How did agriculture develop in africa


The first efforts to domesticate plants in West Africa started slowly. Eventually, West Africans began to settle and grow their food full-time. From 3000 BCE to 1000 BCE, the practice of farming spread across West Africa. These early farmers grew millet and sorghum.


How to create wealth through agriculture in Africa?

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What is the future of Agriculture in Africa?

The digital future of agriculture in Africa. With nearly 900 million hectares considered suitable for agricultural activities, Africa is home to 60% of the world’s arable land. The reality, however, is that not every inch of that land is being fully, or even smartly, cultivated. Many smallholder farmers do not have the right machinery to …

What are the problems of Agriculture in Africa?

  • Biophysical
  • Soil structure and fertility
  • many of the soils in West Africa are very high in clay and extremely hard (physically) to cultivate
  • where slash and burn is practiced, soil fertility is very low and fertilizers must be applied (and aren’t)

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How to invest in agriculture in Africa?

  • Algeria; due to the country’s high wealth per person, high urbanisation growth rate and the concentrated wealth in urban regions.
  • Ghana; due to the accommodating business environment, and popularity of shopping centres.
  • Kenya; due to the country’s strong population growth, growth in middle class, educator labour force, and the dynamic private sector.

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How did early agriculture spread in Africa?

This played a role in a great migration of farmers out of West Africa starting approximately 1000 BCE. These migrants were the Bantu people, who spread farming across the rest of the continent. Some of them traveled along the verdant grasslands of the Sahel, a strip of land just below the Sahara.

How can Africa develop agriculture?

Much can be done to increase African farm yields through simple methods of improving soil fertility and better utilizing the continent’s available water. Currently, only 12.6 mn hectares of agricultural land are under managed systems of water and land development.

How did agriculture develop?

Agricultural communities developed approximately 10,000 years ago when humans began to domesticate plants and animals. By establishing domesticity, families and larger groups were able to build communities and transition from a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle dependent on foraging and hunting for survival.

What caused the African farmers to first?

It is believed that they came here because this was a summer rainfall area, which is good for growing crops. African farmers lived in larger communities than the San or Khoikhoi because more people were needed to look after herds of animals and to work the land.

When did agriculture begin in Africa?

THE INDEPENDENT ORIGIN OF AFRICAN AGRICULTURE Farming did eventually emerge independently in West Africa at about 3000 BCE. It first appeared in the fertile plains on the border between present-day Nigeria and Cameroon. It is possible there finally was a “Garden of Eden” there to “trap” people into early farming.

Why is agriculture significant in economic development in Africa?

Agriculture is pivotal to the realization of the Millennium Development goals in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as it contributes 70% of employment, 40% of exports and one-third of Gross Domestic Products (GDP).

Where was agriculture first developed?

Mehrgarh, one of the most important Neolithic (7000 BC to 3200 BC) sites in archaeology, lies on the “Kachi plain of Baluchistan, Pakistan, and is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep and goats) in South Asia.

Where did agriculture first emerge?

the Fertile CrescentAgriculture originated in a few small hubs around the world, but probably first in the Fertile Crescent, a region of the Near East including parts of modern-day Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan.

What is agriculture development?

Agricultural development is defined as the process that creates the conditions for the fulfilment of agricultural potential. Those conditions include the accumulation of knowledge and availability of technology as well as the allocation of inputs and output.

When did agriculture start in South Africa?

The earliest written record of farming life in South Africa by Europeans starts slightly after 1500 CE.

Why did farming spread into West Africa?

Fueled by high population growth and a growing demand for food, agricultural expansion accounts for most land cover change across West Africa. In 1975, cropland was widely scattered among the natural landscapes, covering 10.7 percent of the mapped area (see land cover maps).

Who is the first farmer in Africa?

The first farmers in southern Africa were Bantu-speakers and archaeology shows that they entered southern Africa between 2 000 and 1 700 years ago This topic focuses on the life of the first farmers of southern Africa and the ways we can find out about them.

What is the most important economic activity in Africa?

Agriculture is by far the single most important economic activity in Africa. It provides employment for about two-thirds of the continent’s working population and for each country contributes an average of 30 to 60 percent of gross domestic product and about 30 percent of the value of exports.

What percentage of Africa’s land is arable?

Nonetheless, arable land and land under permanent crops occupy only about 6 percent of Africa’s total land area. Except for countries with sizable populations of European descent—such as South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Kenya—agriculture has been largely confined to subsistence farming and has been considerably dependent on the inefficient system …

What are the different irrigation methods used in northern Africa?

Discuss different irrigation methods used in northern Africa such as shadoofs, water scoops, and modern pumps. In the dry regions of northern Africa many different methods are used to irrigate the land so it can be used for farming. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. See all videos for this article.

Where is wheat grown?

Wheat production was once restricted to South Africa, the countries of North Africa, and the highland zones of Ethiopia and Kenya, but new varieties have extended cultivation (under irrigation) to countries in the savanna region such as Nigeria.

Where are clover and fodder grown?

Legumes and fodder. Fodder crops are not widely grown except in subtropical areas of North Africa and the highland zones of East and Southern Africa, where pure stands of alfalfa (lucerne) are raised. Berseem (a type of clover used for forage) is also grown in Egypt and Sudan under irrigation.

Which country produces the most grains?

Africa produces all the principal grains—corn, wheat, and rice—in that order of importance. Corn has the widest distribution, being grown in virtually all ecological zones. Highest yields per acre are recorded in Egypt and on the Indian Ocean islands of Réunion and Mauritius, areas where production is under irrigation.

Where are cassavas grown?

Cultivation of the hardy cassava has expanded tremendously, particularly in western and central Africa; it has displaced the cultivation of yams in many areas and has ceased to be regarded as just famine reserve. Potatoes are cultivated in the higher elevations of such countries as Ethiopia, Kenya, and Madagascar, as well as in areas of Mediterranean climates in North and South Africa. Sweet potatoes have a more tropical and subtropical distribution, while the plantain is grown extensively in the tropical forest zones.

How much of the African budget is allocated to agriculture?

Through CAADP, African governments are expected to increased investment level in agriculture by allocating at least 10% of national budgets to agriculture and rural development, and to achieve agricultural growth rates of at least 6% per annum.

What is the Department of Rural Economy and Agriculture?

The Department of Rural Economy and Agriculture leads the efforts to promote agricultural development and sustainable environmental management as well as support the implementation CAADP, GGW and other sustainable agriculture programmes across the continent.

What is the African aspiration for Agenda 2063?

For Africa to achieve the Agenda 2063 aspiration for “A prosperous Africa based on inclusive growth and sustainable development” (Aspiration 1) the continent needs to invest in modern agriculture for increased proactivity and production as well as exploit the vast potential of Africa’s blue/ocean economy.

How has agriculture increased in Africa?

Over the last three decades, increases in agricultural output in Africa have come largely through extending rain-fed crop cultivation, particularly food crops, on to more and more marginal soils and/or by reducing traditional fallow periods in cropping cycles.

What is the importance of agriculture in Africa?

The vast majority of the continent’s populations living in the rural areas also lives in extreme poverty. The enhancement of sustainable agricultural and rural development is therefore fundamental to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Africa, particularly the eradication of hunger and poverty.

What is Africa’s agro-ecological diversity?

Africa is endowed with a wide diversity of agro-ecological zones. These zones range from the heavy rain-forest vegetation with bi-annual rainfall to relatively sparse, dry and arid vegetation with low uni-modal rainfall. This diversity is a tremendous asset, but it also poses a substantial challenge for African agricultural development.

What are the consequences of continuous expansion of crop cultivation?

One consequence has been the accelerated destruction of forest resources by land clearing and over-exploitation for fuel-wood and other household uses.

How much food does Africa import?

Africa’s current food import is in excess of US $25 billion per year. The continent currently imports more than 23,000 metric tons of cereals annually and its food trade deficit is projected to grow to more than 98,000 metric tons by 2050.

What are the priority crops of the AUC?

Chiji Ojukwu: The strategic priority crops designated by the AUC in Africa are maize, rice, cassava and wheat. These crops also constitute the basis of the Bank’s US $60 million support to agricultural research at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), …

How much of Africa’s cropland is improved?

Currently, only about 20 per cent of cropland in Africa is sown with improved cereal varieties.

What is Africa’s engine for growth?

Agriculture: Africa’s ‘engine for growth’. After decades of economic stagnation and with the number of chronically malnourished people now reaching 200 million, Africa’s leaders are intensifying efforts to find “sustainable solutions” to hunger and poverty, says Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo. The main framework for that undertaking, he …

What are some ways to increase yields in Africa?

Research has shown that improved varieties of millet, sorghum and other traditional African grains can also significantly boost yields. Beyond seeds, farmers need access to animal health remedies, safe pesticides and other inputs, as well as training in agro-forestry and various skills.

What is the impact of the absence of a sound private sector on agriculture?

In the absence of a sound private sector, this caused “severe dislocation of production, farm trade and farmer support services.”. Agriculture also has been starved of investment. Many African governments devote less than 1 per cent of their budgets to agriculture.

Is agriculture in crisis?

African agriculture is in crisis, the CAADP affirms, and that situation “demands a crisis response.” Although urbanization is increasing rapidly, agriculture still provides livelihoods for about 60 per cent of the continent’s active labour force, contributes 17 per cent of Africa’s total gross domestic product and accounts for 40 per cent of its foreign currency earnings.

What is the history of land and agriculture in Africa?

PRIOR to the beginning of food production, pastoralists and farmers began movements across the continent that transformed African societies ultimately leading to complex political groupings. The beginning of modern day history in Africa can be established partly from the introduction and development …

Where did agriculture come from?

Crops originating from Africa such as pearl millet, sorghum and cow peas were introduced and also found in south-east Asia.

What were the crops grown in Sudan?

Raffia, oil palm, palm, peas, groundnuts and kola nuts were also grown, and the palm products growing in the vicinity were exploited. By this stage guinea fowl had also been domesticated. Wild sorghum was domesticated and cultivated in Central Sudan. At the same time pottery vessels to store grain and carry water were being created.

What was the ability to grow cotton and supply many countries with cotton?

The ability to grow cotton and supply many countries with cotton also demonstrates the agricultural skills that Africa already possessed prior to the Atlantic slave trade and European colonisation; and long before cotton weaving became a British industry.

What is the use of iron in Africa?

Iron was used in Africa for tools and for weapons. The use of metal was vital in accelerating …

Why was iron used in Africa?

Iron was used in Africa for tools and for weapons. The use of metal was vital in accelerating agricultural development as well as paving the way for the nascent industrialisation. This advance enabled more land to be cleared for agricultural purposes and for hunting skills to be improved and to become far more effective.

When did the Sahara Desert change?

The environmental changes in the Sahara Desert occurred at the end of the Ice Age. A grain of corn found in this region dating back to approximately 19 000 years ago is proof of the early domestication of grass in Africa, at a time when Asia Minor and West Asia were covered in ice.

What was Central Africa’s economic revolution?

It started in the north, where a new dry phase in the Earth’s history forced people to make better use of a more limited part of their environment as the desert spread southward once more. Hunters who had roamed the savanna settled beside the rivers and perfected their skills as fishermen. Gatherers who had harvested wild grain on the plains settled beside lakes, where they could sow some of their gleanings as seed in the moist and fertile soils left by the waters that withdrew at the end of each wet season. The northern border of Central Africa became one of the cradles of the world’s food-producing revolution.

What was the basis of the new root farming?

The white Guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata, was the basis of the new root farming, which enabled the population to grow in the northern savanna from about 5000 bc. The second phase of the local agricultural revolution was even more important and had an impact over a wide area of the tropical world. A type of cereal farming based on wild seed …

What was the main carbohydrate of Central African people?

Steamed, baked, fried, or boiled, the banana became the staple carbohydrate of many Central African peoples, and they washed it down with a banana beer rich in nutrients. The agricultural revolution in Central Africa was paralleled by another nutritional change as people became more skilled at catching fish.

How did women and men learn to cultivate?

Gradually women and men learned how to clear plots of fertile land and deliberately plant a piece of each root or tuber they ate to allow it to regenerate. They began to select the plant types that most readily lent themselves to domestication, to the ennoblement of regular crops, and to the development of agriculture.

Where did bananas originate?

This was the banana family ( Musaceae ), originally domesticated in the islands of Southeast Asia. Banana plants, like yam tubers, were propagated by cuttings and roots rather than by seeds, but they gradually spread from neighbour to neighbour until the crop had become a dominant one in many parts of Central Africa.

Where did the Gatherers gather their grain?

Gatherers who had harvested wild grain on the plains settled beside lakes, where they could sow some of their gleanings as seed in the moist and fertile soils left by the waters that withdrew at the end of each wet season. The northern border of Central Africa became one of the cradles of the world’s food-producing revolution.

Where did cereals come from?

Tropical cereals spread from Central Africa not only into West Africa but also eastward to India and eventually southward to Southern Africa. The third phase of the food-producing revolution brought an increase in the scale of food production and in its quality. The tending of trees and the gathering of fruit were probably as old as any other form …


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