light leaves: a generalized picture of ‘sun-type’ morphology would show thicker leaves with more columnar mesophyll cells, although in rice, thicker leaves with larger cells are observed, with no change in cell number ( Weston et al ., 2000; Yano & Terashima, 2001; Murchie et al ., 2005 ). Parameters such as total numbers of chloroplasts and total chlorophyll, protein and Rubisco contents per unit leaf area are strongly influenced by leaf-level acclimation. These two levels of acclimation appear to be differently regulated. Chloroplast-level acclimation is controlled by signals generated within the chloroplast itself (carbohydrates and redox control).

What is the most variable resource in space and time?

Arguably, the most variable resource in space and time is light intensity. The sedentary nature of plants means that they are exposed to unpredictable extremes of high and low irradiance over the course of a day. Photosynthesis is highly responsive to irradiance. At low irradiance photosynthesis rises linearly, giving a highly conserved quantum yield ( Björkman & Demmig, 1987; Ogren & Evans, 1993 ). At higher light intensities the light reactions cease to be limiting and photosynthesis saturates at a point that is co-determined by a number of processes, but frequently dominated by Rubisco activity and stomatal limitations. C 3 photosynthesis in crop plants such as wheat and rice saturates at light intensities well below the maximum intensity of sunlight ( Murchie et al ., 1999 ). The consequence is that the light-harvesting pigment–protein complexes within the leaf will absorb more energy than is required for photosynthesis. This excess amount of excitation energy is potentially damaging and is dissipated through either photochemical or nonphotochemical processes to avoid photo-oxidative stress. The term ‘nonphotochemical quenching’ (NPQ) is applied to a number of processes that increase photoprotective thermal dissipation in light-harvesting complexes ( Horton et al ., 1996 ). NPQ includes the short-term protective process (qE), which relaxes on a timescale of minutes, and also long-term processes, which relax on scales of hours or even days (qI). The latter is sometimes termed ‘photoinhibition’ and can be accompanied by accumulated damage to photosystem II. A common feature of NPQ processes is that they cause a reduction in the quantum yield of photosynthesis, and hence the efficiencies of both photosystem II (φPSII) and CO 2 assimilation (φCO 2) of leaves ( Long et al ., 1994 ). Whilst NPQ does not reduce the assimilation rate at high irradiance, during fluctuating irradiance, the dissipation of energy will reduce assimilation, unless the dynamics of NPQ can track the dynamics of irradiance.

Why is photoacclimation important in crop photosynthesis?

Photoacclimation is significant in relation to crop photosynthesis because, in principle, it is a determinant of the photosynthetic capacity of each leaf in the canopy. Extensive work on several genotypes of rice, both in the field and in the laboratory, shows that leaf composition and Pmax respond to growth irradiance ( Murchie et al ., 2002, 2005; Hubbart et al ., 2007 ). Moreover, the increase in Pmax with increasing growth irradiance saturates well below full sunlight, explaining why photosynthesis of upper leaves is light saturated. Therefore, it is concluded that photoacclimation in C 3 crops is not optimized for high productivity under high-irradiance conditions, as in the tropics or in a warm temperate summer.

What is the role of chloroplasts in photosynthesis?

This restricted view of chloroplast function ignores not only the fact that chloroplast metabolism is tightly integrated with the rest of the cell, so that photosynthesis is the result of all of the activity of the cell, but also the fact that the chloroplast is involved in the recording, storage and transmission of information . As discussed in the previous section, these processes are of vital importance in determining the growth strategy of the plant and, we will argue, crop yield. Here we will discuss how the chloroplast is both a sensor and integrator of environmental information, playing a crucial role in the process of photoacclimation. We show how this role may be central to understanding the optimization of photosynthesis and suggest how manipulation of these chloroplastic processes could be the key to increasing crop photosynthesis.

How will food and energy crops become more efficient?

In the future, both food and energy crops will have to become much more efficient, giving higher productivity on less land area, with fewer inputs and in the face of increasingly frequent climate extremes. We have discussed how previous strides forward in crop improvement have come from manipulation of plant morphology to improve parameters such as harvest index and LAI and increased crop management. Many studies indicate that the former are at saturation for many crops, whereas crop management techniques are already having to adapt to the new scenario, as reflected in the expansion of some ‘precision agriculture’ techniques. However, whilst important, these methods maintain the 20th century condition that agricultural progress necessitates a high degree of human control to manipulate the microenvironment of plants. This review summarizes the evidence suggesting that future advances should arise from an enhancement of the precision of resource capture and conversion by the crops themselves. The basic recommendation in this review (summarized in Table 1) is that more consideration needs to be given to the biology of crop plant species – what are the inappropriate aspects of plant performance that are not optimized for the new agricultural environment, why do these occur and what can be done to manipulate them? Such manipulations should tailor each new variety to suit particular locations and seasons. Our analysis shows that only by increasing the efficiency of conversion of solar energy into biomass will agricultural improvement on the scale required be possible. We suggest that reduced photosynthetic efficiency arising from suboptimal performance therefore offers major opportunities for such crop improvement. We have shown where the possible targets are and identified some of the knowledge gaps that need to be filled before real progress can be made. Such improvements would have generic application to any crop where energy conversion efficiency is paramount, such as ‘energy crops’ and dual-purpose food crops where waste products are converted to fuel. It is timely for the improvement of photosynthesis to feature more prominently in discussions not just of food production but also of ‘energy crops’ and ‘bioenergy’.

How much has food inflation been in China?

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization ( ), record world prices for most staple foods have led to 18% food price inflation in China, 13% in Indonesia and Pakistan, and 10% in Russia, India and Latin America.

What are the limits of productivity?

There are theoretical limits to productivity, which are set by the thermodynamic properties of the crop and its environment. In this context (of theore tical maximum yield), the limitations are set by the efficiency of absorption (capture) of light energy and the efficiency of its transduction into biomass.

How does CAM work at night?

At night, CAM plants open their stomata, allowing to diffuse into the leaves. This is fixed into oxaloacetate by PEP carboxylase (the same step used by plants), then converted to malate or another type of organic acid. The organic acid is stored inside vacuoles until the next day.

What is a CAM plant?

CAM plants. Some plants that are adapted to dry environments, such as cacti and pineapples, use the crassulacean acid metabolism ( CAM) pathway to minimize photorespiration. This name comes from the family of plants, the Crassulaceae, in which scientists first discovered the pathway. Image of a succulent.

What is atmospheric oxaloacetate?

This step is carried out by a non-rubisco enzyme, PEP carboxylase, that has no tendency to bind . Oxaloacetate is then converted to a similar molecule, malate, that can be transported in to the bundle-sheath cells.

What is a plant that doesn’t have photosynthetic adaptations to reduce photorespiration called?

A “normal” plant—one that doesn’t have photosynthetic adaptations to reduce photorespiration—is called a plant. The first step of the Calvin cycle is the fixation of carbon dioxide by rubisco, and plants that use only this “standard” mechanism of carbon fixation are called plants, for the three-carbon compound (3-PGA) the reaction produces. About of the plant species on the planet are plants, including rice, wheat, soybeans and all trees.

Where does oxaloacetate go in the Calvin cycle?

The oxaloacetate is converted to malate, which travels out of the mesophyll cell and into a neighboring bundle-sheath. Inside the bundle sheath cell, malate is broken down to release CO, which then enters the Calvin cycle.

Where does malate break down?

Inside the bundle sheath, malate breaks down, releasing a molecule of . The is then fixed by rubisco and made into sugars via the Calvin cycle, exactly as in photosynthesis. In the C4 pathway, initial carbon fixation takes place in mesophyll cells and the Calvin cycle takes place in bundle-sheath cells.

What is the wasteful metabolic pathway?

This wasteful metabolic pathway begins when rubisco, the carbon-fixing enzyme of the Calvin cycle, grabs rather than . It uses up fixed carbon, wastes energy, and tends to happens when plants close their stomata (leaf pores) to reduce water loss. High temperatures make it even worse.

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