How cuban agriculture went from industrial to sustainable


Suddenly lacking the tools with which its modern agricultural sector had been founded, Cuba was forced to transition from centrally run industrial agriculture to sustainable organic agriculture and urban farming.


How did Cuba’s urban agriculture develop?

In order to tackle this grave moment, in which the Havana’s government was unable to deliver adequate food supplies to the population, Cubans were forced to develop a new method of farming: urban agriculture, hopefully a sustainable way of land exploitation and food production.

What rights did Cuban farmers have in the 1960s?

[v] Farmers had the right to enjoy the use of the soil and take advantage of its products, without necessarily owning the land. The aim of the Cuban leadership was to improve agricultural production and cut, if not eliminate, food imports into the country.

What Cuban products could be sold in the United States?

Secondly, the Cuban products that could be sold in the U.S. market are numerous, among these tobacco, rum, tropical fruit, and seafood. [xxxvi] They could compete on quality, through artisanal production, non-genetic modification or other niche merchandise.

Is Cuba the most sustainable country on the planet?

According to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) bi-annual Living Planet Report 2016, Cuba is the most sustainable country on the planet. [xiv] Indeed, the Fund created an environmental footprint index that combines human development and the exploitation of natural resources.


What has Cuba done for sustainable agriculture?

Since the economic crisis following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba has restructured their agriculture with a greater focus on domestic production of domestically consumed produce, and a dramatic reduction of petroleum products in all aspects of food production.

Is Cuba industrial or agricultural?

Today, agriculture is Cuba’s largest sector, employing 18 percent of working Cubans. While sugarcane remains the primary crop, and agricultural chemicals are still distributed to cooperatives, an “agroecological” sector of small farms is thriving and has become well-known around the world.

What was the immediate cause for Cuba to switch over to organic farming?

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union four years ago, Cuba’s supply of fertilizers and pesticides was cut back 80 percent, its fuel supply cut in half. Now, there is an urgent need for the country to feed its people . . . but there is no money to buy farm chemicals or oil.

What agricultural resource did Cuba have?

The Cuban economy depends heavily on the sugarcane crop. Additionally, the chief crops are rice (the main source of calories in the traditional diet), citrus fruits (which are also an important export), potatoes, plantains and bananas, cassava (manioc), tomatoes and corn (maize). Other products include cacao and beans.

What are two industries important to the Cuban economy?

The main sectors of the Cuban economy include energy production, agriculture, industry, service, and foreign investment, and trade. The country’s banking sector is not well developed, and millions of people cannot access credit facilities.

Is Cuba good for farming?

Arable land covers nearly one-third of Cuba. The soil is highly fertile, allowing up to two crops per year, but the highly variable nature of annual precipitation has historically plagued agriculture. Subterranean waters are important for irrigation.

What agricultural techniques do organic farmers in Cuba use?

Agroecological technology instead of chemicals: Cuba has used intercropping, locally produced biopesticdes, compost, and other alternatives to synthetic pesticides and fertilizers. Fair Prices for Farmers: Cuban farmers stepped up production in response to higher crop prices.

What is an important industry in Cuba?

Economy of CubaStatisticsMain industriesPetroleum, nickel, cobalt, pharmaceuticals, tobacco, construction, steel, cement, agricultural machinery, sugarEase-of-doing-business rankN/A (2020)ExternalExports$2.63 billion (2017 est.)29 more rows

Why did Cuba shift to Organoponics?

Organopónicos first arose as a community response to lack of food security during the Special Period after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It is publicly functioning in terms of ownership, access, and management, but heavily subsidized and supported by the Cuban government.

What is the industrial production growth rate in Cuba?

Industrial Production in Cuba averaged 0.76 percent from 2001 until 2020, reaching an all time high of 17.80 percent in 2013 and a record low of -28.07 percent in 2006.

What is Cuba doing about soil degradation?

Havana, Sep 17 (Prensa Latina) Cuba develops a comprehensive program of soil conservation and improvement, in order to revert the degradation process of this natural resource, indispensable for food production, said today a sector’s source.

How does Cuba get their food?

Overview. The vast majority of Cuban families rely, for their food intake, on the Libreta de Abastecimiento (literally, “Supplies booklet”) distribution system, instated on 12 March 1962. The system establishes the rations each person is allowed to buy through the system, and the frequency of supplies.

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