How did agricultural advancements impact the west


How did technology affect farming in the West? Technology allowed the Great Plains to be opened to agriculture. Perhaps the most important advances were John Deere’s steel plow (which made it much easier to break the thick and heavy soil of the area) and barbed wire (which could keep livestock out of fields).


How did technological advances affect the development of the west?

Technological advances increased the speed of correspondence from months to weeks and then to minutes. Each technological advance further opened the West and helped bind the growing country together. Traveling around America used to be quite difficult.

How did agriculture change after WW2?

After World War II, chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides, often developed from research at land grant universities like Iowa State, further boosted farm production. In the 1960s, a truly new stage in agriculture began to emerge.

How did firearms impact the development of the American West?

Jay Monaghan’s The Book of the American West noted that, “these early firearms not only paved the way for the winning of the West but became our first sporting weapons, bringing down game as well as humans.”

What impact did the three stages of Midwestern agriculture have on population?

All three stages of Midwestern agriculture had decisive impacts on the rural population. Labor-saving equipment reduced the need for hired help and led to an incentive to farmers to expand their acres.


What effect did western expansion have on agriculture?

Agricultural prices, which had sparked the boom, dropped off sharply, bringing the value of land down. Farmers could not afford to pay their debts, and since speculators could not collect payment for lands they had sold, the value of land plummeted even further.

How did agricultural advancements impact society?

The increase in agricultural production and technological advancements during the Agricultural Revolution contributed to unprecedented population growth and new agricultural practices, triggering such phenomena as rural-to-urban migration, development of a coherent and loosely regulated agricultural market, and …

What were the effects of the Agricultural Revolution?

The agricultural revolution had a variety of consequences for humans. It has been linked to everything from societal inequality—a result of humans’ increased dependence on the land and fears of scarcity—to a decline in nutrition and a rise in infectious diseases contracted from domesticated animals.

How did agriculture affect the Industrial Revolution?

The Agricultural Revolution helped bring about the Industrial Revolution through innovations and inventions that altered how the farming process worked. These new processes in turn created a decline in both the intensity of the work and the number of agricultural laborers needed.

How did Agricultural Revolution change people’s lives?

The Agricultural Revolution was also instrumental in the early development of cities. Because fewer workers were needed on the farms, and there was sufficient agricultural production to support life away from the farm, people were now able to move off of the farms and into cities.

What are positive impacts of agricultural technology?

Higher crop productivity. Decreased use of water, fertilizer, and pesticides, which in turn keeps food prices down. Reduced impact on natural ecosystems. Less runoff of chemicals into rivers and groundwater.

What agricultural advances led to the change over from the first to the second to the third agricultural revolutions?

The Second Agricultural Revolution increased the productivity of farming through mechanization and access to market areas due to better transportation. The Third Agricultural Revolution involved hybridization and genetic engineering of products and the increased use of pesticides and fertilizers.

How did improved farming lead to the development of government?

How did improved farming lead to the development of government? Government developed to help manage the surplus of food, which occurred because of improved farming.

What were the positive and negative effects of the Agricultural Revolution?

– Positive: There are more people because there is enough food. More ideas can be created and the population can become more diverse. – Negative: More competition for space and resources.

What role does agriculture play in relation to industrialization?

Agriculture is important because it employs so much of the labor force in the early stages of development. It has the capacity to exploit productivity-increasing technological innovations that make large net additions to national income and hence to purchasing power.

What were the first changes in agriculture?

The first was the impact of the Industrial Revolution in the mid-1800s, when horse-powered machines began to supplement human energy. John Deere’s invention of a steel plow that scoured the sticky prairie sod from the blade made turning prairie sod much faster and easier. That was rapidly followed by the adoption of horse-drawn reapers, sulky plows, mowers and threshing machines that enabled one farmer to cultivate and harvest much larger holdings.

What was the new agriculture industry after World War II?

After World War II, chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides, often developed from research at land grant universities like Iowa State, further boosted farm production. In the 1960s, a truly new stage in agriculture began to emerge.

What was John Deere’s invention?

John Deere’s invention of a steel plow that scoured the sticky prairie sod from the blade made turning prairie sod much faster and easier. That was rapidly followed by the adoption of horse-drawn reapers, sulky plows, mowers and threshing machines that enabled one farmer to cultivate and harvest much larger holdings.

How did labor saving equipment affect the rural population?

Labor-saving equipment reduced the need for hired help and led to an incentive to farmers to expand their acres . As farms grew larger with less hired help, the rural population decreased, putting a stress on the small towns and rural institutions like churches, hospitals and schools.

Why are genetically modified plants controversial?

Genetically-modified plants sparked a controversy because their long-term environmental impact had never been tested. The livestock industry engaged in new breeding techniques to adapt animals to their environment and to market demands.

What was the most dramatic change in America since 1800?

Improvements in agriculture have been one of the most dramatic features of economic and social change in America since 1800. At the start of the 19th century, over 90 percent of the population was engaged in producing the food and fiber needed to feed and clothe the nation. Two centuries later, that number has dropped to less than two percent, …

When was the Chicago Tribune article about cast steel?

This article appeared in the Chicago Tribune in 1872 on the “Farm and Garden” page. The author gives advice to farmers about new plows and spends a great amount of time advocating for cast steel in the manufacturing process. The author states that the volume of…

What was the farming revolution?

Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the ” Neolithic Revolution.”. Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements …

What mutation occurred during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe?

But at some point during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe, a mutation occurred for lactose tolerance that increased in frequency through natural selection thanks to the nourishing benefits of milk.

What is the meaning of “agriculture”?

agriculture. Noun. the art and science of cultivating land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching). annual plant. Noun. plant with a life cycle of no more than one year, and often much less. barley. Noun. grass cultivated as a grain.

How long ago did goats come to Europe?

Dates for the domestication of these animals range from between 13,000 to 10,000 years ago. Genetic studies show that goats and other livestock accompanied the westward spread of agriculture into Europe, helping to revolutionize Stone Age society. While the extent to which farmers themselves migrated west remains a subject of debate, …

What were the effects of the ice age on the Near East?

In the Near East, for example, it’s thought that climatic changes at the end of the last ice age brought seasonal conditions that favored annual plants like wild cereals. Elsewhere, such as in East Asia, increased pressure on natural food resources may have forced people to find homegrown solutions.

Where did the wild produce originate?

The wild progenitors of crops including wheat, barley and peas are traced to the Near East region. Cereals were grown in Syria as long as 9,000 years ago, while figs were cultivated even earlier; prehistoric seedless fruits discovered in the Jordan Valley suggest fig trees were being planted some 11,300 years ago. Though the transition from wild harvesting was gradual, the switch from a nomadic to a settled way of life is marked by the appearance of early Neolithic villages with homes equipped with grinding stones for processing grain.

When did rice and millet farming start?

The origins of rice and millet farming date to around 6,000 B.C.E.

When crop prices were high, did farmers do well?

When crop prices were high, the farmers did well. But if prices dropped, the farmers were in trouble. And in the late nineteenth century, farmers were in trouble. To some extent, they were the victims of their own success: the more they produced, the less it was worth.

How did the US government help the Westward Expansion?

The US government also helped westward expansion by granting land to railroad companies and extending telegraph wires across the country. After the Civil War, the dream of independent farms remained, but the reality was more complex.

Why did railroad monopolies charge so high shipping rates?

Railroad monopolies charged shipping rates so high that in some cases it was cheaper for farmers to burn their crops for fuel than to ship them to market. Farm machinery and fertilizer were also subject to steep markups. All of these factors combined to drive farmers into debt and bankruptcy.

What was Thomas Jefferson’s ideal environment?

When Thomas Jefferson imagined the ideal environment for the republic to thrive, he pictured a country made up of small farms. Independent farmers would make an honest living tilling the soil, and in doing so, they would become virtuous citizens.

What was the Westward expansion?

Westward expansion: economic development. In the late nineteenth century, the West developed into a modern agricultural machine–at the expense of farmers.

How did the government fund the extension of railroads?

The government funded the extension of railroads by giving Native Americans’ land to the railroads. If the railroad corporations, whose stock was owned by rich people, could bulid a railroad for less money than the land was worth, they could profit on the exchange, thereby making their rich stockholders even richer.

How many acres of land did the Homestead Act give to the US government?

Hundreds of thousands of people obtained land through the Homestead Act: through it, the US government transferred more than 270 million acres of public lands into private hands.

What were the negative effects of the agricultural revolution?

Another negative that came from the Agricultural Revolution was the necessary conditions needed for efficient farming, such as; adequate farm buildings, access of roads, drainage of wetlands, transport facilities for marketing, and sources of finance for farmers.These were negative effects seen across Europe by many who joined in the Revolution.

Why was agriculture the largest source of employment?

Though the labor was difficult, agricultural work became the largest source of employment because of the ‘self-supply’ benefit, which is the ability to stock their own food stores through their own work.

How did Jethro Tull contribute to the Industrial Revolution?

Jethro Tull contributed to the industrial revolution by innovating new machines to greatly increase agricultural productivity. 9 Tull realized the importance of well cultivated soil and accessing the minerals below the topsoil.

Why did farmers work six days a week?

1 2. Before the Industrial Revolution, agriculture workers labored six days a week, from sun up to sun down, just to keep their crops growing. 1 Certain seasons were more demanding than others, specifically the plowing and harvest seasons. 2 Because of the intensity and necessity of agricultural labor, it was the largest employment source in …

What was the first invention of the Industrial Revolution?

Eli Whitney another inventor born in America in 1765, made another key invention of the industrial revolution, the cotton gin (picture to the right) which was invented in 1794. A cotton gin is a machine that quickly separates cotton fibers from their seeds. The invention of the cotton gin allowed for much greater productivity than manual labor, resulting in this invention greatly increasing the production rate for clothing and other cotton goods. Despite the cotton gins success, Whitney made little money from his invention due to patent-infringement issues. For his work, he is credited as a pioneer of American manufacturing. 16

Why is it so hard to meet the demand for accelerated agricultural productivity?

The reasons for this have to do with ecological factors. Global climate change is destabilizing many of the natural processes that make modern agriculture possible.

How do cattle damage soil?

Cattle and other large grazing animals can even damage soil by trampling on it. Bare, compacted land can bring about soil erosion and destruction of topsoil quality due to the runoff of nutrients. These and other impacts can destabilize a variety of fragile ecosystems and wildlife habitats. Chemical Fertilizer.

What is the effect of nitrogen on soil?

In addition, fertilizer application in soil leads to the formation and release of nitrous oxide, one of the most harmful greenhouse gases.

How does irrigation affect water?

Irrigation causes increases in water evaporation, impacting both surface air temperature and pressure as well as atmospheric moisture conditions . Recent studies have confirmed that cropland irrigation can influence rainfall patterns not only over the irrigated area but even thousands of miles away.

What are the consequences of irrigation?

One of the most obvious consequences is the depletion of aquifers, river systems, and downstream ground water. However, there are a number of other negative effects related to irrigation.

What will happen to the world population as the population continues to skyrocket?

With the global population continuing to skyrocket, the tension will continue to grow between continued agricultural growth and the ecological health of the land upon which humans depend. More than half the planet’s suitable land has been cultivated for crops, like these terraced rice fields in Bali, Indonesia.

How much land is used for growing corn?

According to World Bank figures, in 2016, more than 700 million hectares (1.7 billion acres) were devoted to growing corn, wheat, rice, and other staple cereal grains—nearly half of all cultivated land on the planet.

How many people could a farmer supply in 1930?

1930: One farmer could supply nearly 10 people in the United States and abroad with food. 1930: Fifteen to 20 labor-hours were required to produce 100 bushels (2 1/2 acres) of corn with a 2-bottom gang plow, 7-foot tandem disk, 4-section harrow, and 2-row planters, cultivators, and pickers.

What were the first agricultural inventions in the 1860s?

1860s–mid-1870s: Steam Tractors. The period from1862 to 1875 signaled a change from hand power to horses, characterizing the first American agricultural revolution. Farm inventions included: 1865–75: Gang plows and sulky plows came into use. 1868: Steam tractors were tried out.

How many hours did it take to produce 100 bushels of corn in 1945?

1945: Ten to 14 labor-hours were required to produce 100 bushels (2 acres) of corn with a tractor, 3-bottom plow, 10-foot tandem disk, 4-section harrow, 4-row planters and cultivators, and 2-row picker.

How many acres of corn were planted in 1850?

In 1850, about 75 to 90 labor-hours were required to produce 100 bushels of corn (2 1/2 acres) with walking a plow, harrow, and hand planting. Other agricultural developments included:

What were the inventions of the 1830s?

Getty Images. In 1830, about 250 to 300 labor-hours were required to produce 100 bushels (5 acres) of wheat with a walking plow, brush harrow, hand broadcast of seed, sickle, and flail. Inventions included: 1834: The McCormick reaper was patented.

How did technology help the West?

Technology helped ease some of the strain and, in some cases, ensured success. Canals, stagecoaches, and railroads made it possible for thousands of people to settle the West.

How did canals, stagecoaches, and railroads help settle the West?

Canals, stagecoaches, and railroads made it possible for thousands of people to settle the West. Securing the land often meant defending the chosen spot against Indian attack; advances in gun design swayed the battles in favor of the white settlers.

What were stagecoaches vulnerable to?

In addition to being uncomfortable, stagecoaches were vulnerable to attack. Robbers, called “road agents,” stopped coaches, stole all the valuables, and sometimes killed passengers or drivers. Stagecoaches carrying bullion (bars of gold) from the mines were especially targeted.

Why did America turn to railroads?

Despite the popular enthusiasm for canal travel, which offered unheard-of leisure and speed, America’s attention soon turned to railroads. Like canals, trains could take people where rivers could not. But trains offered travelers more speed and luxury, and railroads were quicker to construct.

Why did the Irish dig the canal?

Much of the digging was done by Irish immigrants who had left their homeland because of the potato famine ( widespread starvation brought on by a disease that destroyed potato crops).

Why was it so difficult to travel around America?

Traveling around America used to be quite difficult. During the colonial period, roads were primitive and rivers did not connect people to all the places they wanted to travel. By the Revolutionary War (1776–83) , some had considered the benefits of creating man-made rivers called canals to connect natural waterways.

Who was the first person to establish a post office in the West?

As the operator and owner of stage lines, steamships, and express companies in the East, John Butterfield knew the delivery industry well, and he won the contract to establish regular mail service in the West. Butterfield and his investors spent more than one million dollars to establish and grade roads, dig wells, and build stations every nineteen miles along the route. Under his efficient management, Butterfield’s Overland Mail Company opened for service on September 16, 1858. The mail traveled from St. Louis to Tipton, Missouri, by train and was then transferred to stagecoach for the trip to San Francisco. Butterfield’s line complied with the government’s demand that service be “performed in good four-horse coaches and spring wagons, suitable for the conveyance of passengers, as well as the safety and security of the mails.” But the twenty-four-day trip took a toll on passengers. In Throw Down the Box! George A. Thompson quotes Waterman Ormsby, a New York Herald reporter who was the first to ride the stagecoach line. Ormsby said of his trip, “I know what Hell is like, for I’ve just had twenty-four days of it!” Butterfield operated the Overland Mail Company for two and a half years until he retired.

What was the importance of farming in medieval England?

Medieval Farming. Many peasants in Medieval England worked the land and, as a result, farming was critically important to a peasant family in Medieval England. Most people lived in villages where there was plenty of land for farming. Medieval towns were small but still needed the food produced by surrounding villages.

What crops were planted in one field?

Wheat or rye was planted in one field, and oats, barley, peas, lentils or broad beans were planted in the second field. The third field was left fallow. Each year the crops were rotated to leave one field fallow. This system also ensured that the same crop was not grown in the same field two years running.


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