How did agriculture evolve


Agricultural communities developed approximately 10,000 years ago when humans began to domesticate plants and animals. By establishing domesticity, families and larger groups were able to build communities and transition from a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle dependent on foraging and hunting for survival.May 19, 2022


Why did hunter-gatherers first begin farming?

Bowles and Choi suggest that farming arose among people who had already settled in an area rich with hunting and gathering resources, where they began to establish private property rights . When wild plants or animals became less plentiful, they argue, people chose to begin farming instead of moving on.

How did the Industrial Revolution affect agriculture?

  • Chemical fertilizers were made that helped the land’s fertility.
  • Iron and steel was used as tools.
  • Mechanical seed drills were used.
  • Wooden plows were replaced by iron (and then) steel plows. …
  • Steam-powered threshing machines and reapers started to be used.
  • Tractors started to be used, which replaced horses

Why is agriculture important and its role in everyday life?

Agriculture Important and its Role in Everyday Life. In most parts of the world, agriculture is an important source of livelihood. This entails hard work, but it contributes to the nation’s food safety and health. Agriculture was the primary source of the economy prior to the industrial revolution.

How does agriculture affect the US economy?

agriculture therefore spurs the growth of entire economies and stimulates demand for U.S. exports. Exports and Jobs In 2018, U.S. agricultural exports totaled $140 billion, with developing countries accounting for $90 billion, or nearly two-thirds of total agricultural exports.


When and where did agriculture first evolve?

The Zagros Mountain range, which lies at the border between Iran and Iraq, was home to some of the world’s earliest farmers. Sometime around 12,000 years ago, our hunter-gatherer ancestors began trying their hand at farming.

What is evolution in agriculture?

Evolutionary processes integrated within agriculture Evolution can be defined as the process of gradual changes in heritable characteristics over time. These characteristics involve genetic and phenotypic changes in the traits of species.

Who started agriculture evolution?

Egyptians were among the first peoples to practice agriculture on a large scale, starting in the pre-dynastic period from the end of the Paleolithic into the Neolithic, between around 10,000 BC and 4000 BC.

Where did agriculture start from?

Agriculture has no single, simple origin. A wide variety of plants and animals have been independently domesticated at different times and in numerous places. The first agriculture appears to have developed at the closing of the last Pleistocene glacial period, or Ice Age (about 11,700 years ago).

What caused the agricultural revolution?

The first was caused by humans changing from being hunter-gatherers to farmers and herders. The second was caused by improvements to livestock breeding, farming equipment, and crop rotation. The third was caused by plant breeding and new techniques in irrigation, fertilization, and pesticides.

When did the agricultural revolution start?

about 12,000 years agoThe Neolithic Revolution—also referred to as the Agricultural Revolution—is thought to have begun about 12,000 years ago. It coincided with the end of the last ice age and the beginning of the current geological epoch, the Holocene.

When was agriculture invented?

10,000 years agoHumans invented agriculture between 7,000 and 10,000 years ago, during the Neolithic era, or the New Stone Age.

Why did agriculture develop in so many places at about the same time?

Why do you think the development of agriculture occurred around the same time in several different places? People were changing and when it comes to agriculture there was global warming which helped crops to grow for longer periods of time. There was no bad weather to kill the crops.

How did agriculture change civilization?

When early humans began farming, they were able to produce enough food that they no longer had to migrate to their food source. This meant they could build permanent structures, and develop villages, towns, and eventually even cities. Closely connected to the rise of settled societies was an increase in population.

How did early man learn farming?

Around 12,000 years ago, hunter-gatherers made an incredible discovery. They dug up the ground, scattered a few wild grains, and learned how to farm. Farming meant that early humans could control their sources of food by growing plants and raising animals.

Why did people start farming?

In the Near East, for example, it’s thought that climatic changes at the end of the last ice age brought seasonal conditions that favored annual plants like wild cereals. Elsewhere, such as in East Asia, increased pressure on natural food resources may have forced people to find homegrown solutions. But whatever the reasons for its independent origins, farming sowed the seeds for the modern age.

What was the farming revolution?

Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the ” Neolithic Revolution.”. Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements …

What mutation occurred during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe?

But at some point during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe, a mutation occurred for lactose tolerance that increased in frequency through natural selection thanks to the nourishing benefits of milk.

Where did wheat come from?

The wild progenitors of crops including wheat, barley and peas are traced to the Near East region. Cereals were grown in Syria as long as 9,000 years ago, while figs were cultivated even earlier; prehistoric seedless fruits discovered in the Jordan Valley suggest fig trees were being planted some 11,300 years ago.

How long ago did goats come to Europe?

Dates for the domestication of these animals range from between 13,000 to 10,000 years ago. Genetic studies show that goats and other livestock accompanied the westward spread of agriculture into Europe, helping to revolutionize Stone Age society. While the extent to which farmers themselves migrated west remains a subject of debate, …

What is the meaning of civilization?

civilization. Noun. complex way of life that developed as humans began to develop urban settlements. crop. Noun. agricultural produce. cultivate. Verb. to encourage the growth of something through work and attention.

How long does a plant live?

plant with a life cycle of no more than one year, and often much less.

How did farming start?

The three field crop rotation system was replaced with a four field system and sweeping enclosure acts regulated land management, selective cross-breeding began on an industrial scale to increase crop size as well as yields creating several cultivars in the process. Animal husbandry also improved, leading to a greater surplus than had been permissible under the old system. It is said that these changes permitted the industrial revolution and even greater concentration of urban development, fueling the empire. How so? More crops for fewer workers, better methods of keeping and replacing nutrients in the soil meant that more people could work in industry. When the Corn Laws in England were repealed, it began the global food economy; about the same time, Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution put agriculture on the modern path of a science as we began to understand the development of crops.

Where did farming originate?

Archaeologists and palaeontologists have traced the origins of farming to around 10,000 years ago, to somewhere in the Indus Valley, and possibly as a separate development in China along the Yangtze River (6) .

What were the crops of Mesoamerica?

In Mesoamerica and South America, with the Inca, the Maya, Olmecs and the Aztecs, relatively early development of agriculture permitted the building of enormous cities that impressed the European colonizers; it was quickly identified that these civilizations had an impressive agriculture-based economy that stood on a par with Europe, challenging what was then understood about the development of civilization. In Mesoamerica it was corn and in South America it was the humble potato (18) – today the staple crop of most people in the western world, along with coca and the domestication of animal species such as llama and alpaca.

What did hunter-gatherers do?

For most of our existence, humans were hunter-gatherers. This means that people lived a nomadic lifestyle, moving with the seasons to follow the food supply. As the glaciers retreated and plant life patterns and growth areas changed in response, it meant that the need to move so often became slightly less essential – though undoubtedly the lifestyle carried on for thousands of years as people sought to maximize their resource acquisition (4, p574-5). Hunter-gatherer societies would have known which crops were best to exploit with each season.

What was the Middle East’s agricultural revolution?

The Middle East continued to see much innovation in the agricultural industries, something that historians refer to as The Arab Agricultural Revolution (10). This was thanks to the diversity of the local topographies, the crops grown in the Middle East and Indus Valley that European societies coveted, and later acted as a trade bridge between Far East and Europe (11).

What is the early civilization?

Early Civilization. Early civilization can be considered a boom time in agricultural science and technology. Around 5500 BC (7, p26-28), the Sumerian civilization of the Middle East and other early pre Greco-Roman civilizations understood the need for a specialized agricultural workforce for their societies to thrive.

What is agriculture in the US?

Agriculture is defined as the cultivation and exploitation of animals, plants (including fungi) and other forms of organic life for human use including food, fiber, medicines, fuel and anything else. It is, and has been since there was an agricultural market, one of the largest employers of people; in the USA today, agriculture represents 20% of the US economy (1). Before organised agriculture, it is believed that the food supply could provide for just 4 million people globally (21).

Organic farming is emerging

We may think that organic production systems have only recently been developed or that they are traditional farming systems. In reality, they are neither, although it must be recognized that organic farming has been and is nourished by the good practices that have been and are applied by traditional farmers.

Organic-biological agriculture

The British Sir Albert Howard, professor at Wye College, University of London, director of the Institute of Plant Industry Indore in India and agricultural consultant in Central India and Rajputana, can be considered the main author or precursor of this style.

Biodynamic agriculture

Biodynamic agriculture is based on the teachings of Rudolf Steiner, an esoteric philosopher who was born in Kraljevec (Austro-Hungarian Empire) on February 27, 1861 and died in Dornach (Germany) in March 1925.

Natural agriculture

This style of organic agriculture was created and disseminated by the Japanese Masanobu Fukuoka, after the publication of his first book The One-Straw Revolution. An introduction to natural agriculture.

Permaculture or permanent agriculture

This style of ecological agriculture originated in Australia and was originally formulated by Bill Mollison (1975, University of Hobart, Tasmania), but it is steeped in the philosophy of Fukuoka in Japan. Permaculture was originally born in response to two phenomena in industrialized urban societies.

Organic agriculture

Subsequently, based on the principles elaborated by the above-mentioned individuals, different proposals have been developed, such as organic agriculture (Rodale, 1948), biological agriculture (Aubert, 1970), ecological agriculture (Walters, 1975), eco-scientific agriculture (Hyams, 1976), sustainable agriculture (Fisher, 1978), organic agriculture (Pank, 1980), alternative agriculture (Boeringa, 1980), holistic agriculture (Hill, 1982), etc.
More recently, agro-ecology has developed, which provides so-called “ecological” agriculture with a scientific ecological basis, incorporating in its developments the social component and the dimension of systemic analysis (Miguel Altieri, 1982, Eduardo Sevilla Guzmán, 1990).
The term “agroecology” appeared in the 1970s, probably as a synthesis of the knowledge accumulated during the last century about the functioning of agroecosystems, the consequences of the application of the so-called intensive agriculture, with a high use of chemical inputs and fossil energy, on the environment, human health and society, and the experiences accumulated by farmers who developed agricultural systems in harmony with the environment..

When did Davis and Golberg publish A Concept of Agribusiness?

The common understanding of agriculture as a sector changed dramatically following Davis and Golberg’s release of A Concept of Agribusiness in 1957. Their work offered a new approach to viewing and working with the agricultural sector and laid the foundation for the modern understanding of agribusiness. From that point, the sector became viewed as the combination of many different actors and organizations working together to produce and manufacture food and fibers, i.e. it’s an integrated system.

Should farms be treated like businesses?

Likewise, farms should be treated like businesses if they are going to succeed and remain competitive in a rapidly evolving world.

Is agriculture a government sector?

Historically speaking, agriculture has been treated as a single, unified sector in which existing market mechanisms (most commonly government intervention) enabled the coordination of production and distribution. This approach failed to account for the activities engaged in by private entities, e.g. farmers or industries working with farmers.

Is agriculture a technology?

With the industrialization of agriculture being technologically-based, this has led technology to play an ever-expanding role in our everyday lives. This is particularly true in agricultural production environments where labor has been replaced with technology causing the concept of agribusiness to become synonymous with many of the current criticisms of the agricultural sector.


Around 600 B.C two major changes occurred in the agriculture. One was an increase in the use of iron ploughshare. By using iron ploughshare heavy, clayey soil could be turned over better than with a wooden ploughshare. … As a result of these two changes, the agriculture flourished in the Mahajanapadas.


Around 600 B.C two major changes occurred in the agriculture. One was an increase in the use of iron ploughshare. By using iron ploughshare heavy, clayey soil could be turned over better than with a wooden ploughshare. … As a result of these two changes, the agriculture flourished in the Mahajanapadas.

How did agriculture affect human evolution?

Beginning some ten to twelve thousand years ago, fully modern Homo sapiens began to alter their diets in ways that would profoundly impact their lives and livelihoods on a global scale.

Where did animal domestication start?

Starting from at least ten independent centers of plant and animal domestication in Asia, South and North America, and Africa, the shift from foraging to farming laid the foundation for remarkable increase in population size and fundamental changes in health, quality of life, and workload.


When Did Agriculture Begin?

  • If we look at our history, there have always been patterns in which things came about. We just have to take a deeper look into it to decipher the code. The same is in the case of agriculture. A very vague idea is that some plants and animals started self-domestication at fixed places. In se…

See more on

What Event Enabled The Evolution of Agriculture

  • No one event, in particular, enabled the evolution of agriculture. The Earth has since the beginning a developing planet. It has undergone numerous changes regarding time, space, land; earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, temperatures; both extreme hot and cold, water; rainfall, blizzard, hailstorms, tsunamis, cyclones, etc., beyond the comprehension of humans. These cert…

See more on

Stages of Evolution of Agriculture

  • When an idea is conceived in one’s mind, the next course of action is to gather the required tools to perform the concept practically. And so, the idea of cultivation needed a set of tools for its actual projection. The tools were for them to begin digging the ground, placing the seeds, and then covering them with soil. With development through the many eras, agriculture became just …

See more on

Ancient Tools

  • These are very primitive and under-developed compared to modern-day tools, but they were the most advanced in the olden times. Strong and longer durability than today’s tools. 1. Stone Age Axe It consisted of a sharp stone of different sizes and shapes. Initially used by hand, but due to bruising and scraping, a thick wooden stem as a ‘handle’ was tied later. This gave a better grip a…

See more on

Modern Tools

  • Observe how almost all the tools have the word ‘automatic’ before them. Yes. In today’s world, more than half the things work automatically, without any manual assistance. This has saved time due to their speed and precision and money, because the owners will not have to pay any wages to manual laborers. 1. Automatic Harvester A regular tractor is fixed with the harvester in the fro…

See more on


  • A timeline shows the step-by-step development of agricultural advancementsin tools, production time and cost, profit, loss, and much more. The following flowchart gives an overview of agricultural development over the years. 9000 – 7000 BC Agriculturewas discovered and developed. ↓ 7000 – 3000 BC The variety in food being produced increased along with the introd…

See more on


Early Civilization

Early to Modern Civilization

The Americas

Modern Farming

  • Modern farming began around the 18thcentury in what is generally referred to as “The British Agricultural Revolution” when several advances and changes were made to farming in a short space of time that saw massive increases in yield and a more efficient process. The three field crop rotation system was replaced with a four field system and sweepin…

See more on

The Ecological Age

Leave a Comment