How did industrialization affect agriculture


The Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution, now also known as the First Industrial Revolution, was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods t…

improved the agriculture and involved major developments such as the enclosure of open fields and the adoption of new farming techniques. The enclosures involved turning the large open fields into smaller farms owned by wealthy farmers. The farms were all separated by hedges or low stone walls.

New technology, including chemicals and larger tractors, allowed farmers to work larger areas of land with less labor. Government policies encouraged farmers to scale up their operations. Farmers were also motivated by economies of scale—the economic advantage of producing larger numbers of products.


What are the three causes of the Industrial Revolution?

Social effects

  • Factory system. …
  • Standards of living. …
  • Literacy and industrialization. …
  • Clothing and consumer goods. …
  • Population increase. …
  • Urbanization. …
  • Effect on women and family life. …
  • Labour conditions. …
  • Effect on environment. …
  • Nations and nationalism. …

What are the negative impacts of Agriculture?

Top 16 Negative Effects of Agriculture on the Environment

  • Soil/Land degradation
  • Deforestation
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate change
  • Pest problems
  • Industrial & agricultural waste
  • Irrigation
  • Livestock grazing
  • Chemical fertilizer
  • Point source pollution

More items…

What were the causes and consequences of the Agricultural Revolution?

What were the causes and effects of the agricultural revolution? The Agricultural Revolution of the 18th century paved the way for the Industrial Revolution in Britain. New farming techniques and improved livestock breeding led to amplified food production. This allowed a spike in population and increased health.

What was farming like before the Industrial Revolution?

Most historians say that the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain around 1750. Before this time, people rarely traveled beyond their small villages. Rural people worked as subsistence farmers, meaning they grew crops to feed themselves and their families.


How was agriculture affected by the Industrial Revolution?

The Industrial Revolution was a changing point for many aspects of human life and the overall standard of living. Agriculture changed as well during this time as technology, such as the seed drill, the Dutch plough, was able to increase human productivity and led there to be higher outputs of food (Johnson).

How did industrialization bring change in agriculture methods?

the period of industrialization resulted in massive migration of unemployed agricultural peasants and artisans from rural areas to urban regions in search of work. 3. the focus shifted from growing food crops to growing cash crops or crops that were needed as raw material for industries.

How industrialization has benefited agriculture?

The crops grown using industrial agriculture is meant to feed the masses and ensure food security across the world. The use of chemicals, mechanized tools, and other advanced technology are some of the reasons why industrial agriculture is able to produce massive quantities of food from farms.

How Industrialisation has benefited agriculture?

Industrialized Agriculture could be beneficial to the environment through the production of large scale livestock. Their waste can be used to accelerate nutrient cycling, this will definitely reduce soil degradation due to intensified land use, reduced fallow and less use of inorganic fertilizer.

What were the negative effects of the agricultural revolution?

Another negative that came from the Agricultural Revolution was the necessary conditions needed for efficient farming, such as; adequate farm buildings, access of roads, drainage of wetlands, transport facilities for marketing, and sources of finance for farmers.These were negative effects seen across Europe by many who joined in the Revolution.

Why was agriculture the largest source of employment?

Though the labor was difficult, agricultural work became the largest source of employment because of the ‘self-supply’ benefit, which is the ability to stock their own food stores through their own work.

What was the first invention of the Industrial Revolution?

Eli Whitney another inventor born in America in 1765, made another key invention of the industrial revolution, the cotton gin (picture to the right) which was invented in 1794. A cotton gin is a machine that quickly separates cotton fibers from their seeds. The invention of the cotton gin allowed for much greater productivity than manual labor, resulting in this invention greatly increasing the production rate for clothing and other cotton goods. Despite the cotton gins success, Whitney made little money from his invention due to patent-infringement issues. For his work, he is credited as a pioneer of American manufacturing. 16

Why did farmers work six days a week?

1 2. Before the Industrial Revolution, agriculture workers labored six days a week, from sun up to sun down, just to keep their crops growing. 1 Certain seasons were more demanding than others, specifically the plowing and harvest seasons. 2 Because of the intensity and necessity of agricultural labor, it was the largest employment source in …

How did Jethro Tull contribute to the Industrial Revolution?

Jethro Tull contributed to the industrial revolution by innovating new machines to greatly increase agricultural productivity. 9 Tull realized the importance of well cultivated soil and accessing the minerals below the topsoil.

How did industrialization affect agriculture?

Industrialization: Effects on agriculture. The sustained growth of non-agricultural employment and the transfer of part of the rural labour force to the towns have made it possible to stabilize the number of agricultural workers and halt the growth of population pressure on the land, thus creating the conditions for improved labour productivity

What was the basic daily intake of agriculture in 1982?

For the principal basic staples, agriculture supplies only a small proportion of needs: as statistics for 1982 show, the basic daily intake was largely covered by imports: 75% for wheat; 70% for pulses; 80% for vegetable oils; 50% for milk products and eggs; 100% for sugar.

How did the agricultural exodus 15 work?

The agricultural exodus 15 was achieved without migration or involved only short-distance migration. Relations between industrialized towns and the rural areas have restructured the regional space to favour agriculture by keeping the population on farms and increasing the incomes of peasant-worker groups.

How much did unemployment fall in the US between 1966 and 1983?

Despite the increase in the working-age population over the same period the unemployment rate had fallen from 30% to 13.4%.

How many people were employed in Algeria between 1967 and 1984?

Between 1967 and 1984, the working population increased at an annual rate of 4.3% or 1.602.000 persons. Between 1966 and 1980, according to the Ministry of Planning, some 1.5 million new jobs were created, which meant that everyone coming on to the labour market could be offered a job. Sources: Algeria.

What was the average rate of agriculture in Yugoslavia between 1950 and 1980?

In Yugoslavia, between 1950 and 1980 industry grew at an annual average rate of 8.6%; and in China. 10% for three decades. The number of non-agricultural jobs was enough to absorb virtually all the natural population growth, both urban and rural, but it did not lead to an absolute decline in the number employed in agriculture.

Do imports affect domestic prices?

Imports are not quantitatively sufficient to affect the prices of domestic products. This limited availability, or relative shortage, which often takes the form of interruptions of supply, makes it possible to market all local products at market prices, which are distinctly higher than the prices fixed by the state.

What were the effects of mechanization on agriculture?

One consequence of mechanization and other agricultural advances was that farms grew larger. Agriculture became a business and favored the formation of estates. By 1815, the majority of farms in Britain were owned by a minority of landowners (often absentee) who saw their holdings as financial properties, largely independent of tradition and community values. They invested in more agricultural innovations, changing agriculture even more. Larger farms were more profitable, and led to the dominance of plantation farming, which continues to this day with agribusiness. (The value of U.S. agricultural exports in 1999 exceeded $50 billion.)

How did agriculture change in the 1700s?

Agricultural technology changed more dramatically in the 1700s than at any time since the introduction of draft animals millennia before. Mechanized planting and threshing made farms more efficient, threw workers off the farm, and altered the very shape of the countryside. Scientific approaches were applied to agriculture, and books helped spread new ideas and approaches. At the end of the century, cotton became a force for change: Whitney’s gin made cotton profitable for the first time in the American South and helped support the continuation of slavery. Off the farm cotton mills led the way in industrialization. Farm mechanization made food supplies more stable and more plentiful, supporting a surge in population and leading to unprecedented growth in cities.

What were the three inventions that led to the Industrial Revolution?

In the eighteenth century, the world witnessed a revolution in agriculture led by three inventions—the seed drill, the threshing machine, and the cotton gin. Complementing these new tools were new ideas, set forth in books. The agricultural revolution paved the way for the Industrial Revolution, both by showing how the new ideas of science could be put to practical use and by freeing the manpower needed for factories.

When did industrialization begin?

Industrialization took on a variety of forms throughout the United States in the second half of the nineteenth century. While factories and cities developed early in the nineteenth century in the Northeast, rural life and farming remained the rule in most of the rest of the country. In the years after 1865, though, …

How did the spread of U.S. industrialization to the West affect the Plains Indian culture?

The spread of U.S. industrialization to the West affected the Plains Indian culture in many ways, one of which was the extermination of the buffalo. In the early nineteenth century, between 50 million and 70 million buffalo, more technically known as the North American bison, roamed the Great Plains.

How many cattle were shipped to Abilene in 1871?

In 1871 an estimated 700,000 cattle made the trip to Abilene. Mature animals were shipped eastward for slaughter and processing. Younger stock and breeding cattle were driven farther north and west into the grasslands of the Dakotas, Montana, and Wyoming to increase the size of the herds available for market.

What was the trade in the early pre-railroads?

The grain trade. In the earlier, pre-railroad economic system, the local storekeeper of a given region had been the farmers’ key trading partner, receiving produce from them in exchange for food, seed, and manufactured goods such as clothing, farming tools, and medicines.

How did new technology help farmers?

New methods of transportation allowed more products to be grown, and new technology for farming and processing foods made it possible for farmers to grow more food. Unfortunately, it would be decades before the country’s economic and political systems would adapt to the new capacity of its farms.

What was the lack of transportation in the Appalachian Mountains?

Before the 1850s, the lack of transportation in all areas west of the Appalachian Mountains made it nearly impossible for farmers and ranchers to sell large quantities of their products. This is illustrated in an 1852 U.S. Senate report showing that a farmer using wagons on existing dirt roads to ship his crop to a market 330 miles away was likely to spend the entire value of his crop on the cost of transporting it. Transporting by railroad reduced the cost by an estimated 90 percent.

When did grain flow through the Great Lakes?

By 1854 more grain was moving along the Great Lakes than through the major port city of New Orleans. By the early 1860s , grain flowed through the rising cities of the Midwest in railroad cars carrying 325 bushels each.

How did new technologies and practices affect agriculture?

New technologies and practices increased agriculture production and also reduced the need for farm workers. New laws (in England at least) changed the way that land was distributed among the population. The farmers who ended up with a larger amount of land ended up being more helpful in bringing “modern” practices.

What were the inventions that were made to help agriculture?

New inventions were made to help agriculture, which decreased the need for human labor and increase the number of people who could work in factories: Chemical fertilizers were made that helped the land’s fertility. Iron and steel was used as tools. Mechanical seed drills were used.

Why did farmers use animal manure?

The practice of using animal manure to fertile fields and using crop rotation methods because common. Farmers found that by changing which crops were grown yearly, the soil could faster recover its fertility. New drainage techniques allowed for swamps and marshes to be used for production as well.

What percentage of people were farmers in the 1800s?

Prior to the Industrial Revolution, most people were peasant farmers. By 1800, thirty-six percent was involved in agriculture, and by 1900 the number was less than seven percent. While England experienced this issue the most, other nations found a similar pattern to be true.

Who found the most trouble with providing food for its growing cities?

Many people had moved from farms to the city to seek work in the factories. This yielded in a smaller percentage of the population left that had to provide for the entire rest of the areas with the foods (vegetables, meats). England found the most trouble with providing food for its growing cities.

Why is industrial agriculture important?

The crops grown using industrial agriculture is meant to feed the masses and ensure food security across the world. The use of chemicals, mechanized tools, and other advanced technology are some of the reasons why industrial agriculture is able to produce massive quantities of food from farms.

What is industrial agriculture?

In this type of agriculture, the focus is mainly on maximizing the yield of fewer types of crops for more sales and greater profits, instead of diversification of the crops. The crops grown using industrial agriculture is meant to feed the masses and ensure food security across the world.

Why are large industrial farms better suited than traditional small to medium farms?

Large industrial farms are better suited than traditional small to medium farms for mechanized agriculture practices, which directly results in higher yields of crops, which has been the basic driving purpose of the industrialization efforts since the 1950s, to ensure food security of a rapidly growing global population.

Why are modern farms so dependent on technology?

This means that there is always a need for better and more efficient technology in these farms, which in turn creates higher demand from scientists and engineers to innovate, thus keeping the benchmark of development and innovation high at all times.




  • Specialization aims to increase efficiency by narrowing the range of tasks and roles involved in production. A diversified farmer, for example, might need to manage and care for many different vegetable crops, a composting operation, a flock of egg-laying hens, a sow, and her litter of piglets. Specialized farmers, by contrast, can focus all their knowledge, skills, and equipment on …

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  • Like work on an assembly line, specialized labor often involves repetitive tasks that can be performed by machines. This meant routine jobs like sowing seeds, harvesting crops, milking cows, and feeding and slaughtering animals could be mechanized, reducing (and in some cases eliminating) the need for human and animal labor. Between 1900 and 2000, the share of the U.S…

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Chemical and Pharmaceutical Inputs

  • The early 1900s saw the introduction of synthetic fertilizers and chemical pesticides, innovations that have become a hallmark of industrial crop production. In just 12 years, between 1964 and 1976, synthetic and mineral fertilizer applications on U.S. crops nearly doubled, while pesticide use on major U.S. crops increased by 143 percent.10 The shi…

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  • Consolidation in agriculture is the shift toward fewer and larger farms, usually as a result of large farms getting larger and smaller farms going out of business. In the late 1950s, U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Ezra Taft Benson exemplified government pressure to consolidate when he called on farmers to “get big or get out.”15 Between 1950 and 1997, the average U.S. farm more than dou…

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Market Concentration

  • Market share is the proportion of an industry’s sales earned by one company. In the U.S. market for salty snacks, for example, 64 percent of sales are earned by PepsiCo.19 When a small number of companies have a large market share of an industry, the market for that industry is said to be concentrated. Markets become more concentrated when companies take over, or merge with, th…

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  • The following list of suggested resources is intended as a starting point for further exploration, and is not in any way comprehensive. Some materials may not reflect the views of the Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future.

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  • 1. Ikerd JE. Sustaining the profitability of agriculture. In: Economist’s Role in the Agricultural Sustainability Paradigm. San Antonio, TX: University of Missouri; 1996. 2. MacDonald J, Korb P, Hoppe R. Farm Size and the Organization of U.S. Crop Farming. 2013. 3. Rifkin J. Beyond Beef: The Rise and Fall of the Cattle Culture. New York, New York: Plume; 1993. 4. Ikerd JE. Sustainin…

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