- 1 How did the development of Agriculture change the social structure?
- 2 How are agricultural systems influenced by the prevailing social and political environments?
- 3 What are the characteristics of early agricultural societies?
- 4 What is the difference between horticultural and agricultural societies?
- 5 How did agriculture affect social organization in Europe?
- 6 What is the social practices of agricultural societies?
- 7 What is the structure of agricultural society?
- 8 What are the major political development of the early civilization?
- 9 Answer
- 10 New questions in History
- 11 How has agriculture changed over the past century?
- 12 What is agricultural system?
- 13 Why are rural development programs important?
- 14 How does the Farm Bill affect crop diversification?
- 15 How does fuel cost affect agriculture?
- 16 How were panelists selected?
- 17 What are the factors that influence food consumption?
- 18 Answers
- 19 Another question on History
- 20 Why did people start farming?
- 21 What was the farming revolution?
- 22 What is the meaning of “agriculture”?
- 23 What mutation occurred during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe?
- 24 Where did goats come from?
- 25 When was rice first grown?
- 26 When did rice and millet farming start?
- 27 How has agriculture been influenced by the world?
- 28 How did World War II affect agriculture?
- 29 Did the Indian subcontinent have such great concentrations of population before that date?
- 30 How did the United States help Europe?
- 31 What is the difference between the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration and the Food and Agriculture Organization?
- 32 What countries cooperated in a combined food board to allocate available supplies?
- 33 Do Indians still get their livelihood from agriculture?
- 34 How did agriculture affect society?
- 35 Why did the agricultural revolution develop into advanced civilizations?
- 36 What are the characteristics of a complex society?
- 37 What are the variables that are at play in the history of the world?
- 38 What was the effect of farming on the world population?
- 39 What were the most productive things in villages?
- 40 What kinds of social changes resulted from this transformation of food production?
- 41 Where did early agricultural societies develop?
- 42 What was the agricultural produce of the Temple?
- 43 How were oxen and onagers drawn?
- 44 Where was the first civilization?
- 45 When were agricultural societies invented?
- 46 Which countries were agricultural societies?
- 47 Why are pastoral societies so large?
- 48 What is the effect of wealth on horticultural societies?
- 49 What is the difference between pastoral and horticultural societies?
- 50 Why are horticultural societies important?
- 51 How did pastoral societies develop?
The growth of agriculture resulted in intensification, which had important consequences for social organization. Larger groups gave rise to new challenges and required more sophisticated systems of social administration. Complex societies took the forms of larger agricultural villages, cities, city-states, and states, which shared many features.
· nalleitenw. Politics brought a different view of societies, which began to organize themselves differently according to political norms and the people who commended them. This has also changed the way societies developed, according to political interests and policies, societies were able to evolve quickly and.
· As society changes with time, influences on agricultural systems also change. Therefore, any assessment of the social and political drivers affecting agricultural systems is time-specific, and should be seen in light of changes that have occurred. Many of these changes can be tied to demographic trends.
What are the characteristics of early agricultural societies?
· How did political structures evolve as agricultural societies developed? Villagers had no strong leaders because they moved around so often. Villagers elected leaders who made rules only about natural resources. Villagers followed leaders who helped organize trade and establish borders.
What is the difference between horticultural and agricultural societies?
· Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the “Neolithic Revolution.” Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution , were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements and a reliable food supply.
The growth of agriculture resulted in intensification, which had important consequences for social organization. Larger groups gave rise to new challenges and required more sophisticated systems of social administration.
An agricultural society, also known as an agrarian society, is a society that constructs social order around a reliance upon farming. More than half the people living in that society make their living by farming.
What is the structure of agricultural society?
Another way to define an agrarian society is by seeing how much of a nation’s total production is in agriculture. In an agrarian society, cultivating the land is the primary source of wealth. Such a society may acknowledge other means of livelihood and work habits but stresses the importance of agriculture and farming.
What are the major political development of the early civilization?
The first civilizations appeared in locations where the geography was favorable to intensive agriculture. Governments and states emerged as rulers gained control over larger areas and more resources, often using writing and religion to maintain social hierarchies and consolidate power over larger areas and populations.
Politics brought a different view of societies, which began to organize themselves differently according to political norms and the people who commended them.
New questions in History
Which of the following explains how Robespierre challenged the ideas of the Enlightenment? A. He crowned himself Emperor of France. B. He limited the …
How has agriculture changed over the past century?
Over the past century, the structure of agriculture has changed dramatically. In 1900, half of US agricultural sales were accounted for by the largest 17% of farms, compared to the largest 2% of farms in 1997Reference Hoppe and Wiebe12. In addition, farms have become more specialized. In 1900, the average farm produced five different commodities, while by 2002, the number of commodities produced per farm was just over oneReference Dimitri, Effland and Conklin8. Drastic changes have also occurred beyond the farm level. There has been a general trend of consolidation within the agricultural input, processing and retail markets. In 1998, the top four firms marketed 67% of corn seed, 46% of soybean seed and over 97% of cotton seed in the United StatesReference Kalaitzandonakes, Hayenga and Lesser13. In specific processing industries, the top four firms marketed 90% of malt beverages in 1992 and 83% of beef packing in 2004Reference Hendrickson and Heffernan14. By 2004, the top five food retailers accounted for 46% of retail food sales in the USReference Hendrickson and Heffernan14.
What is agricultural system?
Agricultural systems are situated within social and political environments that have tremendous influence on how they operate. If agricultural systems are to be sustainable, it is critical to understand how they are influenced by social and political factors. An expert panel approach was used to identify and rank the importance …
Why are rural development programs important?
Although rural development programs were near the bottom of the rankings for political factors, one panelist indicated that these may become more important in the future as the non-farm rural population increases, and their political power increases relative to the farm population. This panelist indicated that the needs of limited-resource farmers and the rural poor were areas needing a renewed research focus.
How does the Farm Bill affect crop diversification?
This panelist lamented that Farm Bill commodity programs discount the value of alternative risk management methods, such as diversification into other crops. This is supported by recent research findings indicating that the value of crop diversification as a risk management tool is reduced when farmers can utilize commodity programs and crop insuranceReference Archer, Pikul, Riedell, Hanson and Krupinsky52. The panelist indicated that this was an area needing further research. Several panelists indicated that commodity program payments may decrease in the future due to federal budget constraints and international trade pressures, but one panelist was skeptical that budget constraints would lower commodity payments because ‘the constraints are always balanced by well-entrenched vested interests’.
How does fuel cost affect agriculture?
The driver might also provide support for the rebuilding of value-added enterprises in areas where they have been lost’. Another panelist stated that rising fuel cost would lead agricultural production to rely more on biological synergies rather than energy inputs and increase the movement towards use of agricultural products for energy production.
How were panelists selected?
Panelists were selected in a two-stage process, first by compiling a list of recognized experts, then selecting a diverse subset of the qualified experts. For this analysis, the research project team decided to focus on academic experts within the agricultural social science field. It was recognized that other stakeholders such as farmers, industry representatives, consumers and members of environmental organizations would also be capable of assessing these factors. However, similar to Van Calker et al.Reference Van Calker, Berentsen, Giesen and Huirne27, the decision was made, based on the judgment of the research team, that academicians would have the expertise needed to identify the most important social and political factors influencing agricultural systems. Since this group is well known for participatory research where they constantly interact with other stakeholder groups, it was expected that the views of these other stakeholder groups would be represented. The initial list of 30 recognized academic experts was compiled from the recommendations of the research project team, based on discussion of their stature and competence related to the social and political aspects of agricultural systems. A diverse subset of the recognized experts was then selectively extracted to represent a broad range of areas of expertise, scientific institutions and geographic experience. Again, this followed closely the Van Calker et al.Reference Van Calker, Berentsen, Giesen and Huirne27process in which competence was the main selection criterion for the experts, and panelists were selected from a range of scientific institutions. A panel size of nine was selected to provide a sufficient range of expertise, while keeping data collection and analysis manageable, and allowing a greater breadth of information to be collected from each panelist versus collecting a more superficial level of information from a larger group of panelists. A key objective of this project was to go beyond compiling a list of important factors and to gather insights into the mechanisms by which these factors might influence agricultural systems. The research team recognized that the small panel size might have reduced the validity of the ranking results; however, it was deemed that the more detailed insights gathered in this manner would be more valuable to social scientists, policymakers and others. This panel size was comparable to the 7–10 panelists used by Van Calker et al.Reference Van Calker, Berentsen, Giesen and Huirne27. The panel was selected to include three rural sociologists, three agricultural economists, and three other agricultural and food systems experts.
What are the factors that influence food consumption?
These changes are anticipated to lead to increased demand for higher food quality, convenience and varietyReference Blisard, Lin, Cromartie and Ballenger21. Although the US median household income has generally increased since 1967Reference DeNavas-Walt, Cleveland and Webster22, inequalities in incomes have also increased since that timeReference Jones and Weinberg23. Diverging income levels between individuals within the US and between the US and other countries lead to differing social expectations for agricultural systems. A common perception is that affluent individuals have greater expectations for convenience and variety of foods, for scenic landscapes, for a clean and healthy environment, and for recreational opportunities to be provided by agricultural systemsReference Freshwater24,Reference Schweikhardt and Browne25. While limited-resource individuals may have these same desires, economic forces often mean they struggle to obtain enough calories, let alone nutritious foods and a safe environment.
Hi! I am not to sure what the answer is, But A think its D) Villagers continued following traditional clan leaders who made all the decisions.
Another question on History
Which of the following statements best describes the spread of communism in the years immediately following world war ii? a. the number of communist countries increased during these years. b. the number of communist countries decreased during these years. c. the number of communist countries stayed the same during these years. d.
Why did people start farming?
In the Near East, for example, it’s thought that climatic changes at the end of the last ice age brought seasonal conditions that favored annual plants like wild cereals. Elsewhere, such as in East Asia, increased pressure on natural food resources may have forced people to find homegrown solutions. But whatever the reasons for its independent origins, farming sowed the seeds for the modern age.
What was the farming revolution?
Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the ” Neolithic Revolution.”. Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements …
What is the meaning of “agriculture”?
agriculture. Noun. the art and science of cultivating land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching). annual plant. Noun. plant with a life cycle of no more than one year, and often much less. barley. Noun. grass cultivated as a grain.
What mutation occurred during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe?
But at some point during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe, a mutation occurred for lactose tolerance that increased in frequency through natural selection thanks to the nourishing benefits of milk.
Where did goats come from?
Cattle, goats, sheep and pigs all have their origins as farmed animals in the so-called Fertile Crescent, a region covering eastern Turkey, Iraq and southwestern Iran. This region kick-started the Neolithic Revolution. Dates for the domestication of these animals range from between 13,000 to 10,000 years ago.
When was rice first grown?
The origins of rice and millet farming date to around 6,000 B.C.E. The world’s oldest known rice paddy fields, discovered in eastern China in 2007, reveal evidence of ancient cultivation techniques such as flood and fire control.
When did rice and millet farming start?
The origins of rice and millet farming date to around 6,000 B.C.E.
How has agriculture been influenced by the world?
Agriculture has always been influenced by the actions of governments around the world. Never has this been more evident than during the first half of the 20th century, when two major wars profoundly disrupted food production. In response to the tumultuous economic climate, European countries implemented tariffs and other measures to protect local agriculture. Such initiatives had global ramifications, and by the mid-20th century various international organizations had been established to monitor and promote agricultural development and the well-being of rural societies.
How did World War II affect agriculture?
Just as World War I significantly lowered food production in Europe, so too did World War II. Agricultural production declined in most of the European countries; shipping became difficult; and trade channels shifted. In contrast, agriculture in the United States, undisturbed by military action and with assurance of full demand and relatively high prices, increased productivity. The United States, Great Britain, and Canada cooperated in a combined food board to allocate available supplies. The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) was organized in 1943 to administer postwar relief, while the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations was established in 1945 to provide education and technical assistance for agricultural development throughout the world.
Did the Indian subcontinent have such great concentrations of population before that date?
It is certain that such great concentrations of population had never been seen in the Indian subcontinent before that date. Clearly the exploitation of the Indus River floodplains and the use of the plow attested in Early Harappan times by finds…
How did the United States help Europe?
Through postwar assistance given primarily by the United States and the United Nations, recovery in Europe was rapid. Western Europe was greatly helped from 1948 on by U.S. aid under the Marshall Plan, administered through the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC). In September 1961 this organization was replaced by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), which subsequently pursued agricultural programs that dealt, for example, with economic policies, standardization, and development. The eventual expansion of the OECD’s membership to a number of non-European countries underscores the manner in which, in the decades after World War II, the story of agriculture’s relationship to politics and economics became a truly global one.
What is the difference between the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration and the Food and Agriculture Organization?
The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) was organized in 1943 to administer postwar relief, while the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations was established in 1945 to provide education and technical assistance for agricultural development throughout the world.
What countries cooperated in a combined food board to allocate available supplies?
The United States, Great Britain, and Canada cooperated in a combined food board to allocate available supplies.
Do Indians still get their livelihood from agriculture?
Roughly half of all Indians still derive their livelihood directly from agriculture. That proportion only relatively recently has been declining from levels that were fairly consistent throughout the 20th century. The area cultivated, however, has risen steadily and has come to encompass considerably more…
How did agriculture affect society?
The growth of agriculture resulted in intensification , which had important consequences for social organization. Larger groups gave rise to new challenges and required more sophisticated systems of social administration. Complex societies took the forms of larger agricultural villages, cities, city-states, and states, which shared many features.
Why did the agricultural revolution develop into advanced civilizations?
While the agricultural revolution certainly had something to do with the development of increasingly complex societies, there is considerable debate about why some agricultural societies ultimately developed into advanced civilizations while others did not. Indeed, in some cases, it seems like complex political orders were the cause rather than the consequence of the development of agricultural systems. Historians and anthropologists are still trying to understand what other variables were at play, such as large-scale irrigation projects, warfare, trade, geography, and competition. Each society grew more complex in response to its own set of environmental, social, and political stimuli.
What are the characteristics of a complex society?
These large concentrations of people are referred to as complex societies or civilizations, which share many features, including having a dense population, an agriculture-based economy, a social hierarchy, a division of labor and specialization, a centralized government, monuments, record-keeping and writing, and complex systems of belief.
What are the variables that are at play in the history of the world?
Historians and anthropologists are still trying to understand what other variables were at play, such as large-scale irrigation projects, warfare, trade, geography, and competition. Each society grew more complex in response to its own set of environmental, social, and political stimuli.
What was the effect of farming on the world population?
As a result, the world population rapidly rose.
What were the most productive things in villages?
Villages were more productive not only agriculturally but creatively. People produced textiles, pottery, buildings, tools, metal work, sculptures, and painting, which were both directly tied to agriculture and to settlement in bigger villages. A piece of pottery with a geometric design.
What kinds of social changes resulted from this transformation of food production? The surplus food that agricultural systems could generate allowed for people to live in larger, more permanent villages. Villages were more productive not only agriculturally but creatively. People produced textiles, pottery, buildings, tools, metal work, sculptures, and painting, which were both directly tied to agriculture and to settlement in bigger villages .
Where did early agricultural societies develop?
In the Old World, settled life developed on the higher ground from Iran to Anatolia and the Levant and in China in the semiarid loess plains and the humid Yangtze valley.
What was the agricultural produce of the Temple?
Agricultural produce was allocated to temple personnel in return for their services, to important people in the community, and to small farmers. The land was cultivated by teams of oxen pulling light unwheeled plows, and the grain was harvested with sickles in the spring.
How were oxen and onagers drawn?
They were drawn by oxen or onagers (wild asses) that were harnessed by collars, yokes, and headstalls and controlled by reins and a ring through the nose or upper lip and a strap under the jaw. As many as four animals, harnessed abreast to a central pole, pulled a wagon.
Where was the first civilization?
Sumer, located in the southernmost part of Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, was the home of one of the world’s first civilizations. Sumer’s Early Dynastic Phase began about 5000 bp, a century or so after the development of a nuanced writing system based on the Sumerian language. Barley was the main crop, but wheat, flax ( Linum species), dates ( Phoenix species), apples ( Malus species), plums ( Prunus species), and grapes ( Vitaceae species) were also grown. This was the period during which the earliest known evidence of carefully bred sheep and goats has been found; these animals were more numerous than cattle and were kept mainly for meat, milk, butter, and cheese. It has been estimated that at Ur, a large town covering some 50 acres (20 hectares) within a cultivated enclave, there were 10,000 animals confined in sheepfolds and stables, of which 3,000 were slaughtered each year. Ur’s population of about 6,000 people included a labour force of 2,500 who annually cultivated 3,000 acres of land (some 1,200 hectares ), leaving an equal amount of land fallow. The workforce included storehouse recorders, work foremen, overseers, and harvest supervisors, as well as labourers. Agricultural produce was allocated to temple personnel in return for their services, to important people in the community, and to small farmers.
When were agricultural societies invented?
Agricultural Societies. Agricultural societies developed some 5,000 years ago in the Middle E ast, thanks to the invention of the plow. When pulled by oxen and other large animals, the plow allowed for much more cultivation of crops than the simple tools of horticultural societies permitted.
Which countries were agricultural societies?
The development of agricultural societies thus marked a watershed in the development of human society. Ancient Egypt, China, Greece, and Rome were all agricultural societies, and India and many other large nations today remain primarily agricultural.
Why are pastoral societies so large?
First, because they produce so much more food than horticultural and pastoral societies, they often become quite large, with their numbers sometimes reaching into the millions. Second, their huge food surpluses lead to extensive trade, both within the society itself and with other societies.
What is the effect of wealth on horticultural societies?
In horticultural societies, wealth stems from the amount of land a family owns, and families with more land are wealthier and more powerful. One other side effect of the greater wealth of horticultural and pastoral societies is greater conflict.
What is the difference between pastoral and horticultural societies?
Accompanying the greater complexity and wealth of horticultural and pastoral societies is greater inequality in terms of gender and wealth than is found in hunting-and-gathering societies. In pastoral societies, wealth stems from the number of animals a family owns, and families with more animals are wealthier and more powerful than families with fewer animals. In horticultural societies, wealth stems from the amount of land a family owns, and families with more land are wealthier and more powerful.
Why are horticultural societies important?
Horticultural societies often produce an excess of food that allows them to trade with other societies and also to have more members than hunting-and-gathering societies.
How did pastoral societies develop?
In horticultural societies, people use hoes and other simple hand tools to raise crops. In pastoral societies, people raise and herd sheep, goats, camels, and other domesticated animals and use them as their major source of food and also, depending on the animal, as a means of transportation. Some societies are either primarily horticultural or pastoral, while other societies combine both forms. Pastoral societies tend to be at least somewhat nomadic, as they often have to move to find better grazing land for their animals. Horticultural societies, on the other hand, tend to be less nomadic, as they are able to keep growing their crops in the same location for some time. Both types of societies often manage to produce a surplus of food from vegetable or animal sources, respectively, and this surplus allows them to trade their extra food with other societies. It also allows them to have a larger population size than hunting-and-gathering societies that often reaches several hundred members.