How can recombinant dna be useful in agriculture


The recombinant DNA is considered to make possible improvements in agriculture to (1) economically important micro-organisms, (2) farm livestock, and (3) crop plants. The proposal to release into the environment micro-organisms that have been modified by recombinant DNA technology is not unique to agriculture, but it is rare elsewhere.

In agriculture, recombinant DNA has improved plant growth by increasing nitrogen fixation efficiencies, by cloning bacterial genes, and inserting them into plant cells. Other plants have been engineered to be resistant to caterpillar, pests, and viruses by inserting resistant genes into plant genomes.


What are the steps to make recombinant DNA?

What are the steps to make recombinant DNA? There are six steps involved in rDNA technology. These are – isolating genetic material, restriction enzyme digestion, using PCR for amplification, ligation of DNA molecules, Inserting the recombinant DNA into a host, and isolation of recombinant cells.

How did they make insulin from recombinant DNA?

How did they make insulin from recombinant DNA? Recombinant DNA is a technology scientists developed that made it possible to insert a human gene into the genetic material of a common bacterium. This “recombinant” micro-organism could now produce the protein encoded by the human gene. Scientists build the human insulin gene in the laboratory.

What is an organism that receives recombinant DNA?

  • Cut open the plasmid and “paste” in the gene. This process relies on restriction enzymes (which cut DNA) and DNA ligase (which joins DNA).
  • Insert the plasmid into bacteria.
  • Grow up lots of plasmid-carrying bacteria and use them as “factories” to make the protein.

What are the steps of recombinant DNA technology?

  • a. Gene cloning and development of recombinant DNA: The foreign DNA (gene of interest) from the source is enzymatically cleaved and ligated (joined) to other DNA molecule i.e. …
  • b. Transfer of vector into the host: This cloning vector with recombinant DNA is transferred into and maintained within a host cell. …
  • c. …
  • d. …

What is the phenological period of a plant?

Plant phenology is the appear time of various iconic morphological characteristics such as seed germination, leaf, blossom, fruit growth and development status in plant life cycle, is the reaction of growth, development and activity of plant response to climate. By observing phenological events, we can grasp the seasonal variation of crop, guide crop planting, cultivation management and disease-pest control. However, observing and recording the phenological period need to spend a lot of time, work force and financial resources, and the data obtained is limited by the cultivar, climate, geographical environment and agricultural operations and other factors. Thus phenology and phenological period is different in different years, last year record for reference for the following year is not precise enough. Therefore, the current situation, i.e., phenological events cannot be used to accurately depict phenophases, calls for the advent of a more accurate means of depicting phenology. The expression of genes involved in plant growth and development is affected by the common regulation of plant growth and environmental conditions, so the researchers can more accurately describe the phenological period of crop growth by using the gene information, i.e., gene phenology, and then according to gene phenology we can early elaborated plans and employed appropriate management.

How does DNA technology help agriculture?

With the development of molecular biology, some DNA-based technologies have showed great potentiality in promoting the efficiency of crop breeding program, protecting germplasm resources, improving the quality and outputs of agricultural products, and protecting the eco-environment etc., making their roles in modern agriculture more and more important. To better understand the application of DNA technologies in agriculture, and achieve the goals to promote their utilities in modern agriculture, this paper describes, in some different way, the applications of molecular markers, transgenic engineering and gene’s information in agriculture. Some corresponding anticipations for their development prospects are also made.

Why is DNA molecular marker important?

DNA molecular marker technology provides an important technical mean for preservation, identification, evaluation, mining and innovation of plant germplasm resources. Ram et al.(2007) [11] and Moncada et al.(2006) [12] analyzed the genetic diversity of field crops such as rice and grapevine by SSR marker, and this results provided important theoretical basis for the utilization of these crops. DNA molecular marker technology has become efficient technology to evaluate the germplasm resources of different crops. By using DNA molecular marker, not only can we protect the genetic integrity of germplasm resources, maintain minimum breeding population and seed amount, screen important germplasm, and preserve large amount of germplasm resources, but also we can study the genetic diversity and evolutional relation of germplasm resources. The information about their DNA level diversity and their origin and evolution relationship will greatly help us to make better use of the excellent germplasm resources of crop and provide an important scientific basis for the protection of these germplasm resources.

What are DNA markers used for?

Compared with the traditional morphological markers, cytological markers, and biochemistry markers, DNA markers have much more information and higher polymorphism, and can work without the influence of plant organs, developmental stages and various environmental factors, which have been widely used in identification of crop varieties, conservation and evaluation of plant germplasm resource, analysis of genetic adversity and evolution, construction of genetic maps, cloning of important agronomic trait genes, and molecular mark assisted breeding.

How do molecular markers help in cloning?

Molecular marker can link to the target phenotypic traits loci, by which we can locate the important agronomic traits related genes, provide the convenience for marker-assisted breeding and map-based cloning of these genes. On the basis of precise location of the target gene by using DNA molecular markers, breeders can take advantage of the molecular markers which closely linked to or co-separated with the target genes, by which they can identify the existence of the target gene in breeding offspring, and determine whether they obtain the desired individuals. Molecular-assisted breeding makes up for the shortcomings of the traditional field selective breeding method which is time consuming, low deficiency and inaccurate. At present, molecular-assisted breeding technologies has been widely used in crop breeding and has developed a number of new crop cultivars and lines. Jena and Mackill (2008) [17] and Shi et al.(2009) [18] applied the molecular marker assisted breeding techniques to select the excellent crop quality traits, and succeed to select the blast resistance trait of rice and resistance to soybean mosaic virus of soybean. Gene map-based cloning technology is a technology suitable for gene cloning, which is developed on the basis of DNA molecular markers and marker genetic linkage map. Based on accurate location of the target gene by molecular markers, and use the molecular markers that are closely linked to the target gene as probes to screen genomic library, by which we can clone the large fragments of the target gene. Map-based cloning techniques has great advantages for novel gene cloning, and has been successfully used in the separation and cloning of excellent agronomic, growth and development and resistance related genes in rice and maize. For example, Tamura et al.(2014) [19] and Gao and Lin (2013) [20] successfully cloned salt- and insect-resistant genes in rice by map-based cloning technique, Lu et al.(2012) [21] cloned the key enzymes genes of terpenoid metabolic pathway in maize.

How are plant growth and development controlled?

In total, plant growth and development are controlled by the programmed (by time, tissue and abundance) expression of suites of genes in response to exogeneous or endogeneous queues. Hence, there is a need to generate genome-wide expression data from a range of tissues/ developmental stages in order to understand and relate phenotypic traits and gene expression profiles. And data at the transcriptome and epigenome level can contribute greatly to the application of gene information in agriculture [30].

What is the purpose of 4.1?

4.1. Prevention and Control of Agricultural Disease and Pest

Publisher Summary

This chapter discusses recombinant DNA and agricultural research. The recombinant DNA is considered to make possible improvements in agriculture to (1) economically important micro-organisms, (2) farm livestock, and (3) crop plants.


A great deal of the work on micro-organisms that will have an impact on agriculture will not be different from that which will be undertaken for the pharmaceutical industry. It may be expected that antibiotics, hormones and control peptides, analagous to those developed for use on man, will also be used on farm livestock.


Originally the great attraction to working on the genetic manipulation of plants, by means of DNA insertion or modification, lay in the property that an entire plant sporophyte could be developed from a single protoplast or cell.


The potentiality for agricultural advance by recombinant DNA technology has always seemed more likely with plants, because of the capacity to regenerate an entire individual from a single cell or protoplast. Plant protoplasts are produced experimentally by the enzymatic degradation of cell walls.


P. STARLINGER: I have a question on nitrogen fixation, concerning the idea of introducing nitrogen fixation into other crop plants. As a layman, I do not understand why this is a goal.

How do plants insert genes?

The major method for inserting genes is through the plasmids of the bacterium called Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This bacterium invades plant cells, and its plasmids insert into plant chromosomes carrying the genes for tumor induction. Scientists remove the tumor-inducing genes and obtain a plasmid that unites with the plant cell without causing any harm.

Why are genes inserted into plants?

Also, the genes for an insecticide obtained from a bacterium have been inserted into plants to allow the plants to resist caterpillars and other pests. One of the first agricultural products of biotechnology was the rot-resistant tomato. This plant was altered by adding a gene that produces an antisense molecule.

What inhibits the rotting of tomatoes?

The antisense molecule inhibits the tomato from producing the enzyme that encourages rotting. Without this enzyme, the tomato can ripen longer on the vine. Previous Quiz Searching for DNA. Next Quiz DNA and Agriculture. Introduction to Biology.

Where do nitrogen fixation genes come from?

Scientists have obtained the genes for nitrogen fixation from bacteria and have incorporated those genes into plant cells. The plant cells can then perform a process that normally takes place only in bacteria.

What is CRISPR used for?

This system can be used to target destruction of genes in human cells. Activation, suppression, addition, and deletion of genes in human’s cells, mice, rats, zebrafish, bacteria, fruit flies, yeast, nematodes, and crops proved the technique a promising one. Mouse models can be managed for studying human diseases with CRISPR, where individual genes study becomes much faster and the genes interactions studies become easy by changing multiple genes in cells [25]. The CRISPR ofH. hispanicagenome is capable of getting adapted to the nonlytic viruses very efficiently. The associated Cas operon encodes the interfering Cas3 nucleases and other Cas proteins. The engineering of a strain is required with priming CRISPR for priming crRNAs production and new spacers acceptance. CRISPR-cas system has to integrate new spacers into its locus for adaptive immunity generation [26]. Recognition of foreign DNA/RNA and its cleavage is a controlled process in sequence-specific manner. Information related to the intruder’s genetic material is stored by the host system with the help of photo-spacer incorporation into the CRISPR system [27]. Cas9t (gene editing tool) represents DNA endonucleases which use RNA molecules to recognize specific target [28]. Class 2 CRISPR-Cas system with single protein effectors can be employed for genome editing processes. Dead Cas9 is important for histone modifying enzyme’s recruitment, transcriptional repression, localization of fluorescent protein labels, and transcriptional activation [29]. Targeting of genes involved in homozygous gene knockouts isolation process is carried out by CRISPR-induced mutations. In this way, essential genes can be analyzed which in turn can be used for “potential antifungal targets” exploration [30]. Natural CRISPR-cas immunity exploitation has been used for generation of strains which are resistant to different types of disruptive viruses [31].

How did DNA technology change the world?

The advent of recombinant DNA technology revolutionized the development in biology and led to a series of dramatic changes. It offered new opportunities for innovations to produce a wide range of therapeutic products with immediate effect in the medical genetics and biomedicine by modifying microorganisms, animals, and plants to yield medically useful substances [8, 9]. Most biotechnology pharmaceuticals are recombinant in nature which plays a key role against human lethal diseases. The pharmaceutical products synthesized through recombinant DNA technology, completely changed the human life in such a way that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved more recombinant drugs in 1997 than in the previous several years combined, which includes anemia, AIDS, cancers (Kaposi’s sarcoma, leukemia, and colorectal, kidney, and ovarian cancers), hereditary disorders (cystic fibrosis, familial hypercholesterolemia, Gaucher’s disease, hemophilia A, severe combined immunodeficiency disease, and Turnor’s syndrome), diabetic foot ulcers, diphtheria, genital warts, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human growth hormone deficiency, and multiple sclerosis. Considering the plants develop multigene transfer, site-specific integration and specifically regulated gene expression are crucial advanced approaches [10]. Transcriptional regulation of endogenous genes, their effectiveness in the new locations, and the precise control of transgene expression are major challenges in plant biotechnology which need further developments for them to be used successfully [11].

What is recombinant DNA?

In the past century, the recombinant DNA technology was just an imagination that desirable characteristics can be improved in the living bodies by controlling the expressions of target genes. However, in recent era, this field has demonstrated unique impacts in bringing advancement in human life. By virtue of this technology, crucial proteins …

What is the only adaptive immune system in prokaryotes?

CRISPR-Cas, the only adaptive immune system in prokaryotes, contains genomic locus known as CRISPR having short repetitive elements and spacers (unique sequences). CRISPR array is preceded by AT-rich leader sequence and flanked by cas genes which encode Cas proteins [32, 33]. InEscherichia colicas1 and cas2 catalases promote new spacers through complex formation. Photo-spacer adjacent motif (PAM) is required for interference and acquisition because the target sequence selection is not random. The memorization of the invader’s sequence starts after CRISPR array transcription into long precursor crRNA. During the final stages of immunity process, target is degraded through interference with invaded nucleic acids. Specific recognition prevents the system from self-targeting [32, 34]. In different species ofSulfolobus, the CRISPR loci contain multiple spacers whose sequence matches conjugative plasmids significantly while in some cases the conjugative plasmids also contain small CRISPR loci. Spacer acquisition is affected by active viral DNA replication inSulfolobusspecies whereas the DNA breaks formation at replication forks causes the process to be stimulated [35]. According to the above information, CRISPR-Cas system has obtained a unique position in advanced biological systems because of its tremendous role in the stability and enhancement of immunity.

How does genetic engineering work?

Unlike tradition approaches to overcome agriculture, health, and environmental issues through breeding, traditional medicines, and pollutants degradation through conventional techniques respectively, the genetic engineering utilizes modern tools and approaches, such as molecular cloning and transformation, which are less time consuming and yield more reliable products. For example, compared to conventional breeding that transfers a large number of both specific and nonspecific genes to the recipient, genetic engineering only transfers a small block of desired genes to the target through various approaches, such as biolistic and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation [1]. The alteration into plant genomes is brought either by homologous recombination dependent gene targeting or by nuclease-mediated site-specific genome modification. Recombinase mediated site-specific genome integration and oligonucleotide directed mutagenesis can also be used [2].

How many people die from non-communicable diseases?

Several human related health issues across the globe cause large number of deaths. Approximately 36 million people die each year from noncommunicable and communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, AIDS/HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, and several others according to

What are some examples of genetic engineering?

Synthesis of synthetic human insulin and erythropoietin by genetically modified bacteria [3] and production of new types of experimental mutant mice for research purposes are one of the leading examples of genetic engineering in health.

What is the CFIA feed?

CFIA: feed derived from GMOsunder the Feeds Act, plants with novel traits under the Seeds Actand non-safety-related voluntary labelling of products; and

What is biotechnology in science?

Broadly, biotechnology can be defined as “the application of science and engineering in the direct or indirect use of living organisms, or parts or products of living organisms, in their natural or modified forms.” 2 In most cases, this term is used to refer to modern technologies developed through various life sciences such as molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics.

How does genetic engineering work?

This method introduces specific novel traits into a plant or animal by direct manipulation of its genome. Genetic engineering has typically relied on the use of recombinant DNA, which is produced by joining multiple DNA fragments, usually for genetic manipulation.7Recombinant DNA technology can be used to introduce foreign DNA – either from the same species or from a different one – into the genome of a living organism. This technology thus enables the introduction of individual genes into an already established commercial crop variety.8

How can biotechnology be used to improve agriculture?

Bodies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have stated that biotechnologies can facilitate faster agricultural innovation.3Some can be used to simply amplify certain natural events – mutation breeding, for example, generates random mutations to increase the likelihood of finding a new beneficial trait in a crop. Others, like recombinant DNA and GMOs, can be used as shortcuts to conventional breeding and can enable the development of crops and livestock animals that would not be possible otherwise.

Why do we need to label GM foods?

As with other foods, Health Canada requires labelling of GM foods for health or safety concerns (e.g., the presence of an allergen), or when there are compositional or nutritional changes to the product. 26.

Is CRISPR a novel food?

However, any product developed through gene editing would be considered a novel food and therefore subject to regulation and testing under section B.28.001 of the Food and Drug Regulations. 35

Does CRISPR regulate plants?

In the U.S., the USDAclarified its stance on gene-editing technologies, including CRISPR, in early 2018. The department stated that it would not regulate plants produced through gene editing as long as the changes introduced could have been developed via conventional breeding. It also noted that techniques like gene editing “expand traditional plant breeding tools because they can introduce new plant traits more quickly and precisely, potentially saving years or even decades in bringing needed new varieties to farmers.”36


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