How common is conventional agriculture in us

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In the United States, there are 2.05 million farms, of which 97% are family owned. 1 2 There is a competitive advantage to family farms because they are able to pass on their understanding of local soil conditions and weather patterns. Despite this, most small farms make only $350,000 a year before costs.

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Answer

What is conventional agriculture?

Figure 1. Conventional agriculture is dependent on large investments in mechanized equipment powered mostly by fossil fuels. This has made agriculture efficient, but has had an impact on the environment. Cotton Harvest by Kimberly Vardeman is licensed under CC BY 4.0. Conventional farming systems vary from farm to farm and from country to country.

Where is agriculture most common in the United States?

Although agricultural activity occurs in every state in the union, it is particularly concentrated in the Great Plains, a vast expanse of flat, arable land in the center of the nation in the region west of the Great Lakes and east of the Rocky Mountains. The eastern, wetter half is a major corn…

What percentage of the US population is employed in agriculture?

In 1870, almost 50 percent of the U.S. population was employed in agriculture. As of 2008, less than 2 percent of the population is directly employed in agriculture. In 2012, there were 3.2 million farmers, ranchers and other agricultural managers and an estimated 757,900 agricultural workers were legally employed in the US.

How does conventional agriculture affect the environment?

Figure 1. Conventional agriculture is dependent on large investments in mechanized equipment powered mostly by fossil fuels. This has made agriculture efficient, but has had an impact on the environment. Cotton Harvest by Kimberly Vardeman is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

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How many conventional farms are in the US?

Farms and Land in Farms Highlights The number of farms in the United States for 2019 is estimated at 2,023,400, down 5,800 farms from 2018. Total land in farms, at 897,400,000 acres, decreased 2,100,000 acres from 2018. The average farm size for 2019 is 444 acres, up 1 acre from the previous year.


What is the most common type of agriculture in the US?

Corn. It is the most widely produced feed grain in the United States, the majority of which goes towards feeding livestock. Over 90 million acres of corn are grown for feed, industrial products, and food and beverage products like cereal, alcohol, and sweeteners. Cotton.


What percent of Americans is involved in traditional farming?

While farmland may stretch far and wide, farmers and ranchers themselves make up just 1.3% of the employed US population, totaling around 2.6 million people.


What percentage of agricultural production is organic in the US?

Still, organic farming makes up a small share of U.S. farmland overall. There were 5 million certified organic acres of farmland in 2016, representing less than 1% of the 911 million acres of total farmland nationwide.


What agriculture does the US have?

As of the 2017 census of agriculture, there were 2.04 million farms, covering an area of 900 million acres (1,400,000 sq mi), an average of 441 acres (178 hectares) per farm….Major agricultural products.Millions of Tonnes in20032013Chicken meat14.717.4Soybeans67.089.0Pig meat9.110.5Wheat64.058.016 more rows


How much of US land is agricultural?

915 million acresTwo fifths of all land. . . . . . in the United States is farmland. 915 million acres.


Why most of our farmers practice conventional farming?

Conventional agriculture was developed to make farming more efficient, but achieves that efficiency at a major cost to the environment. The goal of conventional agriculture is to maximize the potential yield of crops.


Why conventional farming is bad?

Conventional farming has been heavily criticized for causing biodiversity loss, soil erosion, and increased water pollution due to the rampant usage of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.


What is conventional agriculture?

Conventional farming manages resource inputs (i.e., fertilizer, irrigation water, amendments, pesticides) uniformly, ignoring the naturally inherent spatial heterogeneity of soil and crop conditions between and within fields. The uniform application of inputs results in over and under applications of resources.


Is organic farming increasing in the US?

According to the recently released results of the 2019 Organic Survey, a 2017 Census of Agriculture special study, we can see a 17% increase in the number of certified farms in the U.S. between 2016 and 2019. In 2008, there were around 11,000 certified farms. Fast forward to 2019 and there are more than 16,500.


What percent of farms are organic farms in the states that are listed in the top 10 states with organic farms What are the top ten states?

Related Content:StateRankOrganic acreage as a percentage of totalVermont116.92%New York24.68%Maine34.25%California43.97%12 more rows•Jan 26, 2022


Why should the US increase organic agriculture?

Environmental benefits Overall, organic farms tend to store more soil carbon, have better soil quality, and reduce soil erosion compared to their conventional counterparts. Organic agriculture also creates less soil and water pollution and lower greenhouse gas emissions.


What are some of the agricultural products that were grown in the United States in 1921?

Main article: History of agriculture in the United States. Cotton farming on a Southern plantation in 1921. Corn, turkeys, tomatoes, potatoes, peanuts, and sunflower seeds constitute some of the major holdovers from the agricultural endowment of the Americas .


How many women were employed in agriculture in 2004?

In 2004, women made up approximately 24% of farmers; that year, there were 580,000 women employed in agriculture, forestry, and fishing.


What were the crops grown in the early colonial South?

Warmer regions saw plantings of cotton and herds of beef cattle. In the early colonial south, raising tobacco and cotton was common, especially through the use of slave labor until the Civil War. In the northeast, slaves were used in agriculture until the early 19th century.


Why is agriculture dangerous?

Agriculture ranks among the most hazardous industries due to the use of chemicals and risk of injury. Farmers are at high risk for fatal and nonfatal injuries (general traumatic injury and musculoskeletal injury ), work-related lung diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, skin diseases, chemical-related illnesses, and certain cancers associated with chemical use and prolonged sun exposure. In an average year, 516 workers die doing farm work in the U.S. (1992–2005). Every day, about 243 agricultural workers suffer lost-work-time injuries, and about 5% of these result in permanent impairment. Tractor overturns are the leading cause of agriculture-related fatal injuries, and account for over 90 deaths every year. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommends the use of roll over protection structures on tractors to reduce the risk of overturn-related fatal injuries.


Why were farmers open to new crops?

Scholarship has shown that farmers in the early United States were open to planting new crops, raising new animals and adopting new innovations as increased agricultural productivity in turn increased the demand for shipping services, containers, credit, storage, and the like.


When did soybeans become a commodity?

By 1973 soybeans were the United States’ “number one cash crop, and leading export commodity, ahead of both wheat and corn”. Significant areas of farmland were abandoned during the Great Depression and incorporated into nascent national forests.


Where did the wheat frontier spread?

In the United States, farms spread from the colonies westward along with the settlers. In cooler regions, wheat was often the crop of choice when lands were newly settled, leading to a “wheat frontier” that moved westward over the course of years.


What is conventional farming?

The prevailing agricultural system, variously called “ conventional farming ,” “modern agriculture ,” or “industrial farming,” has delivered tremendous gains in productivity and efficiency. Food production worldwide has risen in the past 50 years; the World Bank estimates that between 70 percent and 90 percent of the recent increases in food production are the result of conventional agriculture rather than greater acreage under cultivation. U.S. consumers have come to expect abundant and inexpensive food.


What is the agricultural sector?

Economically, the U.S. agricultural sector includes a history of increasingly large federal expenditures. Also observed is a widening disparity among the income of farmers and the escalating concentration of agribusiness —industries involved with manufacture, processing, and distribution of farm products—into fewer and fewer hands. Market competition is limited and farmers have little control over prices of their goods, and they continue to receive a smaller and smaller portion of consumer dollars spent on agricultural products.


What is the role of the destruction of tropical forests and other native vegetation for agricultural production?

Destruction of tropical forests and other native vegetation for agricultural production has a role in elevated levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Recent studies have found that soils may be large reservoirs of carbon.


How many farms were lost in the past few decades?

Economic pressures have led to a tremendous loss to the number of farms, particularly small farms, and farmers during the past few decades. More than 155,000 farms were lost from 1987 to 1997. Economically, it is very difficult for potential farmers to enter the business today because of the high cost of doing business.


Why is the rate of population increase so high in developing countries?

In these countries, the population factor, combined with rapid industrialization, poverty, political instability, and large food imports and debt burden, make long-term food security especially urgent.


How much has food production increased in the past 50 years?

Food production worldwide has risen in the past 50 years; the World Bank estimates that between 70 percent and 90 percent of the recent increases in food production are the result of conventional agriculture rather than greater acreage under cultivation.


Is farming a health risk?

The general public may be affected by the sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics in animal production and the contamination of food and water by pesticides and nitrates. These are areas of active research to determine the levels of risk. The health of farm workers is also of concern, as their risk of exposure is much higher.


Ecological Concerns

Agriculture profoundly affects many ecological systems. Negative effects of current practices include the following:


Economic and Social Concerns

Economically, the U.S. agricultural sector includes a history of increasingly large federal expenditures. Also observed is a widening disparity among the income of farmers and the escalating concentration of agribusiness —industries involved with manufacture, processing, and distribution of farm products—into fewer and fewer hands.


Impacts on Human Health

Many potential health hazards are tied to farming practices. The general public may be affected by the sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics in animal production and the contamination of food and water by pesticides and nitrates. These are areas of active research to determine the levels of risk.


Philosophical Considerations

Historically, farming played an important role in our development and identity as a nation. From strongly agrarian roots, we have evolved into a culture with few farmers. Less than two percent of Americans now produce food for all U.S. citizens.


Which countries are involved in farming?

The principal countries/regions of origin were Canada, the European Union, and Mexico. Farming also involves significant production costs. A closer look at the composition of these costs shows that feed made up the largest share, followed by costs associated with farm services, livestock and poultry.


Which country has the highest acreage of genetically modified crops?

Over the last decade, the issue of genetic engineering has increasingly been on the agenda. The United States has by far the highest acreage of genetically modified crops worldwide. Some crops have a very high share of GM crops per species.


Is the United States a leading agricultural producer?

Thanks to its natural resources and land conditions, the United States was always destined to be one of the world’s leading agricultural producers and suppliers.


What is conventional farming?

Conventional farming is the use of seeds that have been genetically altered using a variety of traditional breeding methods , excluding biotechnology, and are not certified as organic. Some conventional breeding methods have been used for thousands of years, often times to develop plants with faster growth, higher yields, pest and disease resistance, larger seeds or sweeter fruit. Conventional crops may be grown simply as commodities and enter the commodity stream where they are mixed with other crops, including GE, or they may be grown to meet a requirement set forth by an end market, such as a specific chemical or nutritional requirement. When conventional crops are targeted for a unique end market, farmers often receive premium prices.


What is coexistence in agriculture?

Coexistence, as defined by the AC21 report, is the concurrent cultivation of conventional, organic, identity preserved (IP), and genetically engineered crops consistent with underlying consumer preferences and farmer choices. In other words, it is the existence of different types of production at the same time and in the same area. Market demands on U.S.-grown crops are increasing, and it will take products from the organic, conventional and biotechnology sectors to meet those demands. Understanding the differences and challenges of each sector, recognizing opportunities for growth in each sector, and understanding how one sector impacts the other two, will be critical as the agriculture industry continues to expand.


Do conventional crops require IP?

Conventional crops are grown for many markets, and meeting those market needs may or may not require IP, depending on the crop and the market. One of the more specific markets is the food ingredient market where consumer sensitivities exist around biotech ingredients and IP practices may be required. In contrast, commodity markets for wheat and rice, where biotech varieties have not been commercialized, do not in general require IP practices unless there are additional quality characteristics specified. While not addressing the organic market, conventional products, whether with or without IP, can supply the market demand for specific non-GE food ingredients.


Will there be new opportunities in conventional farming?

As consumer demands and expectations from the food industry continue to evolve, it’s likely there will be new opportunities in conventional farming . This may be especially true for overseas markets that have specific quality and trait expectations, particularly with food-grade products.


Abstract

Agriculture faces many challenges. In both public discourse and the scientific literature debates about the future are increasing framed in terms of ‘alternative’ versus ‘conventional’ agriculture. In this paper we critically examine this framing, and seek to understand how the term conventional has been and is being used.


1. Introduction

Imagine a world without adjectives, where traditional agriculture, small-scale agriculture, mechanised agriculture, intensive agriculture, commercial agriculture and industrial agriculture all become simply agriculture.


2. Naming and categorising agriculture

There is a long and rich academic literature, from fields including economic geography, agricultural economics, rural development planning and agronomy, that seeks to classify, categorise and name the diversity of types, systems and forms of agriculture.


4. Use of conventional agriculture

The adjective ‘conventional’ has been associated with the noun ‘agriculture’ since the early part of the 20th century. Fig. 1, generated using Ngram Viewer, 3 shows the normalised frequency of the term ‘conventional agriculture’ in the Google Books ‘English’ corpus from 1920 through 2019.


6. Conclusions

The fact that agriculture is facing critically important challenges is beyond question. However, both the scientific community and society more generally struggle to find productive ways to talk about and debate the future of agriculture.


Declaration of competing interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.


Appendix

Table 1. Share of total agricultural land that is not organic: world regions and selected European countries.


How does conventional farming work?

Conventional farming manages resource inputs (i.e., fertilizer, irrigation water, amendments, pesticides) uniformly, ignoring the naturally inherent spatial heterogeneity of soil and crop conditions between and within fields. The uniform application of inputs results in over and under applications of resources.


What are the negative effects of agriculture?

The intensification of the conventional farming systems has led to extensive usage of agricultural machinery, high-demanding varieties, and agrochemicals, resulting in negative environmental impacts such as groundwater pollution and atmospheric contamination that exacerbates the greenhouse effect.


Why is manure used in farming?

Manure and compost are regularly used in both organic and conventional farming as a soil amendment to provide vital minerals and organic matter aiding in soil structure and plant growth. Soil and soil amendments are necessary for most farm operations, however inattention to the quality of material going into the system can pose a food safety risk. Although conventional farming systems may opt to implement synthetic chemical fertilizers that are relatively low food safety risk, organic growers are restricted in resources available for fertilization and hence should always consider any microbial risk associated with their soil amendment choice. A common option for organic fertilizer, manure has been extensively studied as a source and habitat for human pathogens. Of particular concern in these animal-derived fertilizers are the enterohemorrhagic E. coli such as E. coli O157:H7, an enteric pathogen whose reservoir is the cattle gut, but has also been found in wildlife such as deer ( Ferens and Hovde, 2011 ).


How does GM affect farming?

Two major changes have been the expansion of no-tillage methods and reductions in pesticide use, as consequences respectively of efficient weed killing through glyphosate-tolerant GM varieties and insect resistance from Bt-producing varieties. These are discussed in more depth below. One overlooked consequence of the drop in insecticide use is the health benefit for farmers in developing countries, due to the drop in the skin and respiratory exposure from unprotected use of toxic pesticides (Smyth et al., 2015 ). In India alone, several million annual cases of acute pesticide poisoning have been thereby avoided, realizing a savings to the health authorities of 14–51 M USD ( Kouser and Qaim, 2011 ).


Is conventional farming sustainable?

Nevertheless, in the long term, conventional farming practices are not sustainable. The fertilized soil becomes overloaded with chemical toxins, and low in nutrients.


What is the USDA’s goal for organic certification?

USDA has a current goal to increase the number of certified organic operations and is expanding programs and services for organic producers and handlers. Funding for organic research, certification cost-share assistance, and other programs has been increasing since 2002, when national organic standards were implemented.


Where was the 2011 USDA conference held?

In 2011, USDA held a major conference in Washington, DC to examine findings from research on the agronomic, economic, ecological, and quality-of-life performance of organic farming systems. Conference proceedings are published in the online interdisciplinary journal Crop Management .


Is organic food growing?

farmers across a broad range of products. Organic products are now available in nearly 3 of 4 conventional grocery stores, and often have substantial price premiums over conventional products (see data on Organic Prices ).

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U.S. Meat Production

  • Half of U.S. agriculture revenue is from meat production.4Most of this is cattle, dairy, poultry, hogs, and eggs. A smaller proportion is bison, rabbits, sheep, goats, and ostriches. The United States is the world’s largest beef producer.8 Large farms with 100 or more head of cattle produc…

See more on thebalance.com


Agricultural Exports

  • Exports totaled $143.4 billion in 2018.11 Until 2018, China was the largest export recipient, but the trade war initiated by President Donald Trump reduced exports of soybeans and other agricultural products.12 As a result, Canada became the largest export market in 2018.13 1. Canada: $20.7 billion 2. Mexico: $19.0 billion 3. European Union: $13.5 billion 4. Japan: $12.9 billion 5. China: $…

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Industrial Agriculture

  • The success of modern U.S. farming is a result of industrial agriculture. This is when mass-production techniques are used to create food. A big component is monocultural growing of the same crop in the same large field. Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and feed additives must be used to boost production. Between 1948 and 2015, industrial agriculture doubled U.S. farm prod…

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Sustainable Agriculture

  • In response to the issues of industrial agriculture, many farmers are adopting more sustainable techniques. Sustainable agriculture incorporates environmental, animal, and farmworker well-being into a profitable business model. It uses methods that improve soil health, minimize water use, and reduce pollution levels.22 It’s called sustainable because it doesn’t degrade the natural …

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The Important Role of The U.S. Department of Agriculture

  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) plays a huge role in supporting the U.S. agriculture industry. America’s food supply must be protected from extreme weatherlike droughts, tornadoes, and hurricanes. The government has a role in ensuring food production during wars, recessions, and other economic crises. Food production is considered to be more important to the nation’s …

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History

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Corn, turkeys, tomatoes, potatoes, peanuts, and sunflower seeds constitute some of the major holdovers from the agricultural endowment of the Americas. Colonists had more access to land in the colonial United States than they did in Europe. The organization of labor was complex including free persons, slaves and indentured …

See more on en.wikipedia.org


United States Agriculture Production in 2018

  • In 2018: 1. It was by far the largest world producer of maize(392 million tons). The country has been the world leader in maize production for decades and only recently China, with 257.3 million tonnes produced this year, has been approaching North American production; 2. It was the largest world producer of soy(123.6 million tons), a position that they held for many years, but recently, t…

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Major Agricultural Products

  • Tonnes of United States agriculture production, as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO) of the U.N. in 2003 and 2013 (ranked roughly in order of value): Other crops appearing in the top 20 at some point in the last 40 years were: tobacco, barley, and oats, and, rarely: peanuts, almonds, and sunflower seeds. Alfalfa and haywould both be in the top ten in 20…

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Farm Type Or Majority Enterprise Type

  • Farm type is based on which commodities are the majority crops grown on a farm. Nine common types include: 1. Cash grains includes corn, soybeans and other grains (wheat, oats, barley, sorghum), dry edible beans, peas, and rice. 2. Tobacco 3. Cotton 4. Other field crops includes peanuts, potatoes, sunflowers, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, broomcorn, popcorn, sugar beets, mi…

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Governance

  • Agriculture in the United States is primarily governed by periodically renewed U.S. farm bills. Governance is both a federal and a local responsibility with the United States Department of Agriculture being the federal department responsible. Government aid includes research into crop types and regional suitability as well as many kinds of subsidies, some price supports and loan …

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Employment

  • In 1870, almost 50 percent of the U.S. population was employed in agriculture. As of 2008[update], less than 2 percent of the population is directly employed in agriculture. In 2012, there were 3.2 million farmers, ranchers and other agricultural managers and an estimated 757,900 agricultural workers were legally employed in the US. Animal breeders accounted for 11…

See more on en.wikipedia.org


Occupational Safety and Health

  • Agriculture ranks among the most hazardous industries due to the use of chemicals and risk of injury. Farmers are at high risk for fatal and nonfatal injuries (general traumatic injury and musculoskeletal injury), work-related lung diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, skin diseases, chemical-related illnesses, and certain cancers associated with chemical use and prolonged su…

See more on en.wikipedia.org


Demographics

  • The number of women working in agriculture has risen and the 2002 census of agriculture recorded a 40% increase in the number of female farm workers.Inequality and respect are common issues for these workers, as many have reported that they are not being respected, listened to, or taken seriously due to traditional views of women as housewives and caretakers. …

See more on en.wikipedia.org


Industry

  • Historically, farmland has been owned by small property owners, but as of 2017 institutional investors, including foreign corporations, had been purchasing farmland. In 2013 the largest producer of pork, Smithfield Foods, was bought by a company from China. As of 2017, only about 4% of farms have sales over $1m, but these farms yield two-thirds of total output.Some of thes…

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Land Ownership Laws

  • As of 2019, six states—Hawaii, Iowa, Minnesota, Mississippi, North Dakota, and Oklahoma—have laws banning foreign ownership of farmland. Missouri, Ohio, and Oklahoma are looking to introduce bills banning foreign ownership as of 2019. The state with the most foreign ownership as of 2019 is Maine, which has 3.1 million acres that are foreign-controlled, followed closely by …

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Ecological Concerns


Economic and Social Concerns

  • Economically, the U.S. agricultural sector includes a history of increasingly large federal expenditures. Also observed is a widening disparity among the income of farmers and the escalating concentration of agribusiness—industries involved with manufacture, processing, and distribution of farm products—into fewer and fewer hands. Market competition is limited and far…

See more on openoregon.pressbooks.pub


Impacts on Human Health

  • Many potential health hazards are tied to farming practices. The general public may be affected by the sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics in animal production and the contamination of food and water by pesticides and nitrates. These are areas of active research to determine the levels of risk. The health of farm workers is also of concern, as their risk of exposure is much higher.

See more on openoregon.pressbooks.pub


Philosophical Considerations

  • Historically, farming played an important role in our development and identity as a nation. From strongly agrarian roots, we have evolved into a culture with few farmers. Less than two percent of Americans now produce food for all U.S. citizens. Can sustainable and equitable food production be established when most consumers have so little connecti…

See more on openoregon.pressbooks.pub


Ecological Concerns


Economic and Social Concerns

  • Economically, the U.S. agricultural sector includes a history of increasingly large federal expenditures. Also observed is a widening disparity among the income of farmers and the escalating concentration of agribusiness—industries involved with manufacture, processing, and distribution of farm products—into fewer and fewer hands. Market competition is limited and far…

See more on pressbooks.umn.edu


Impacts on Human Health

  • Many potential health hazards are tied to farming practices. The general public may be affected by the sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics in animal production and the contamination of food and water by pesticides and nitrates. These are areas of active research to determine the levels of risk. The health of farm workers is also of concern, as their risk of exposure is much higher.

See more on pressbooks.umn.edu


Philosophical Considerations

  • Historically, farming played an important role in our development and identity as a nation. From strongly agrarian roots, we have evolved into a culture with few farmers. Less than two percent of Americans now produce food for all U.S. citizens. Can sustainable and equitable food production be established when most consumers have so little connecti…

See more on pressbooks.umn.edu

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