How did agriculture change in the late 17th century

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Intensity was also increased by land reclamation, especially the draining of the fenlands of eastern England, from the 17th century onwards, when a low-intensity agricultural system based on fishing and fowling was replaced by a high-intensity system based on arable crops.

Full
Answer

How did the intensity of Agriculture change in the 17th century?

The Agricultural Revolution was the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain due to increases in labor and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries. Agricultural output grew faster than the population over the century to 1770 and thereafter productivity remained among the highest in the world.

What was farming like in the 17th century?

The Agricultural Revolution was the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain due to increases in labor and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries. Agricultural output grew faster than the population over the century to 1770 and thereafter productivity remained among the highest in the world.

Why did the English agricultural revolution happen after 1750?

 · This depression of rents was accompanied by a general weakness in the prices of farm produce. In the late 17th and the first half of the 18th centuries rents were generally one-third lower than in the first half of the 17th century, despite the unprecedented heights reached for a brief time in the second decade of the 18th century.

How did the agricultural system change during the Renaissance?

 · Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the “Neolithic Revolution.” Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements and a reliable food supply. Out of agriculture, …

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What were the new agricultural practices?

The Agricultural Revolution, the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries, was linked to such new agricultural practices as crop rotation, selective breeding, and a more productive use of arable land.


What were the most important innovations of the agricultural revolution?

Crop Rotation. One of the most important innovations of the Agricultural Revolution was the development of the Norfolk four-course rotation, which greatly increased crop and livestock yields by improving soil fertility and reducing fallow.


How did legumes help plants grow?

The planting of legumes helped to increase plant growth in the empty field due to the bacteria on legume roots’ ability to fix nitrogen from the air into the soil in a form that plants could use . Other crops that were occasionally grown were flax and members of the mustard family.


What crops were grown in open field?

During the Middle Ages, the open field system initially used a two-field crop rotation system where one field was left fallow or turned into pasture for a time to try to recover some of its plant nutrients. Later, a three-year three-field crop rotation routine was employed, with a different crop in each of two fields, e.g. oats, rye, wheat, and barley with the second field growing a legume like peas or beans, and the third field fallow. Usually from 10–30% of the arable land in a three-crop rotation system is fallow. Each field was rotated into a different crop nearly every year. Over the following two centuries, the regular planting of legumes such as peas and beans in the fields that were previously fallow slowly restored the fertility of some croplands. The planting of legumes helped to increase plant growth in the empty field due to the bacteria on legume roots’ ability to fix nitrogen from the air into the soil in a form that plants could use. Other crops that were occasionally grown were flax and members of the mustard family. The practice of convertible husbandry, or the alternation of a field between pasture and grain, introduced pasture into the rotation. Because nitrogen builds up slowly over time in pasture, plowing pasture and planting grains resulted in high yields for a few years. A big disadvantage of convertible husbandry, however, was the hard work that had to be put into breaking up pastures and difficulty in establishing them.


Why is rotation important for crops?

Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons to help restore plant nutrients and mitigate the build-up of pathogens and pests that often occurs when one plant species is continuously cropped . Rotation can also improve soil structure and fertility by alternating deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plants. The Norfolk System, as it is now known, rotates crops so that different crops are planted with the result that different kinds and quantities of nutrients are taken from the soil as the plants grow. An important feature of the Norfolk four-field system was that it used labor at times when demand was not at peak levels. Planting cover crops such as turnips and clover was not permitted under the common field system because they interfered with access to the fields and other people’s livestock could graze the turnips.


What was the Industrial Revolution?

Industrial Revolution: The transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools, and the rise of the factory system.


What is crop rotation?

crop rotation: The practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types of crops in the same area in sequenced seasons so that the soil of farms is not used to only one type of nutrient. It helps in reducing soil erosion and increases soil fertility and crop yield.


How did common field husbandry affect agricultural progress?

Common-field husbandry did not in itself impede agricultural progress. ‘Custom’ was not something done of wont, but customary law, a flexible and developing body of local law. If the tenantry clung to old courses and crops, they did so mainly because it suited the objects that they had in view. The sheet-anchor of husbandry in the sheepand-corn farming countries was the sheep-fold. Because of their lack of resources, many farmers could not stock enough sheep for the close-folding of their arable, each acre of tillage requiring the fold of several hundred sheep. Since a small flock was useless for folding, and did not warrant the employment of a shepherd, the small farmers formed and maintained common flocks and folds. Their by-laws provided rules to be observed by the common shepherd for the purchase and supply of hay against the winter, for the nightly passage of the fold from acre to acre, beginning at opposite ends of the field in alternate years and arranged equitably in every way, and for the integration of fold and field-courses. (fn. 59) No innovation threatening this system would have been given further consideration. Any improvement compatible with it, however, was unlikely to be ignored, if economic conditions favoured its adoption. The cropping seasons were regulated by customary law, but the individual farmer might grow any seasonable crop that he chose. (fn. 60) Root crops, clover, and ‘seeds’ could all be grown in common fields by permissive or compulsory by-laws. In 1677 the tenantry of Wylye agreed to restrict their peas hitchings to one-third of the West End common fields every year, presumably to permit individual farmers to grow other fallow crops as they pleased. By 1716 at the latest clover was being sown in the common fields of Chalke. In 1723 the tenants of Burcombe agreed to sow their summer field to grass under barley. In the same year the Netherhampton tenantry restricted peas, oats, and vetches to one-quarter of the fallow field for wheat, and agreed to lay the rest to grass. By this date clover cultivation was the normal practice in the common fields of Wylye. By 1725 clover and ‘seeds’ were old-established crops in the common fields of West Overton, and so they were in those of Chalke by 1728. In 1749 the tenants of Netherhampton specified broad clover, hopclover, and perennial rye-grass as the crops to be sown under barley. In 1752 it was presented as the custom of the manor of Burcombe that the sowing of turnips, fallowing, and raftering were not to begin before 5 July. The new common fields in Fovant, Broad Chalke, and Stoke Farthing were sown with broad clover, hop-clover, and rye-grass under barley or other spring corn. (fn. 61)


What are the two most important farming countries of which large parts were in Wiltshire?

Each farming country had its own peculiar characteristics, and its own distinct plan of management, but the two most important farming countries of which large parts were in Wiltshire were the Chalk and Cheese countries. These were truly as different as chalk and cheese.


What was the chief grass in the Tenantry?

Broad-clover was better under the hill and hop-clover above it, but the chief grass was everywhere perennial rye-grass. A usual course in the tenantry fields in the 18th century was (1) wheat, (2) barley undersown with clover and ‘seeds’, (3) ley for mowing, (4) ley grazed until the field was fallowed for wheat.


What are sheep used for?

These were fattened and their wool sold, though their fleeces were not an important source of income. Some of the graziers produced mutton in considerable quantities, but beef production was more highly regarded. Most of the sheep lived in the sheep-and-corn countries, and it was here that the stocking was heaviest, there being thousands of sheep in almost every township. The primary purpose for which sheep were kept was folding on the tillage. Sheep were bred for folding, for the ability to climb between field and down, and drop only at night when they were folded. Neither meat nor wool was much considered, since it was as producers and carters of the best of all fertilizers that the sheep were chiefly valued. They were also useful for treading and consolidating the light soils. The Chalk Country, or ‘Wiltshire’, horned sheep were much the same as the present breed. They were slow to fatten and had only a light fleece, having no wool on their underparts. Lambs, wool, and mutton were sold, but all these together were less important items of farming incomes than wheat and barley, and it was not uncommon for the corn crop to be worth double the sheep with all their wool and lambs. (fn. 68) Wool prices generally did not rise as much as grain prices and only rarely rose more. Even if there had been a greatly increased demand for carding wool, however, this could have been met best and most profitably, in the Cotswold, Chalk, and Corallian countries, by increased stocking in sheep-and-corn husbandry, if only the extra sheep could have been kept over the winter. In the mid-16th century, however, when wool prices were relatively at their highest, supplies of winter fodder were severely restricted, and when the problem of fodder deficiency was later solved, wool prices were no longer attractive. In short, if sheep were a chief source of farming profit, it was not for their fleeces but for their tails. (fn. 69)


Why were tenantry farms backwards?

The backwardness of some of the small tenantry farms is to be explained by the fact that farming was a business needing capital in quantities that not all were able to command. Inclosures in the Chalk Country did not always greatly raise the rental value of farmland. Sometimes the improvement was only about one-third or one-half, and in some townships the abolition of the tenantry system led to a fall in production and rents, because of the absence of sufficient regulation and the excessive ploughing-up and dereliction of sheep-downs. ‘Redland’, deep, strong soil, generally on the top of the downs, could be broken up with impunity, but to plough the ‘blackland’, loose soil on flints or chalk on hillsides, was to turn it into a derelict waste. Great crops were yielded at first, but the land was soon exhausted and had to be grassed down. The ‘seeds’ sown with the last crop soon wore out and gave way to black couch, or couchy bent. A young, tender-mouthed flock of sheep would sooner starve than eat this, so that some farmers were forced to put down their breeding flocks and keep less profitable wether flocks after they had ploughed up their ‘blackland’. (fn. 67) It was this kind of situation that common-field regulations were designed to prevent.


How many acres of land does Henry Long own?

it is agreed between the farmer, Henry Long, and the tenants there that the said farmer shall have and inclose the 14 acres of land now in the holding of the said tenants in the Myl furlong upon Almed, in recompense whereof the said tenants shall have and inclose other 14 acres of the said farmers, which he now occupieth lying in Longlond and at the Yate. The lord doth grant and agree that at any time hereafter that it shall be lawful to the said farmer and the tenants to permute and exchange any other their lands, to inclose and make several for the wealth of them, or any of them, as need shall require, and the exchange so made to be recorded at the next court following. (fn. 13)


What were the small inclosed fields in the Cheese and Butter countries?

Small inclosed fields well suited the Cheese and Butter countries, where the grazing beasts were left more or less unattended. Many of the cold, tenacious common fields were inclosed and converted to permanent grass or to up-and-down land, but much of the inclosure was directly from woodland and rough grazing. Hedging and ditching were great improvements in themselves. Other works might include the construction of ponds and bridges. To create such closes from heath and woodland inevitably enriched the country and peopled it with dairymen, graziers, part-time farmers, and part-time industrial workers. If some ploughs were put down, more were set up and inclosure and the increase of population generally went hand in hand. (fn. 8)


What was the farming revolution?

Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the ” Neolithic Revolution.”. Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements …


Why did people start farming?

In the Near East, for example, it’s thought that climatic changes at the end of the last ice age brought seasonal conditions that favored annual plants like wild cereals. Elsewhere, such as in East Asia, increased pressure on natural food resources may have forced people to find homegrown solutions. But whatever the reasons for its independent origins, farming sowed the seeds for the modern age.


When was the prehistoric period?

prehistoric period where human ancestors made and used stone tools, lasting from roughly 2.5 million years ago to 7000 BCE. movement from one position to another. most widely grown cereal in the world.


What is the meaning of “agriculture”?

agriculture. Noun. the art and science of cultivating land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching). annual plant. Noun. plant with a life cycle of no more than one year, and often much less. barley. Noun. grass cultivated as a grain.


What mutation occurred during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe?

But at some point during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe, a mutation occurred for lactose tolerance that increased in frequency through natural selection thanks to the nourishing benefits of milk.


Where did goats come from?

Cattle, goats, sheep and pigs all have their origins as farmed animals in the so-called Fertile Crescent, a region covering eastern Turkey, Iraq and southwestern Iran. This region kick-started the Neolithic Revolution. Dates for the domestication of these animals range from between 13,000 to 10,000 years ago.


When was rice first grown?

The origins of rice and millet farming date to around 6,000 B.C.E. The world’s oldest known rice paddy fields, discovered in eastern China in 2007, reveal evidence of ancient cultivation techniques such as flood and fire control.


When was agriculture invented?

The history of American agriculture (1776–1990) covers the period from the first English settlers to the modern day. Below are detailed timelines covering farm machinery and technology, transportation, life on the farm, farmers and the land, and crops and livestock.


What was the agricultural industry in the 1850s?

The 1850s —Commercial corn and wheat belts began to develop; wheat occupied the newer and cheaper land west of the corn areas and was constantly being forced westward by rising land values and the encroachment of the corn areas. The 1850s —Alfalfa is grown on the west coast.


What states were the chief wheat states in 1840?

1840–1850 —New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio were the chief wheat States. 1840–1860 —Hereford, Ayrshire, Galloway, Jersey, and Holstein cattle were imported and bred. 1840–1860 —Growth in manufacturing brought many laborsaving devices to the farm home.


How many hours did it take to produce 100 bushels of wheat?

By the 1830s, about 250-300 labor-hours were required to produce 100 bushels (5 acres) of wheat using a walking plow, brush harrow, hand broadcast of seed, sickle, and flail.


What was the most important cash crop in the Old South?

1815–1830 —Cotton became the most important cash crop in the Old South.


Who demonstrated the practicability of steamboats?

1807 —Robert Fulton demonstrated the practicability of steamboats


What were the inventions of the early 19th century aimed at?

Inventions during the early decades of the 19th century were aimed at automation and preservation.


What was the economic growth of the 18th century?

e. The 18th century witnessed a rapid spread of household production of textiles and metal products , mostly by rural workers who alternated manufacturing with some agriculture. e.


What destroyed the traditional habits and family patterns of earlier Europe?

a. The spread of domestic manufacturing destroyed the traditional habits and family patterns of earlier Europe.


When was the factory system established?

a. The factory system was well established since the commercial revolution of the 16th century and continued to develop during this period.


Who conquered Italy after the Battle of Lepanto?

b. Much of Italy was conquered by the Ottoman Turks after the battle of Lepanto.


What did the Humanists de-emphasized?

a. Humanists de-emphasized the corporate and communal aspects of human society.


Which economic philosophy argued that natural laws would determine the flow of goods according to supply and demand?

d. Mercantilism was an economic philosophy that argued that natural laws would determine the flow of goods according to supply and demand.


Which argued that the money supply should be freed from the supply of bullion and based instead on the

a. Mercantilism argued that the money supply should be freed from the supply of bullion and based instead on the flow of goods within regional markets.


What was the gradual increase in farm production in 1920?

1920–40: The gradual increase in farm production resulted from the expanded use of mechanized power.


What was the growing use of factory-made agricultural machinery?

The growing use of factory-made agricultural machinery increased farmers’ need for cash and encouraged commercial farming. Developments included:


When were agricultural potentialities discovered?

1890: Most basic potentialities of agricultural machinery that were dependent on horsepower had been discovered.


What were the first agricultural inventions in the 1860s?

1860s–mid-1870s: Steam Tractors. The period from1862 to 1875 signaled a change from hand power to horses, characterizing the first American agricultural revolution. Farm inventions included: 1865–75: Gang plows and sulky plows came into use. 1868: Steam tractors were tried out.


How many acres of corn were planted in 1850?

In 1850, about 75 to 90 labor-hours were required to produce 100 bushels of corn (2 1/2 acres) with walking a plow, harrow, and hand planting. Other agricultural developments included:


When did John Deere start making plows?

1837: John Deere and Leonard Andrus began manufacturing steel plows—the plow was made of wrought iron and had a steel share that could cut through sticky soil without clogging.


When was the food canning industry established?

1819–25: The establishment of the U.S. food canning industry.


What was the major change in the 18th century?

Agriculture. Another major area that began to show signs of profound change in the 18th century was agriculture. Stimulated by greater commercial activity, the rising market for food caused by an increasing population aspiring to a higher standard of living, and by the British aristocratic taste for improving estates to provide affluent …


What did the French fortifications demonstrate?

In military fortification, the French strongholds designed by Sébastien de Vauban in the late 17th century demonstrated how warfare had adapted to the new weapons and, in particular, to heavy artillery. With earthen embankments to protect their salients, these star-shaped fortresses were virtually impregnable to the assault weapons of the day. Firearms remained cumbersome, with awkward firing devices and slow reloading. The quality of weapons improved somewhat as gunsmiths became more skillful.


How was the quadrant improved?

The needs of reliable navigation created a demand for better instruments. The quadrant was improved by conversion to the octant , using mirrors to align the image of a star with the horizon and to measure its angle more accurately: with further refinements the modern sextant evolved. Even more significant was the ingenuity shown by scientists and instrument makers in the construction of a clock that would keep accurate time at sea: such a clock, by showing the time in Greenwich when it was noon aboard ship would show how far east or west of Greenwich the ship lay (longitude). A prize of £20,000 was offered by the British Board of Longitude for this purpose in 1714, but it was not awarded until 1763 when John Harrison’s so-called No. 4 chronometer fulfilled all the requirements.


Why were dikes important to the Dutch?

The Dutch, wrestling with the sea for centuries, had devised extensive dikes; their techniques were borrowed by English landowners in the 17th century in an attempt to reclaim tracts of fenlands.


What were the major changes in the agricultural revolution?

For many years the agricultural revolution in England was thought to have occurred because of three major changes: the selective breeding of livestock; the removal of common property rights to land; and new systems of cropping, involving turnips and clover. All this was thought to have been due to a group of heroic individuals, who, according to one account, are ‘a band of men whose names are, or ought to be, household words with English farmers: Jethro Tull, Lord Townshend, Arthur Young, Bakewell, Coke of Holkham and the Collings.’


When did the agricultural revolution start?

Agricultural Revolution in England 1500 – 1850. From the 16th century onwards, an essentially organic agriculture was gradually replaced by a farming system that depended on energy-intensive inputs. Mark Overton assesses the impact of this agrarian revolution.


How did farmers conserve nitrogen?

Available nitrogen was conserved by feeding bullocks in stalls, collecting their manure (which is rich in nitrogen), and placing it where it was needed. Also, most importantly, new nitrogen was added to the soil using legumes – a class of plants that have bacteria attached to their roots, which convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates in the soil that can be used by whatever plants are grown there in the following few years.


What was the limiting factor in determining cereal yields before about 1830?

Nitrogen… was the ‘limiting factor’ in determining cereal yields before about 1830. Cereal yields also increased. Wheat yields increased by about a quarter between 1700 and 1800, and then by about a half between 1800 and 1850, and the most recent research emphasises the early 19th century as the period of crucial change.


When were turnips first used as animal fodder?

One of the earliest pieces of evidence we have, concerning the cultivation of turnips for animal fodder, is the inventory taken for probate purposes, in 1638, of the possessions of a Mr Pope, of Burgh Castle in Suffolk.


What crops were replaced by pasture?

A sheaf-delivery reaper at work © The mix of crops also changed, replacing low-yielding types, such as rye, with higher-yielding types such as wheat or barley. The balance between arable and permanent pasture also changed, so that more productive arable land was replacing permanent pasture. This does not mean that fodder supplies were falling, quite the reverse, for the loss of permanent pasture was made good by new fodder crops, especially turnips and clover, in arable rotations. Not only did these crops result in an increase in fodder yields, but they were also instrumental in the reclamation of many lowland heaths from rough pasture to productive arable farms.


What was replaced by a high intensity system based on arable crops?

Low-intensity agricultural system based on fishing and fowling was replaced by a high-intensity system based on arable crops.

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1776–1800

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During the latter part of the 18th century, farmers relied on oxen and horses to power crude wooden plows. All sowing was accomplished using a hand-held hoe, reaping of hay and grain with a sickle, and threshing with a flail. But in the 1790s, the horse-drawn cradle and scythe were introduced, the first of several inventions…

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1800–1830

  • Inventions during the early decades of the 19th century were aimed at automation and preservation. 1. 1800–1830—The era of turnpike building (toll roads) improved communication and commerce between settlements 2. 1800—Total population: 5,308,483 3. 1803—Louisiana Purchase 4. 1805–1815—Cotton began to replace tobacco as the chief southern cash crop 5. 18…

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The 1830s

  • By the 1830s, about 250-300 labor-hours were required to produce 100 bushels (5 acres) of wheat using a walking plow, brush harrow, hand broadcast of seed, sickle, and flail. 1. 1830—Peter Cooper’s railroad steam engine, the Tom Thumb, ran 13 miles 2. 1830—Total population: 12,866,020 3. 1830—The Mississippi River formed the approximate frontier boundary 4. The 183…

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The 1840s

  • The growing use of factory-made agricultural machinery increased the farmers’ need for cash and encouraged commercial farming. 1. 1840—Justos Liebig’s Organic Chemistry appeared 2. 1840–1850—New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio were the chief wheat States 3. 1840–1860—Hereford, Ayrshire, Galloway, Jersey, and Holstein cattle were imported and bred 4…

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The 1850s

  • By 1850, about 75–90 labor-hours were required to produce 100 bushels of corn (2-1/2 acres) with walking plow, harrow, and hand planting. 1. 1850—Total population: 23,191,786; Farm population: 11,680,000 (estimated); Farmers made up 64% of labor force; Number of farms: 1,449,000; Average acres: 203 2. The 1850s—Commercial corn and wheat belts began to develo…

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The 1860s

  • The early 1860s witnessed a dramatic change from hand power to horses, which historians characterize as the first American agricultural revolution 1. 1860—Total population: 31,443,321; Farm population: 15,141,000 (estimated); Farmers made up 58% of labor force; Number of farms: 2,044,000; Average acres: 199 2. The 1860s—Kerosene lamps became popular 3. The 1860s—T…

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The 1870s

  • The most important advance of the 1870s was the use of both silos, and the wide use of deep-well drilling, two advances that enabled larger farms and higher production of marketable surpluses. 1. 1870—Total population: 38,558,371; Farm population: 18,373,000 (estimated); Farmers made up 53% of labor force; Number of farms: 2,660,000; Average acres: 153 2. The 18…

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The 1880s

  1. 1880—Total population: 50,155,783; Farm population: 22,981,000 (estimated); Farmers made up 49% of labor force; Number of farms: 4,009,000; Average acres: 134
  2. The 1880s—Heavy agricultural settlement on the Great Plains began
  3. The 1880s—The cattle industry moved into the western and southwestern Great Plains
  4. 1880—Most humid land already settled

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The 1890s

  • By 1890, labor costs continued to decrease, with only 35–40 labor-hours required to produce 100 bushels (2-1/2 acres) of corn, because of technological advances of the 2-bottom gang plow, disk and peg-tooth harrow, and 2-row planters; and 40–50 labor-hours required to produce 100 bushels (5 acres) of wheat with gang plow, seeder, harrow, binder, thresher, wagons, and horses. 1. 1890…

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