How did extensive agriculture start


Intensive farming originated in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia


Mesopotamia is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turki…

, India, Pakistan, North China, Mesoamerica, and Western South America with the creation of water management systems and the domestication of large animals that could pull plows.

Intensive farming originated in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, Pakistan, North China, Mesoamerica, and Western South America with the creation of water management systems and the domestication of large animals that could pull plows.Dec 14, 2021


Why did hunter-gatherers first begin farming?

Bowles and Choi suggest that farming arose among people who had already settled in an area rich with hunting and gathering resources, where they began to establish private property rights . When wild plants or animals became less plentiful, they argue, people chose to begin farming instead of moving on.

How to get a degree in agriculture?

What Skills Do I Need To Be successful in Agricultural Science?

  • Ability to make accurate observations, detect and solve problems
  • The ability to influence and leadership and coordinate teamwork
  • A deep understanding of business principles
  • Computer and Information Technology skills
  • Ability to plan and conduct research

What to do with a degree in agriculture?

Typical employers include:

  • agricultural and agri-pharmaceutical consultancies
  • agricultural machinery firms
  • environmental consultancies
  • farm management and commercial ancillary companies
  • food processing companies
  • food retail companies
  • government and local authorities – in a range of advisory and administration roles
  • trade associations such as the NFU

More items…

What was the first agriculture?

Agriculture Minister Damien O’Connor told Mike Yardley they’ve tried to prioritise local jobs first. “We have shifted as many young New Zealanders as we can into those jobs. I was at a course in Wairarapa last year, we simply can’t do it fast enough.”


When did extensive agriculture start?

Beginning about 5,000 years ago, the development of intensive farming methods became necessary as the human population grew in some major river valleys to levels beyond the carrying capacity of the environment using horticulture and pastoralism.

How did the development of agriculture start?

Agricultural communities developed approximately 10,000 years ago when humans began to domesticate plants and animals. By establishing domesticity, families and larger groups were able to build communities and transition from a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle dependent on foraging and hunting for survival.

What led to greater agricultural production?

20.7. Agricultural production has gained importance recently because of climate change and food security. The exponential increase in the world’s population leads to an increased demand for food.

What are the reasons of extensive farming in the USA?

AdvantagesLess labour per unit areas is required to farm large areas, especially since expensive alterations to land (like terracing) are completely absent.Mechanisation can be used more effectively over large, flat areas.Greater efficiency of labour means generally lower product prices.More items…

Where did the agriculture start?

Agriculture was developed at least 10,000 years ago, and it has undergone significant developments since the time of the earliest cultivation. Independent development of agriculture occurred in northern and southern China, Africa’s Sahel, New Guinea and several regions of the Americas.

How did early humans start farming?

Around 12,000 years ago, hunter-gatherers made an incredible discovery. They dug up the ground, scattered a few wild grains, and learned how to farm. Farming meant that early humans could control their sources of food by growing plants and raising animals.

What is extensive agriculture?

extensive agriculture, in agricultural economics, system of crop cultivation using small amounts of labour and capital in relation to area of land being farmed. The crop yield in extensive agriculture depends primarily on the natural fertility of the soil, the terrain, the climate, and the availability of water.

How did agricultural production increased around 600 BCE?

Answer the following questions in 10 to 20 words 1. How did agricultural production increased around 600 BCE ? Ans:- Agricultural production increase around 600 BCE through the drainage system.

What were the major developments in agriculture from 1900 to 1950?

The introduc- tion of new crops, the improvement of varieties of crops, the use of hybrid corn, the conquest of plant and animal diseases and pests, the building of improved roads, the electrification of farms and farm homes, and the improvement in livestock and poultry have brought tremendous changes in farms and farm …

Why is extensive agriculture used?

This has resulted in the overproduction of many food items, which drives the market price down. For extensive farming to be profitable large amounts of land are required. Because of this, extensive methods tend to be used most frequently where population densities are low and land is inexpensive.

What is extensive agriculture AP Human Geography?

3:077:44Intensive & Extensive Agricultural Practices [AP Human Geography …YouTubeStart of suggested clipEnd of suggested clipThis allows for farms to be able to maximize their profits the majority of the crops that are grownMoreThis allows for farms to be able to maximize their profits the majority of the crops that are grown are actually cash crops these cash crops are produced in less developed.

Why is extensive farming carried out in the temperate grasslands?

The temperate grasslands are ideal for extensive wheat cultivation. The cool, moist spring stimulates early growth and the light showers in the ripening period help to swell the grains to ensure a good yield. … One distinct drawback of this form of extensive mechanized farming is the consequent low yield.

Social Justice: Preservation of Cultures in Traditional Agriculture

The Spanish colonists to the Americas brought with them the extensive agriculture of Spain, in contrast to the intensive agriculture of the indigenous populations.


James G. Ogg, … Felix M. Gradstein, in A Concise Geologic Time Scale, 2016

Forward osmosis feasibility and potential future application for desalination

Ali Altaee, … Alaa H. Hawari, in Emerging Technologies for Sustainable Desalination Handbook, 2018

Vulnerability of Ecosystems to Climate

Most of the world s coastal cities are on estuaries, and many estuaries have been heavily modified to support human activities (e.g., Nichols et al. 1986; Lotze 2010 ). Marshes ( Day et al. 2008) and mangrove forests ( Polidoro et al.

Estuarine and Coastal Ecosystem Modelling

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Land Reclamation and Restoration Strategies for Sustainable Development

Gouri Sankar Bhunia, … Anil Kashyap, in Modern Cartography Series, 2021

What is extensive farming?

Extensive farming or extensive agriculture (as opposed to intensive farming) is an agricultural production system that uses small inputs of labor, fertilizers, and capital, relative to the land area being farmed.

What is continuous grazing?

Continuous grazing by sheep or cattle is a widespread extensive farming system, with low inputs and outputs. Extensive farming most commonly means raising sheep and cattle in areas with low agricultural productivity, but includes large-scale growing of wheat, barley, cooking oils and other grain crops in areas like the Murray-Darling Basin in …

Why is animal welfare improved?

Greater efficiency of labour means generally lower product prices. Animal welfare is generally improved because animals are not kept in stifling conditions. Lower requirements of inputs such as fertilizers. If animals are grazed on pastures native to the locality, there is less likely to be problems with exotic species.

Does intensive farming produce more methane?

Large land requirements limit the habitat of wild species (in some cases, even very low stocking rates can be dangerous), as is the case with intensive farming. Extensive farming was once thought to produce more methane and nitrous oxide per kg of milk than intensive farming.

What was the farming revolution?

Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the ” Neolithic Revolution.”. Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements …

When did rice and millet farming start?

The origins of rice and millet farming date to around 6,000 B.C.E.

What mutation occurred during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe?

But at some point during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe, a mutation occurred for lactose tolerance that increased in frequency through natural selection thanks to the nourishing benefits of milk.

What is the meaning of “agriculture”?

agriculture. Noun. the art and science of cultivating land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching). annual plant. Noun. plant with a life cycle of no more than one year, and often much less. barley. Noun. grass cultivated as a grain.

When did corn cobs first appear?

While maize-like plants derived from teosinte appear to have been cultivated at least 9,000 years ago, the first directly dated corn cob dates only to around 5,500 years ago . Corn later reached North America, where cultivated sunflowers also started to bloom some 5,000 years ago.

How long ago did goats come to Europe?

Dates for the domestication of these animals range from between 13,000 to 10,000 years ago. Genetic studies show that goats and other livestock accompanied the westward spread of agriculture into Europe, helping to revolutionize Stone Age society. While the extent to which farmers themselves migrated west remains a subject of debate, …

Where did the wild produce originate?

The wild progenitors of crops including wheat, barley and peas are traced to the Near East region. Cereals were grown in Syria as long as 9,000 years ago, while figs were cultivated even earlier; prehistoric seedless fruits discovered in the Jordan Valley suggest fig trees were being planted some 11,300 years ago. Though the transition from wild harvesting was gradual, the switch from a nomadic to a settled way of life is marked by the appearance of early Neolithic villages with homes equipped with grinding stones for processing grain.

Characteristics of extensive agriculture

Since extensive agriculture achieves a much lower production per hectare than that achieved with intensive agriculture, it is developed on large and extensive lands , in order to obtain an acceptable total productivity.

Advantages of extensive agriculture

The main advantage of extensive agriculture is its lower demand on technical and human resources, which allows a few people to operate large farms, thus being able to obtain sufficient profits despite their low relative productivity.

Disadvantages of extensive agriculture

As is evident, the most important disadvantage of extensive agriculture is that, unlike intensive agriculture, its farms take longer to provide economic benefits .

Basic differences between extensive and intensive agriculture

Thus, as we have been able to see throughout the article and as a summary, the main differences between intensive and extensive agriculture are:

How long ago did agriculture start?

Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago.

Where did agriculture originate?

By 8000 BC, farming was entrenched on the banks of the Nile. About this time, agriculture was developed independently in the Far East, probably in China, with rice rather than wheat as the primary crop. Maize was domesticated from the wild grass teosinte in southern Mexico by 6700 BC.

What were the first foods that were domesticated in the New World?

The potato (8000 BC), tomato, pepper (4000 BC), squash (8000 BC) and several varieties of bean (8000 BC onwards) were domesticated in the New World. Agriculture was independently developed on the island of New Guinea.

What are the social issues that modern agriculture has raised?

Modern agriculture has raised social, political, and environmental issues including overpopulation, water pollution, biofuels, genetically modified organisms, tariffs and farm subsidies. In response, organic farming developed in the twentieth century as an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides.

How has agriculture changed since 1900?

Since 1900, agriculture in the developed nations, and to a lesser extent in the developing world, has seen large rises in productivity as human labour has been replaced by mechanization, and assisted by synthe tic fertilizers, pesticides, and selective breeding.

What were the crops that were introduced in the Middle Ages?

In the Middle Ages, both in the Islamic world and in Europe, agriculture was transformed with improved techniques and the diffusion of crop plants, including the introduction of sugar, rice, cotton and fruit trees such as the orange to Europe by way of Al-Andalus.

Why was clover important to agriculture?

The use of clover was especially important as the legume roots replenished soil nitrates. The mechanisation and rationalisation of agriculture was another important factor.

How long has agriculture been around?

It is thought to have been practiced sporadically for the past 13,000 years, 1 and widely established for only 7,000 years. 2 In the long view of human history, this is just a flash in the pan compared to the nearly 200,000 years our ancestors spent gathering, hunting, and scavenging in the wild. During its brief history, agriculture has radically transformed human societies and fueled a global population that has grown from 4 million to 7 billion since 10,000 BCE, and is still growing. 3

How did farming help the population?

5 More abundant food supplies could support denser populations, and farming tied people to their land. Small settlements grew into towns, and towns grew into cities. 1.

What was the dawn of civilizations?

Dawn of civilizations. An ox-drawn plow prepares a rice paddy field in Vietnam . The plow and the various improvements upon its design were innovations that transformed human history, allowing farmers to cultivate land with a fraction of the labor they once used.

What is the name of the wild food that nourished our hunter-gatherer ancestors?

Left to right: Gingerbread plum ( mobola ), baobab seed, carissa fruit. These wild foods, native to Africa, may resemble the fruits, nuts, and seeds that nourished our hunter-gatherer ancestors. There is growing interest in cultivating these “lost” crops on a larger scale—the carissa fruit tastes a little like cranberry …

What was the difference between hunter-gatherer and agriculture?

Whereas hunter-gatherer societies generally viewed resources as belonging to everyone, agriculture led to a system of ownership over land, food, and currency that was not (and is still not) equitably distributed among the people. 1,16.

How did small settlements grow into cities?

1. Agriculture produced enough food that people became free to pursue interests other than worrying about what they were going to eat that day. Those who didn’t need to be farmers took on roles as soldiers, priests, administrators, artists, and scholars.

What did people who didn’t need to be farmers do?

Those who didn’t need to be farmers took on roles as soldiers, priests, administrators, artists, and scholars. As early civilizations began to take shape, political and religious leaders rose up to rule them, creating classes of “haves” and “have-nots.”.

The Urinary System1

Melanie A. Breshears, Anthony W. Confer, in Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease (Sixth Edition), 2017

Ecosystem Services: From Biodiversity to Society, Part 2

Richard J. Gill, … Simon G. Potts, in Advances in Ecological Research, 2016

Husbandry of aquatic animals in closed aquaculture systems

Aquaculture was initially practiced with low fish stocking densities in ponds where a natural mixture of plankton maintained water quality and provided nutrition.

How Studying Interactions Between Animal Emotions, Cognition, and Personality Can Contribute to Improve Farm Animal Welfare

Alain Boissy, Hans W. Erhard, in Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals (Second Edition), 2014

Volume 1

Patricia Regal, … Alberto Cepeda, in Encyclopedia of Food Chemistry, 2019

The Atlantic coral reefs of Mexico

The main oceanographic influence on the Atlantic reefs of Mexico comes from the Caribbean current system, as one of its branches is northwardly deflected by the Yucatán peninsula into the Yucatán channel, where all other Caribbean currents merge into the Gulf Stream.

Diversity in Barley

Andreas Graner, … Frank Ordon, in Developments in Plant Genetics and Breeding, 2003

Why is intensive agriculture important?

On the level of theory, the increased productivity of intensive agriculture enables the farmer to use a relatively smaller land area that is located close to market, where land values are high relative to labour and capital , and this is true in many parts of the world.

Why do intensive farms require less land?

As a result, a farm using intensive agriculture will require less land than an extensive agriculture farm to produce a similar profit. In practice, however, the increased economies and efficiencies of intensive agriculture often encourage farm operators to work very large tracts in order to keep their capital investments in machinery productively …

What Is Intensive Agriculture?

Intensive agriculture is a method of farming that uses large amounts of labor and investment to increase the yield of the land. In an industrialized society this typically means the use of pesticides, fertilizers, and other chemicals that boost yield, and the acquisition and use of machinery to aid planting, chemical application, and picking.

What Are the Characteristics of Intensive Agriculture?

Pasture intensification is the increase in value and production that occurs due to inputs such as money, labor, and pesticides, specifically in the pastures on which farmed animals graze.

Intensive Agriculture Examples

Most of the farmed animals in the United States live a significant portion of their lives on industrial factory farms that use a variety of intensive methods to produce more meat, dairy, or eggs for less money. One such method is keeping the animals enclosed in small spaces and delivering their food to them.

Intensive Versus Extensive Agriculture

Intensive farming focuses on investing a lot of resources and labor into small tracts of land in order to increase yield. Extensive agriculture, on the other hand, employs larger tracts of land and lower quantities of labor and resources.

Why Is Intensive Agriculture Bad?

Billions of animals in the United States suffer on factory farms that employ intensive methods to increase profitability. Often they are confined in such small spaces that they can barely move. Standard procedures include debeaking, castration, tail docking, and dehorning.


The intensification of farming has played an important role in the history of agriculture. It allowed for farmers to feed growing communities around the world. However, intensive agriculture as we know it today is no longer sustainable or necessary.




Extensive farming most commonly means raising sheep and cattle in areas with low agricultural productivity, but includes large-scale growing of wheat, barley, cooking oils and other grain crops in areas like the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Here, owing to the extreme age and poverty of the soils, yields per hectare are very low, but the flat terrain and very large farm sizes mean yields …


Extensive farming is found in the mid-latitude sections of most continents, as well as in desert regions where water for cropping is not available. The nature of extensive farming means it requires less rainfall than intensive farming. The farm is usually large in comparison with the numbers working and money spent on it. In 1957, most parts of Western Australia had pastures so poor that only one sheep to the square mile could be supported


Extensive farming has a number of advantages over intensive farming:
1. Less labour per unit areas is required to farm large areas, especially since expensive alterations to land (like terracing) are completely absent.
2. Mechanisation can be used more effectively over large, flat areas.


Extensive farming can have the following problems:
1. Yields tend to be much lower than with intensive farming in the short term.
2. Large land requirements limit the habitat of wild species (in some cases, even very low stocking rates can be dangerous), as is the case with intensive farming.

See also

• Dehesa in Spain, or montado in Portugal, with cork oak and Black Iberian pig.
• Herding
• Pastoralism
• Polyculture

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