how did agriculture develop in north america

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In this paper, I hypothesize that the drastic extinctions of most large herbivores in the Americas may have accelerated the onset of agriculture in the Americas for three reasons: net primary production (NPP) became available for human utilization, the domestication of wild crop types was more feasible in the absence of megaherbivore competition, and hunting societies became more sedentary as their prey went extinct, the first step towards agriculture.

(3) Agriculture developed more rapidly in the Americas because there was selective pressure on hunting societies to find a new food source and become sedentary as their prey went extinct.Dec 28, 2010

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Answer

When did agriculture begin in the Americas?

The combination of favourable environmental conditions and strong domestic demand for animal products has made the raising of livestock prominent in the North American economy; but quantity and quality in Mexico and Central America, with their lower purchasing power, have not kept pace with standards in the United States and Canada. The raising of domesticated …

Why did agriculture develop more rapidly in the New World?

 · The independent rapid origin of agriculture in North and South America suggests a non-local, non-cultural driver. I hypothesize that people were able to develop agriculture in much less time in the new world versus the old world because of the following potential reasons: (1) Agriculture developed more rapidly in the Americas because there was more NPP that …

What type of farming did Native Americans do?

 · Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the “Neolithic Revolution.” Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements and a reliable food supply. Out of agriculture, …

How did farming change in the north during the 1800s?

The history of agriculture in the United States covers the period from the first English settlers to the present day. In Colonial America, agriculture was the primary livelihood for 90% of the population, and most towns were shipping points for the export of agricultural products. Most farms were geared toward subsistence production for family use.

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How did agriculture develop in the Americas?

After the voyages of Christopher Columbus in 1492, the Columbian exchange brought New World crops such as maize, potatoes, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, and manioc to Europe, and Old World crops such as wheat, barley, rice, and turnips, and livestock including horses, cattle, sheep, and goats to the Americas.

Where did agriculture begin in North America?

The earliest evidence of crops appears between 9000 and 8000 bp in Mexico and South America. The first crops in eastern North America may be almost as old, but substantial evidence for crop use there begins between 5000 and 4000 bp.

What are the causes of agricultural development in North America?

Answer. Answer: Use of fertilizers and latest quality seeds are the causes of agricultural progress in North America. … The most thickly populated parts of North America are on the north – eastern coastal lands and the areas around the Great Lakes.

What caused agriculture to develop?

Agricultural communities developed approximately 10,000 years ago when humans began to domesticate plants and animals. By establishing domesticity, families and larger groups were able to build communities and transition from a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle dependent on foraging and hunting for survival.

Where did agriculture first develop?

the Fertile CrescentAgriculture originated in a few small hubs around the world, but probably first in the Fertile Crescent, a region of the Near East including parts of modern-day Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan.

When did the agriculture begin?

10,000 years agoAgriculture was developed at least 10,000 years ago, and it has undergone significant developments since the time of the earliest cultivation. Independent development of agriculture occurred in northern and southern China, Africa’s Sahel, New Guinea and several regions of the Americas.

What is agriculture in North America?

In the tropical zones of North America, farmers harvest oranges, sugar cane, coffee, cocoa, and bananas. These crops grow on coastal plains and humid mountain slopes. Cotton and hemp are cultivated in the warmer and drier intermediate climate zone. These crops are important exports for Central American countries.

When did agriculture arise in the Americas quizlet?

Agriculture started between 5-9 thousand years ago in Mesoamerica (modern day Mexico) and Central America where they relied on domesticated maize to develop the first settled population.

What factors promote farming in America?

Environmental factors that influence the extent of crop agriculture are terrain, climate, soil properties, and soil water. It is the combination of these four factors that allow specific crops to be grown in certain areas.

How agriculture first started in the world?

The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago.

Why did agriculture develop in so many places at about the same time?

Why do you think the development of agriculture occurred around the same time in several different places? People were changing and when it comes to agriculture there was global warming which helped crops to grow for longer periods of time. There was no bad weather to kill the crops.

What is a brief history of agriculture?

The history of agriculture is the story of humankind’s development and cultivation of processes for producing food, feed, fiber, fuel, and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals. Prior to the development of plant cultivation, human beings were hunters and gatherers.

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What was the major source of energy for North America in the 20th century?

During the 20th century, the development of new fuels caused the dramatic displacement of coal as North America’s major source of energy. Oil makes up more than one-third of U.S. energy consumption and natural gas between one-fourth and three-tenths.

Where is dairy grown?

Traditionally concentrated in the Upper Midwest and the northeastern section of the United States and neighbouring portions of Canada, the dairy industry has grown in importance in the West, especially in California, which, together with Wisconsin, accounted for about one-third of U.S. milk sales in 2010s.

What crops are grown in tobacco fields?

Many tobacco and cotton fields are now alternately planted with rye, corn (maize), soybeans, and winter wheat grown as fodder for cattle or as additional cash crops. These help to maintain the fertility of the soil, which long has been threatened by the practice of monoculture. tobacco shed.

What were the dry areas of the Great Plains?

Dry regions. Dry areas in the Great Plains and intermontane basins long were left to ranching. Hereford cattle brought in from England could feed on the shortgrass prairies, which were unsuitable for farming homesteaders. Sheep, raised in still drier parts or up in the mountains, have been bred mainly for wool.

How is water development important?

Water development is crucial both to circumvent drought and to prevent flooding. More than 55 million acres (22.3 million hectares) of irrigated land had been developed in the United States by the early 2010s, with large dam projects and conduits in the Columbia and Snake river valleys, the Central and Imperial valleys of California, the Salt and Gila tributaries of the Colorado River, the upper Rio Grande, and the upper Missouri and the upper Platte rivers. In western Canada a vast scheme has been under development on the Bow and South Saskatchewan rivers; while in Mexico the lower Rio Grande (shared with the United States), the Fuerte River basin on the dry west coast, and the Balsas River basin in the south have all undergone active water development. Water transfer from surplus to deficit areas has been under way for some time, and interstate water-transfer proposals include those that would convey water from the Columbia basin to both the Sacramento and Colorado rivers and from the head of the Missouri system to the Colorado and thence to the Gila River. Flood control has remained a problem in the Mississippi River basin. The Tennessee valley and the Ozarks schemes have involved building many dams to redistribute river water.

Where is the wheat belt?

West of the Corn Belt, in subhumid regions, lie the continent’s vast wheat areas. The Winter Wheat Belt, mainly in Kansas and Oklahoma, lies south of killing frosts.

Is agriculture important in North America?

Agriculture, though no longer the principal economic activity (except in some of the southern Latin countries), is still important. Kansas wheat field. Wheat field, Kansas, U.S.

How did agriculture start?

An ecological hypothesis explaining the independent onset of agriculture is that humans began to fill open herbivore niches abandoned by the extinct megaherbivores. Much of the NPP once used by these extinct animals was eventually consumed by humans through agriculture ( Doughty and Field 2010 ). There are several ways the absence of keystone herbivores could accelerate the development of agriculture. For instance, the domestication of crops is a slow process, with both corn ( Jaenicke-Despres et al. 2003 ), wheat ( Tanno and Willcox 2006 ), and other crops ( Fuller 2007) needing thousands of years to be domesticated, with humans exerting weak, rather than strong domestication pressure ( Fuller 2007 ). Such a long, weak domestication process would have been continually disrupted by the competitive herbivory of megaherbivores before they went extinct. In addition, the development of agriculture was preceded by a period of intensive foraging that would also have been more difficult with megaherbivore competition ( Richerson et al. 2001 ).

When did agriculture begin?

Agriculture began independent ly in both North and South America ∼10,000 years before present (YBP), within a few thousand years of the arrival of humans in the Americas. This contrasts with the thousands of years that people were present in the old world before agriculture developed. In this paper, I hypothesize that the drastic extinctions …

Why was agriculture accelerated?

The third hypothesis examined whether the development of agriculture was accelerated because formerly mobile hunting societies became more sedentary following the extinction of their prey ( Harris 1977 ), a precondition for the adaptation of agriculture. This argument was initially discounted due to the many millennia thought to separate the extinctions and the onset of agriculture. However, agriculture in the Americas is now thought to have begun much sooner and is generally preceded by several thousand years of intensive foraging. So the timing appears less problematic than when Harris (1977) first developed the hypothesis. Simulations indicate that these early hunters would have been under intense food pressure as their populations were drastically reduced following the extinction of the megafauna prey ( Alroy 2001 ). The extinction of the prey and the sedentary lifestyle would be a “push” towards agriculture, while more NPP and less competitive herbivory would be a “pull” ( Stark 1986) As an alternate explanation to the megafauna hypothesis, I questioned whether differences in climate between the Pleistocene and the Holocene would preferentially increase photosynthesis in the Americas, leading to increased plant growth and greater likelihood of agriculture. Neither temperature nor atmospheric CO 2 concentrations showed regional diversity that could explain variations in the timing of the start of agriculture. Changes in precipitation, however, were highly variable ( Braconnot et al. 2007 ).

When were squash and peanuts first domesticated?

For instance, a house in the mountains of the Andes was found to contain squash from ∼10,000 years ago and peanuts from ∼8,500 years ago. Genetic studies and the location of the wild ancestors indicate the crops were likely first domesticated in the warm, wet, lowland tropical forests.

When did people first arrive in the Americas?

Some genetic evidence even suggests that people could have arrived in the Americas as early as 30,000 years ago ( Torroni et al. 1994 ). However, such evidence is still slim compared to the thousands of sites where Clovis artifacts have been recovered, the oldest being 11,800 years BP. Therefore, in this paper, I assume a “Clovis first” approach, meaning that people arrived in the Americas by ∼11,800 BP. However, if evidence for significant peopling of the Americas prior to these dates were to emerge, then the results of this paper would, of course, change.

What caused the Pleistocene extinction?

These extinctions are generally explained as driven by human over-hunting, climate change, or a combination of the two ( Barnosky et al. 2004 ). Animals occupying entire ecological roles went extinct, with extinctions of animals greater than 44kg in Australia (88% of megaherbivores genera), South America (84%), North America (72%), Eurasia (36%) and Africa (18%) ( Barnosky et al. 2004 ). The extinctions took place in approximately the following order: Australia (50000 BP), Africa (45000 BP), northern Eurasia (12000 BP), North America (12000 BP), South America (10000 BP) ( Barnosky et al. 2004 ).

Why did people start farming?

In the Near East, for example, it’s thought that climatic changes at the end of the last ice age brought seasonal conditions that favored annual plants like wild cereals. Elsewhere, such as in East Asia, increased pressure on natural food resources may have forced people to find homegrown solutions. But whatever the reasons for its independent origins, farming sowed the seeds for the modern age.

What was the farming revolution?

Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the ” Neolithic Revolution.”. Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements …

What mutation occurred during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe?

But at some point during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe, a mutation occurred for lactose tolerance that increased in frequency through natural selection thanks to the nourishing benefits of milk.

When did corn cobs first appear?

While maize-like plants derived from teosinte appear to have been cultivated at least 9,000 years ago, the first directly dated corn cob dates only to around 5,500 years ago . Corn later reached North America, where cultivated sunflowers also started to bloom some 5,000 years ago.

How long ago did goats come to Europe?

Dates for the domestication of these animals range from between 13,000 to 10,000 years ago. Genetic studies show that goats and other livestock accompanied the westward spread of agriculture into Europe, helping to revolutionize Stone Age society. While the extent to which farmers themselves migrated west remains a subject of debate, …

Where did the wild produce originate?

The wild progenitors of crops including wheat, barley and peas are traced to the Near East region. Cereals were grown in Syria as long as 9,000 years ago, while figs were cultivated even earlier; prehistoric seedless fruits discovered in the Jordan Valley suggest fig trees were being planted some 11,300 years ago. Though the transition from wild harvesting was gradual, the switch from a nomadic to a settled way of life is marked by the appearance of early Neolithic villages with homes equipped with grinding stones for processing grain.

When did rice and millet farming start?

The origins of rice and millet farming date to around 6,000 B.C.E.

When was agriculture invented?

The history of American agriculture (1776–1990) covers the period from the first English settlers to the modern day. Below are detailed timelines covering farm machinery and technology, transportation, life on the farm, farmers and the land, and crops and livestock.

When did the commercial corn and wheat belts begin to develop?

The 1850s —Commercial corn and wheat belts began to develop; wheat occupied the newer and cheaper land west of the corn areas and was constantly being forced westward by rising land values and the encroachment of the corn areas

How much labor was required to produce 100 bushels of corn?

By 1890, labor costs continued to decrease, with only 35–40 labor-hours required to produce 100 bushels (2-1/2 acres) of corn, because of technological advances of the 2-bottom gang plow, disk and peg-tooth harrow, and 2-row planters; and 40–50 labor-hours required to produce 100 bushels (5 acres) of wheat with gang plow, seeder, harrow, binder, thresher, wagons, and horses.

How many hours did it take to produce 100 bushels of wheat?

By the 1830s, about 250-300 labor-hours were required to produce 100 bushels (5 acres) of wheat using a walking plow, brush harrow, hand broadcast of seed, sickle, and flail.

How many acres were granted to settlers in 1862?

1862 —Homestead Act granted 160 acres to settlers who had worked the land 5 years

What were the inventions of the early 19th century aimed at?

Inventions during the early decades of the 19th century were aimed at automation and preservation.

What did the Continental Congress offer for service in the Continental Army?

1776 —Continental Congress offered land grants for service in the Continental Army. 1785, 1787 —Ordinances of 1785 and 1787 provided for survey, sale, and government of northwestern lands. 1790 —Total population: 3,929,214, Farmers made up about 90% of labor force.

Where did plantation agriculture begin?

Plantation agriculture, using slaves, developed in Virginia and Maryland (where tobacco was grown), and South Carolina (where indigo and rice was grown). Cotton became a major plantation crop after 1800 in the ” Black Belt ,” that is the region from North Carolina in an arc through Texas where the climate allowed for cotton cultivation.

How did ethnicity affect farming?

They adapted Old World techniques to a much more abundant land supply. Furthermore, the Germans showed a long-term tendency to keep the farm in the family and to avoid having their children move to towns. For example, they generally preferred oxen to horses for plowing. The Scots Irish built their livelihoods on some farming but more herding (of hogs and cattle). In the American colonies, the Scots-Irish focused on mixed farming. Using this technique, they grew corn for human consumption and for livestock feed, especially for hogs. Many improvement-minded farmers of different backgrounds began using new agricultural practices to increase their output. During the 1750s, these agricultural innovators replaced the hand sickles and scythes used to harvest hay, wheat, and barley with the cradle scythe, a tool with wooden fingers that arranged the stalks of grain for easy collection. This tool was able to triple the amount of work done by a farmer in one day. A few scientifically informed farmers (mostly wealthy planters like George Washington) began fertilizing their fields with dung and lime and rotating their crops to keep the soil fertile.

How was wheat sown in the colonial era?

In the colonial era, wheat was sown by broadcasting, reaped by sickles, and threshed by flails. The kernels were then taken to a grist mill for grinding into flour. In 1830, it took four people and two oxen, working 10 hours a day, to produce 200 bushels. New technology greatly increased productivity in the 19th century, as sowing with drills replaced broadcasting, cradles took the place of sickles, and the cradles in turn were replaced by reapers and binders. Steam-powered threshing machines superseded flails. By 1895, in Bonanza farms in the Dakotas, it took six people and 36 horses pulling huge harvesters, working 10 hours a day, to produce 20,000 bushels. In the 1930s the gasoline powered “combine” combined reaping and threshing into one operation that took one person to operate. Production grew from 85 million bushels in 1839, 500 million in 1880, 600 million in 1900, and peaked at 1.0 billion bushels in 1915. Prices fluctuated erratically, with a downward trend in the 1890s that caused great distress in the Plains states.

Why did the South use mules?

Sawers (2005) shows how southern farmers made the mule their preferred draft animal in the South during the 1860s–1920s, primarily because it fit better with the region’s geography. Mules better withstood the heat of summer, and their smaller size and hooves were well suited for such crops as cotton, tobacco, and sugar. The character of soils and climate in the lower South hindered the creation of pastures, so the mule breeding industry was concentrated in the border states of Missouri, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Transportation costs combined with topography to influence the prices of mules and horses, which in turn affected patterns of mule use. The economic and production advantages associated with mules made their use a progressive step for Southern agriculture that endured until the mechanization brought by tractors. : 667–90 Beginning around the mid-20th century, Texas began to transform from a rural and agricultural state to one that was urban and industrialized.

What was the impact of the fur pelt trade on the New York region?

In New York, a fur-pelt export trade to Europe flourished and added additional wealth to the region. After 1720, mid-Atlantic farming was stimulated by the international demand for wheat. A massive population explosion in Europe drove wheat prices up. By 1770, a bushel of wheat cost twice as much as it did in 1720.

What was the first tool used to harvest wheat?

During the 1750s, these agricultural innovators replaced the hand sickles and scythes used to harvest hay, wheat, and barley with the cradle scythe, a tool with wooden fingers that arranged the stalks of grain for easy collection. This tool was able to triple the amount of work done by a farmer in one day.

How many acres were purchased in the Homestead Act of 1862?

The federal government issued 160-acre (65 ha) tracts for very cheap costs to about 400,000 families who settled new land under the Homestead Act of 1862. Even larger numbers purchased lands at very low interest from the new railroads, which were trying to create markets. The railroads advertised heavily in Europe and brought over, at low fares, hundreds of thousands of farmers from Germany, Scandinavia, and Britain. The Dominion Lands Act of 1871 served a similar function for establishing homesteads on the prairies in Canada.

How much revenue does agriculture generate?

In the United States, agriculture generated $374 billion in revenue in 2018, when adjusted for inflation. Around 75% of this income was from meat and feed for the animals that produce it. 4  By comparison, just 17% of U.S. agricultural receipts were from non-meat food for people. This includes fruits, nuts, vegetables, wheat, and rice. The remaining 10% of receipts were from cotton, tobacco, and miscellaneous products.

What is the most important source of revenue for agriculture?

Half of U.S. agriculture revenue is from meat production. 4 Most of this is cattle, dairy, poultry, hogs, and eggs. A smaller proportion is bison, rabbits, sheep, goats, and ostriches.

What is the biggest crop in the United States?

Sorghum, barley, and oats are also used for feed. The nation’s biggest crop is corn , and the United States is the world’s largest producer. 5  The 90-million acre “corn belt” is mostly in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. 6  Corn is also used for cereal, alcohol, and corn syrup.

Why are antibiotics used in agriculture?

To prevent illnesses from these cramped conditions, animals are fed antibiotics. In 1951, the Federal Drug Administration approved antibiotic use because it also increases weight gain of the animals. 19  Some scientists estimate that 80% of all antibiotics sold are used in agriculture.

Why do farmers buy futures?

To lower the risk, farmers can buy futures contracts that promise to sell at an agreed-upon price on a specific date. Farmers take their chances on what the price will be when it’s time to harvest. Either way, they are betting that their costs will be lower than their future revenue. Small farmers aren’t as sophisticated as corporations in using the futures market to offset risk. This gives the large corporations another advantage over small farmers.

How much does a large farm make?

U.S. agriculture is dominated by the 3% of farms that are large or very large. Large farms have an income of $1 million or more . 1 These large farms are successful because they focus on one crop. This practice is called monoculture, and it’s very cost-effective. 3

What is the process of producing food and other products by growing plants and raising animals?

Agriculture is the process of producing food and other products by growing plants and raising animals. It’s also called farming.

When did commercial corn and wheat belts begin to develop?

1850’s Commercial corn and wheat belts began to develop

When did biotechnology become a viable technique for improving crop and livestock products?

1980’s Biotechnology became a viable technique for improving crop and livestock products 1985 Food Security Act low- ered government farm supports, promoted exports, and set up the Conservation Reserve Program.

When was the first cotton gin invented?

1776–99. 1785 The Philadelphia Society for the Promotion of Agriculture and other agricultural groups organized 1793 Invention of cotton gin. 1800. 1802 George Washington Parke Custis instituted agricultural fair in Arlington, VA. 1810.

What were Native American methods of production?

Methods of production were often adopted from Native American techniques, as many settlers found that their traditional ways of farming were not as effective in the New World. Popular methods included slash-and-burn land preparation, as well as the use of perhaps the most dominant tool at the time, the hand hoe.

Why did farmers have to work year round?

While the majority of crops were produced in the warmer months, farm work had to occur year-round to ensure that the community would be prepared for any situation Mother Nature threw at them in the months and years to come.

How did animals survive in the colonies?

Domestic animals were only able to survive in the colonies if they were capable of surviving the winter, where they would rely primarily on forests and natural meadows for subsistence. The food farmers provided the animals was generally fairly minimal during the winter months, until spring came around and farmers relied heavily on spring vegetation to fatten them up again.

What were the challenges of farming in the colonies?

The Challenges of Farming in the Colonies. Unfortunately for the early settlers, famine and starvation were far more common than successful harvests. The farmers had to learn how to live off the land, and not all of their tried and true methods worked well on the new, American ground. Early on, most families were only able to produce enough food …

What were the most common foods that colonists ate?

Some of the most popular foods harvested in the early American colonies included corn, tobacco, wheat, and cotton.

Why did the North increase crops?

The North’s increased crops is most likely due to the recent invention of many farming machines that the South did invent and utilize. The northern farms were originally centered around little communities, but as they pushed farther west, they became more isolated and only worked with their families to make a profit.

What was the South’s form of agriculture?

Not only was the South’s form of agriculture varied from that of the Northwest, but it was substantially more detached from the Union as well. North. The Northwest’s agriculture slowly became more industrialized as the decades went on. By adopting new cultivating techniques, farmers were able to greatly increase production.

What was the South’s agricultural system?

The South’s agricultural system was more focused on cotton growing and slave trade than other aspects of farming. Southerners utilized the plantation system, creating a wealthy planter class, who owned hundreds of slaves to do the difficult farming labor of planting and harvesting cotton and keep up with the daily farm tasks. These planters, along with capitalists in this area, invested ample amounts of money in land and slave trade, both crucial parts of Southern agriculture. After investing so much money in these areas, it left little to be invested in other areas of trade. Also, the South tended to have different values than their northern counterparts. The southerners were inclined to believe that they were “representatives of a special way of life” (Brinkley, 284). In turn, both of these aspects of the South contributed to the isolation of the South from the North, and the growing separation of the two Union sections. (Brinkley, 284). The South also produced less crops in a year than the North, aforementioned above. The reasoning behind the South’s deceased production is most likely due to the major cotton industry in the South, as it was not able to be grown in the North. The working conditions in the south tended to be difficult and harsh, due to the sometimes unbearable heat and the cruelty of the slave owners. Slaves lived in prisonlike conditions in some areas and were susceptible to harsh punishment if they disobeyed their master (Brinkley, 289).

How many bushels of wheat did the North produce in 1850?

For instance, the North produced 499,190,041 total bushels of crops, including wheat, oats and more, in 1850, while the South produced only 481,766,889 bushels of the same crops in the same year. (Helper, 189). The North’s increased crops is most likely due to the recent invention of many farming machines that the South did invent and utilize.

What did the planters invest in?

These planters, along with capitalists in this area, invested ample amounts of money in land and slave trade, both crucial parts of Southern agriculture. After investing so much money in these areas, it left little to be invested in other areas of trade.

What was the main force that brought farm communities together?

The major force that drew farm communities together was religion, which was one of the only reasons for communication. However, around the time of harvest large numbers of families gathered to bring in the crops allowing families to produce more crops (Brinkley, 275). South.

Why were the Northeast and Northwest so self-sufficient?

The Northeast and Northwest were very self-sufficient together; as the Northwest provided the raw materials needed for the Northeast’s steady rate of manufacturing and producing goods for the country. The profitable economic relationship between these two sections though isolated the South’s agriculture.

1776–1800

1800–1830

The 1830s

  • By the 1830s, about 250-300 labor-hours were required to produce 100 bushels (5 acres) of wheat using a walking plow, brush harrow, hand broadcast of seed, sickle, and flail. 1. 1830—Peter Cooper’s railroad steam engine, the Tom Thumb, ran 13 miles 2. 1830—Total population: 12,866,020 3. 1830—The Mississippi River formed the approximate frontier boundary 4. The 183…

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The 1840s

  • The growing use of factory-made agricultural machinery increased the farmers’ need for cash and encouraged commercial farming. 1. 1840—Justos Liebig’s Organic Chemistry appeared 2. 1840–1850—New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio were the chief wheat States 3. 1840–1860—Hereford, Ayrshire, Galloway, Jersey, and Holstein cattle were imported and bred 4…

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The 1850s

  • By 1850, about 75–90 labor-hours were required to produce 100 bushels of corn (2-1/2 acres) with walking plow, harrow, and hand planting. 1. 1850—Total population: 23,191,786; Farm population: 11,680,000 (estimated); Farmers made up 64% of labor force; Number of farms: 1,449,000; Average acres: 203 2. The 1850s—Commercial corn and wheat belts began to develo…

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The 1860s

  • The early 1860s witnessed a dramatic change from hand power to horses, which historians characterize as the first American agricultural revolution 1. 1860—Total population: 31,443,321; Farm population: 15,141,000 (estimated); Farmers made up 58% of labor force; Number of farms: 2,044,000; Average acres: 199 2. The 1860s—Kerosene lamps became popula…

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The 1870s

  • The most important advance of the 1870s was the use of both silos, and the wide use of deep-well drilling, two advances that enabled larger farms and higher production of marketable surpluses. 1. 1870—Total population: 38,558,371; Farm population: 18,373,000 (estimated); Farmers made up 53% of labor force; Number of farms: 2,660,000; Average acres: 153 2. The 18…

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The 1880s

  1. 1880—Total population: 50,155,783; Farm population: 22,981,000 (estimated); Farmers made up 49% of labor force; Number of farms: 4,009,000; Average acres: 134
  2. The 1880s—Heavy agricultural settlement on the Great Plains began
  3. The 1880s—The cattle industry moved into the western and southwestern Great Plains
  4. 1880—Most humid land already settled

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The 1890s

  • By 1890, labor costs continued to decrease, with only 35–40 labor-hours required to produce 100 bushels (2-1/2 acres) of corn, because of technological advances of the 2-bottom gang plow, disk and peg-tooth harrow, and 2-row planters; and 40–50 labor-hours required to produce 100 bushels (5 acres) of wheat with gang plow, seeder, harrow, binder, thresher, wagons, and horses. 1. 1890…

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