The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown on the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India. The region under British control was commonly called India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the …
had the effect of commercializing Indian agriculture, but did so in a way that was harmful to Indians. The British changed the nature and structure of an industry that 80% of Indians considered their livelihood. A new class of landlords emerged that rented the land to farmers.
What was the impact of British rule on agriculture in India?
British colonial rule had the effect of commercializing Indian agriculture, but did so in a way that was harmful to Indians. The British changed the nature and structure of an industry that 80% of…
How did colonial rule affect India’s economy?
As Indian agriculture turned to growing cotton, food production declined. This was, in part, to blame for the famines that hit India during British rule. Approved by eNotes Editorial Team
Why was the agriculture sector stagnant during the colonial period?
· British impact on Indian Agriculture Indian economy was mainly an agrarian economy before colonial period. Agriculture was the main occupation of the people and industries like textile, sugar, oil…
How did the Industrial Revolution in England affect India?
· The causes of stagnation of Indian agriculture during the British rule; The agriculture sector was stagnant due to various system of land settlement by the colonial government. The profit of the agriculture sector went to the zamindars instead of the cultivators. Widespread commercialization of agriculture caused farmers to produce cash crops instead of …
How did the British rule affect agriculture in India?
The major reason of commercialization of agriculture was that India was now reduced to the supplier of raw materials and food grains to Britain and importer of British manufactured goods. This era saw the introduction and proliferation of many crops as cash crops such as Indigo, cotton, jute, tea, tobacco.
What was the impact of British colonialism on agriculture?
As a result, there was an increase in the yield of cash crops, but it helped the farmers in no way. Farmers were now mass producing cash crops instead of food crops, which were ultimately used for the benefit of British industries. These cash crops include cotton, jute, oilseeds, sugarcane, tobacco etc.
How did British rule affect India?
Indian society underwent many changes after the British came to India. In the 19th century, certain social practices like female infanticide, child marriage, sati, polygamy and a rigid caste system became more prevalent. These practices were against human dignity and values.
How did Indians and British view each other’s culture in 1800s?
How did Indians and British view each other’s culture in the 1800s? The Indians viewed the British culture positively, and were impressed by their technology and power. Many Indians were taught in British based schools, graduated, and went on to teach English at other British schools.
How did colonialism affect agriculture?
Key facets of colonial-era agriculture were forced consolidation of land-holdings, slavery and servitude, and the increased globalization of foods, all of which modified people’s access to different varieties of food, altered people’s subsistence patterns, and entwined peasant farmers into the global capitalist economy …
How was the development in agricultural sector during British rule?
Britishers Introduced different systems of Land Settlement like Zamindari System where: Zamindars collected Rent from Farmers and paid Revenue (tax) to the British Govt. Profits of cultivation went to Zamindars and not cultivators.
What benefits did India gain from British rule?
Improvement of government in the native states. Security of life and property. Services of educated administrators, who have achieved these results. Materially: Loans for railways and irrigation. Development of a few valuable products, such as indigo, tea, coffee, silk, etc.
What were the effects of the British rule?
powerful government. WER Cause: Many former colonists feared losing their freedom to a new government. Effect: The new Americans made sure their new government could not take away states’ freedom and independence. Cause: The British government taxed the American colonists unfairly.
What were two positive effects of British rule in India?
Positive Impact: Some positive impact of the British rule in India were the introduction of the railways, post and telegraph system for masses, introduction of Western sceinces and the English language. However, it is to be noted that the British intorduced railways for its own benifits.
How did British rule lead to growing Indian nationalism?
How did Britain rule lead to growing Indian nationalism? British rule gave Elite Indians and education in which they learned about democracy. Goal of the national congress? New laws modernizing civil service exams, streamlining government, and encouraging new industries.
What were the effects of British imperialism on India?
British imperialism in India had impacted the nation adversely. First of all, India’s wealth was drained to a great extent during this period. British rule in India hit the Indian economy so hard that it was never able to recover. Religious conflicts and gaps expanded.
What drastic changes were brought about by the British in the Indian society?
They also outlawed all previous currency in use, and for distribution of British currency, they planted Banking agents all over India, who worked as their moles in Indian society. This effectively crippled Indian society.
How did British colonial rule affect Indians?
British colonial rule had the effect of commercializing Indian agriculture, but did so in a way that was harmful to Indians. The British changed the nature and structure of an industry that 80% of Indians considered their livelihood. A new class of landlords emerged that rented the land to farmers.
How did the British management of the Indian agricultural economy affect the Indian economy?
The British management of the Indian agricultural economy had a crippling effect. Crop yields plummeted in this inefficient system as poverty increased. Farmers that were in poverty could not invest in better techniques to improve crop yields. Poverty also had the effect of lower energy levels and motivation which affected how farmers performed.
How did the commercialization of agriculture affect India?
The commercialization of agriculture also had an adverse effect as far as the commodities being produced. Cash crops took the place of food production in India. The British viewed India as a place to secure raw materials for its industries. Indigo and cotton were big products that British companies acquired from India’s farmers for the textile industry. After the Indians secured independence from Britain, many of the important fertile areas were partitioned to Pakistan, further crippling Indian agriculture.
How did poverty affect farmers?
Poverty also had the effect of lower energy levels and motivation which affected how farmers performed. The commercialization of agriculture also had an adverse effect as far as the commodities being produced. Cash crops took the place of food production in India.
Why did the British create an artificial class system in the Indian countryside?
In order to protect and strengthen colonial rule, the British created an artificial class system in the Indian countryside in the hopes that a new class of landlords would act as a reliable political foundation for the Raj.
Did the Zamindars have any effect on the Indian economy?
The so-called Zamindars did indeed fulfill this function, but unfortunately, they did nothing for the Indian agricultural economy. The Zamindars systematically squeezed every last penny out of the land they owned, impoverishing the local peasantry and turning them into tenants with no rights, who could thus easily be evicted from the land they had worked for generations.
What were the causes of the stagnation of Indian agriculture during the British rule?
The causes of stagnation of Indian agriculture during the British rule; The agriculture sector was stagnant due to various system of land settlement by the colonial government. The profit of the agriculture sector went to the zamindars instead of the cultivators. Widespread commercialization of agriculture caused farmers to produce cash crops …
What was the main occupation of the Indians during the British rule?
Indian Agriculture during the British rule. Agriculture in India forms the base of India’s economy. It is the primary occupation for the Indians. Indian Agriculture during the British rule remained fundamentally agrarian, about 85% of the country’s population lived mostly in villages and derived livelihood directly or indirectly from agriculture.
Why was agricultural productivity low?
Agricultural productivity remained very low with some growth experienced due to the expansion of the aggregate area under cultivation. The main interest of the zamindars was only to collect rent regardless of the economic condition of the cultivators.
What were the cash crops that helped the British?
These cash crops include cotton, jute, oilseeds, sugarcane, tobacco, etc.
Why was the agriculture sector stagnant?
The agriculture sector was stagnant due to various system of land settlement by the colonial government. The profit of the agriculture sector went to the zamindars instead of the cultivators.
What causes low productivity in agriculture?
Low levels of technology, lack of irrigation facilities, and minimum use of fertilizers also caused a low level of agricultural productivity.
How did British colonial rule affect the Indian economy?
The following points highlight the six main impacts of British colonial rule on the Indian economy. The impacts are: 1. Destruction of Indian Handicrafts 2. New Land System 3. Commercialisation of Agriculture 4. Development of Railway Network 5. Occurrence of Famines 6.
How did colonial exploitation of the Indian economy by the British affect the Indian economy?
Colonial exploitation of the Indian economy by the British transformed the pattern of trade in India to become an exporter of raw materials and foodstuffs and an importer of manufactures. Moreover, colonial exploitation through the entry of British capital and finance capital and also through the payment for the costs of administration led to huge economic drain of India weakening the base of Indian economy.
What led to the destruction of the organic village community in India?
Under both these systems, the land revenue or the rent fixed was excessively high and this led to destruction of the organic village community in India.
How did the Industrial Revolution affect India?
The Industrial Revolution in England created a serious impact on Indian economy as it reversed the character and composition of India’s foreign trade. This led to destruction of Indian handicrafts although there was no substantial growth of modern factory industry.
What was the British rule in India?
Thus the British rule in India was a long history of systematic exploitation of Indian people by the imperialistic Government.
How did commercialisation of agriculture reduce the production of food grains?
Commercialisation of agriculture reduced the production of food grains by transferring land from the cultivation of food crops to non-food crops like industrial raw materials.
Why did the peasants shift their cropping pattern?
As the British industries were offering higher prices for commercial crops the peasants gradually started to shift their cropping pattern substituting commercial crops for food crops. In some areas commercialisation of agriculture reached to such an extent that the peasants even could not produce food crops for their home consumption and started to purchase foodstuff from the mandis.
What was the effect of British rule on India?
Many commentators argue the effect of British rule was highly negative, that Britain engaged in a policy of deindustrialisation in India for the benefit of British exporters, leaving Indians relatively poorer than before British rule.
How did Britain affect India?
Others argue that Britain’s impact on India was either broadly neutral or positive , and that India’s declining share of global GDP was due to other factors, such as new mass production technologies being invented in Europe.
Which country had the highest agricultural output in the 17th century?
According to economic historian Immanuel Wallerstein, citing evidence from Irfan Habib, Percival Spear, and Ashok Desai, per-capita agricultural output and standards of consumption in 17th-century Mughal India were probably higher than in 17th-century Europe and certainly higher than early 20th-century British India.
What was the village economy under British rule?
In contrast, historian Niall Ferguson argues that under British rule, the village economy’s total after-tax income rose from 27% to 54% (the sector represented three quarters of the entire population) and that the British had invested £270 million in Indian infrastructure, irrigation and industry by the 1880s (representing one-fifth of entire British investment overseas) and by 1914 that figure had reached £400 million. He also argues that the British increased the area of irrigated land by a factor of one-eight, contrasting with 5% under the Mughals.
Why did the East India Company cut off the hands of hundreds of weavers in Bengal?
A commonly cited legend is that in the early 19th century, the East India Company (EIC), had cut off the hands of hundreds of weavers in Bengal in order to destroy the indigenous weaving industry in favour of British textile imports (some anecdotal accounts say the thumbs of the weavers of Dacca were removed).
How many peasants did the EIC cultivate?
The EIC’s opium business was hugely exploitative and ended up impoverishing Indian peasants. Poppy was cultivated against a substantial loss to over 1.3 million peasants that cultivated it in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
What was India’s main export in the seventeenth century?
The views of historians and economists. In the seventeenth century, India was a relatively urbanised and commercialised nation with a buoyant export trade, devoted largely to cotton textiles, but also including silk, spices, and rice.