How collectivize agriculture effect ukraine


The sudden loss of State agricultural subsidies had an enormous effect on every aspect of Ukrainian agriculture. The contraction in livestock inventories that had begun in the late 1980’s continued and intensified. Fertilizer use fell by 85 percent over a ten-year period, and grain production by 50 percent.


What happened to Ukraine’s Agriculture?

The sudden loss of State agricultural subsidies had an enormous effect on every aspect of Ukrainian agriculture. The contraction in livestock inventories that had begun in the late 1980’s continued and intensified. Fertilizer use fell by 85 percent over a ten-year period, and grain production by 50 percent.

Will Ukraine’s agriculture be resilient?

And we know that there is an opportunity to ensure that the resiliency of Ukrainian agriculture – its farmers, its rural communities, and its people – will be sustained and will be something that all of us will continue to admire for a very long time to come. Thank you so much for being with us. Ms. Welsh: Yeah.

Will there be enough fertilizer for Ukraine’s crops?

Since much of Ukraine’s fertilizer comes from Belarus, it seems highly unlikely there will be enough fertilizer for crop needs. If the Black Sea ports remain closed to exporting, much of the exports could still leave the country by truck or rail, but costs of shipping go up significantly.

How much land is in Ukraine classified as agricultural?

Of Ukraine’s total land area of 60 million hectares, roughly 42 million is classified as agricultural land, which includes cultivated land (grains, technical crops, forages, potatoes and vegetables, and fallow), gardens, orchards, vineyards, and permanent meadows and pastures.


How did collectivization affect Ukraine?

The collectivization process was rolled back: by 1 May 1933 38.2% of Ukrainian peasant households and 41.1% of arable land had been collectivized. By the end of August, these numbers declined to 29.2% and 35.6% respectively.

How did Stalin’s collectivization of farms affect the Ukrainian people?

Joseph Stalin’s purges resulted in the execution of thousands, while millions more were sent to forced labor camps. The decade began with the forced collectivization of farms throughout the Soviet Union, a process that resulted in the deaths of millions by starvation.

What effect did collectivize agriculture have on the Soviet Union?

Through collectivization agriculture was integrated with the rest of the state-controlled economy, and the state was supplied with the capital it required to transform the Soviet Union into a major industrial power. See also kolkhoz.

How does collectivization of agriculture impact the Russian people?

Stalin ordered the collectivisation of farming, a policy pursued intensely between 1929-33. Collectivisation meant that peasants would work together on larger, supposedly more productive farms. Almost all the crops they produced would be given to the government at low prices to feed the industrial workers.

What was the effect of collectivization?

In many cases, the immediate effect of collectivization was the reduction of output and the cutting of the number of livestock in half. The subsequent recovery of the agricultural production was also impeded by the losses suffered by the Soviet Union during World War II and the severe drought of 1946.

Did collectivisation improve Soviet agriculture?

At the same time, collectivisation brought substantial modernisation to traditional agriculture in the Soviet Union, and laid the basis for relatively high food production and consumption by the 1970s and 1980s.

Why did Stalin collectivize agriculture?

Stalin wanted the Soviet Union to have more efficient farms. Agriculture needed to embrace modern technologies. Russia and the other Soviet states had historically produced less food than the country required. Using new farming methods and introducing a new system was needed to change this.

What agricultural changes were introduced in Soviet Union after 1917?

Following agricultural changes were introduced in the Soviet Union after 1917 are : 1. Large estates of landlords, nobility and farmers were occupied by the government and transformed into collective farms known as kholkoz. 2. These collective farms were transferred to peasants known as kulkas.

How successful was the collective farming?

Starting in 1958 collective farming was pushed such that by 1960, 85% of farmers and 70% of farmlands were collectivized including those seized by force. Collectivization however was seen by the communist leadership as a half-measure when compared to full state ownership.

Was collectivization successful in Russia?

The Communists would like to say that Collectivisation was a huge success as it made Russia’s agriculture more efficient, which it did in some aspects; it succeeded in providing the resources for industrialisation to occur (however, this view has been disputed as valuable resources were diverted to agriculture such as …

What are the disadvantages of collective farming?

Collective farming in and of itself is not bad….some of the disadvantages of mixed farming are listed below:decreased level of production as compared to monoculture.growth rate and optimal harvest date differ.inappropriate climatic condition.animals can be hazardous if they are not properly enclosed or tethered.More items…

Why was collectivization a failure?

Failure of collective farms to meet procurement quotas had dire consequences for their members. It meant that no matter how many labordays (the unit of accounting according to which collective farmers were paid) kolkhozniks worked, there was nothing to pay them.

Agricultural Land Area and Major Crops

  • The climate of Ukraine is roughly similar to that of Kansas: slightly drier and cooler during the summer and colder and wetter during the winter, but close enough for comparison. The weather is suitable for both winter and spring crops. Average annual precipitation in Ukraine is approximately 600 millimeters (24 inches), including roughly 350 millimeters during the growing season (April t…

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Crop Rotations

  • Farms in Ukraine employ a variety of crop-rotation schemes, some including four or more crops, some only two. A six-year crop rotation in the winter grain region will often include two consecutive years of wheat and one season of “clean fallow,” during which no crop is sown. The chief reason for including fallow in the rotation is to replenish soil-moisture reserves, and it is m…

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  • During the final years of the Soviet era, winter wheat was the focus of the so-called intensive technology movement, which was marked by the use of improved varieties and the increased application of fertilizer and plant-protection chemicals. Yields climbed in response to the enhanced management practices. The intensive technology program fizzled during the early 199…

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Obsolete Machinery and Inadequate On-Farm Storage

  • A chronic lack of modern harvesting equipment remains one of Ukraine’s main obstacles to increasing grain output and quality. In the late 1980’s, the Ukrainian winter wheat harvest could be finished in roughly three weeks. Harvest now takes twice as long to complete, and both yield and grain quality suffer as a result of the delays. Farm managers e…

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  • The production of grain and oilseed crops is dominated by large agricultural enterprises that were established when Ukraine’s agricultural sector was restructured in April, 2000. (In contrast, nearly 90 percent of the country’s vegetables and virtually all of the potatoes are grown on private household plots.) State and collective farms were dismantled and farm property was divided am…

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Credit Problems

  • Most farms are able to receive credit, but interest rates and collateral demands are high. Since many farms are already heavily in debt to banks or suppliers of fertilizer and plant-protection chemicals, and since agricultural loans are not guaranteed by the government, banks are largely unwilling to make long-term loans. Most credit is extended in the form of seasonal loans (six to t…

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Shrinking Livestock Inventories

  • The loss of State subsidies following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 increased feed and production costs and reduced profitability for livestock enterprises. As prices for meat products increased, consumer demand declined, thus establishing a downward spiral that continued throughout the decade. Livestock inventories, and demand for forage, continued to shrink. The i…

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