The main role of science in agriculture has been to help us generate novelties that allow us to produce more with less land and less effort. Results have been spectacular. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research ( CGIAR ), a grouping of 16 international agricultural research institutes, is best known for starting the Green Revolution of rice and wheat in Asia.
What do researchers do in agriculture?
Researchers look for ways to increase farmers’ profits and to protect the environ- ment. Animal immunization, artificial insemination, biological control of pests, embryo transfer, genetic engineering, hydroponics, and tissue culture are just a few areas of agricultural research.
How did the United States get involved in Agricultural Research?
Starting in the 1940s, the United States became involved in funding international agricultural research centers through the Rockefeller Foundation, the Ford Foundation, and later the US Agency for International Development (USAID).
What is the role of Science in sustainable agriculture?
The role of science in sustainable agriculture. If these novelties work well then others adopt them and they spread. Agricultural change is built up of many replications of this novelty generation, selection and diffusion process, just as we’ve evolved through countless natural selection iterations.
How can Agricultural Research and testing improve the standard of living?
Through the help of agricultural research and continued testing, the standard of living we enjoy today can be expected to improve. Animal immunization—Historically, diseases have been devastating to livestock pro- duction enterprises. The introduction of vaccines and medicines has improved the health of livestock.
Why is scientific research important in agriculture?
The primary role of agricultural research is to heighten knowledge and improve technology. It heightens understanding of the interactions and interdependence between production systems and farming communities.
How did the science of agriculture help develop civilization?
When early humans began farming, they were able to produce enough food that they no longer had to migrate to their food source. This meant they could build permanent structures, and develop villages, towns, and eventually even cities. Closely connected to the rise of settled societies was an increase in population.
What is the big impact of science in agriculture?
Science made agriculture a business, not a relatively low-paying way of life. Science saved the American farmer from agrarian peasantry, and gave his children the opportunity of higher education and so the right and freedom to compete in any occupation.
Which is the best possible explanation for the development of agriculture?
Which is the best possible explanation for the development of agriculture? A combination of environmental and cultural factors supported plant cultivation. Which of the following would NOT be a successful strategy for a commercial farmer in a developed country?
How was the discovery of agriculture useful for early humans?
The discovery of agriculture useful for early humans because it allowed them to rely on staple food. Explanation: The discovery of agriculture allowed early people to stay in one place. People for the first time were settling in one place rather than engaging in the lifestyle of hunting and gathering.
What is the impact of science and technology on agriculture?
Importance of Agricultural Technology Higher crop productivity. Decreased use of water, fertilizer, and pesticides, which in turn keeps food prices down. Reduced impact on natural ecosystems. Less runoff of chemicals into rivers and groundwater.
How information technology helps the agriculture?
Some of the roles of Information technology in the agricultural sector include : Improved productivity. Farmers need information on latest varieties, changing weather patterns, crop production techniques and improved agronomic practices for them to produce.
How does science and technology contribute to development?
Science and technology (S&T) capabilities are fundamental for social and economic progress in developing countries; for example, in the health sector, scientific research led to the development and introduction of oral rehydration therapy, which became the cornerstone of international efforts to control diarrheal …
How does international collaboration help in agriculture?
During the past five decades international collaboration under the leadership of the international agricultural research and development organizations (CGIAR centers, FAO and other UN agencies) have played a pivotal role in the development and dissemination of agricultural technologies around the world, especially in developing countries. Bilateral collaboration between advanced countries and developing countries has also been more effective in the development of agricultural research, training, and extension activities in several countries with technical support of CGIAR Centers and policy support of national governments. With future challenges of increasing demand for agricultural products on a sustainable and environment-friendly basis with decreasing agricultural land and water resources, it is important to recognize that intricacies of agricultural research, training, and extension are also increasing. There is a great need to equip young researchers with cutting-edge technologies. In order to meet this challenge, international collaboration can also be utilized as much as possible in strengthening public-private sector partnership for the required effective agricultural research, training, extension, and policy support systems. Some countries, notably China, have taken it seriously and deployed policy tools to provide fully funded scholarships to talented youth to obtain the necessary research experience abroad in advanced countries and CGIAR Centers and also ensuring that they return and contribute towards nation building. Such programs have a great potential in countries like India, which possess a big resource of ambitious youth. The government of India has initiated some brain-gain programs aimed at attracting non-resident Indian scientists already trained in advanced countries. However, there is still a great scope to assist young scientists in attaining appropriate training abroad to further strengthen the science and technology sectors.
What is South-South cooperation?
South–South cooperation is particularly active in agricultural research and development, led by a commitment to solidarity and an interest in “mutual benefits,” and based on the premise of similarity of contexts (Shankland and Gonçalves, 2016 ). China has established over 40 agricultural demonstration centers in African countries ( Amanor, 2016) that drive programs aimed at increasing yields and training African farmers in new low-cost techniques, particularly for rice and vegetable cultivation ( Amanor and Chichava, 2016 ). China’s support to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) program on South–South cooperation provides additional opportunities.
What are the research centers in the Philippines?
Under the Philippine Department of Agriculture (DA), there is a national rice research center (PhilRice in Muñoz, Luzon, www.philrice.gov.ph ), addressing both research and technology dissemination, and the Bureaus of Plant Industry, Soil and Water Management ( www.bswm.gov.ph ), and Postharvest Research and Extension (which includes an emphasis on grain storage research). The Food and Nutrition Research Institute ( www.fnri.dost.ph) and the research planning and funding body, the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development ( www.pcaarrd.dost.gov.ph ), sit under the Department of Science and Technology. There are also Regional Integrated Agricultural Research Centers – there is one organization in each of the 15 regions, but some have 2–3 research stations and several focus on grain crops. The universities have a far greater share of research capacity than DA. The strongest university in agriculture including grains research is the University of Philippines at Los Baños, which has specialized institutes of plant breeding and of farming systems research. These include Benguet State University, Central Luzon State University, Visayas State University College of Agriculture, Don Mariano Marcos State University, Central Mindanao University, and the University of Southern Mindanao. There are also several others with some strengths in agriculture (Mindanao State University, Bicol University, and Central Visayas State College). Some of the universities have regional research and development centers and also have quite good extension/outreach systems. While significant private sector research enterprises are present in horticulture, grains research remains in the public domain.
How does agri food change?
As agri-food systems transform, the main actors and their relative roles also change. Generally, in low-income countries, public research and extension dominate and investments are often limited to a few agricultural commodities. Private actors play a greater role as the value of agri-food systems moves off the farm, and food supply chains get longer and consolidate to benefit from economies of scale. With the increasing numbers of empowered middle-class consumers, agri-food systems are increasingly shaped by consumer demand for more varied, higher-quality, and safer foods.
What is STB in agriculture?
The “Science and Technology Backyard” (STB) approach, established by professors and students of China Agricultural University, in collaboration with local partners ( Zhang et al., 2016 ), is an innovative model that not only illustrates, but also implements, how to effectively disseminate technical know-how to smallholder farmers at a large scale. The university professors and students live in villages among farmers to carry out participatory innovation and technology transfer. Outreach and scaling up were achieved through training of the leading farmers. Thus, the STB connects the scientific community with the local farming community and has helped smallholder farmers to successfully close the yield gap of wheat crops by 30%, with a yield increase from 67.9% of the attainable yield to 97.0%.
What is agricultural R&D?
Agricultural R&D is a crucial determinant of agricultural productivity and production and therefore food prices and poverty. In this article, the authors present new evidence on investments in public agricultural R&D worldwide as an indicator of the prospects for agricultural productivity growth over the coming decades.
What are the challenges of CGIAR?
Many smaller lower-income countries in Africa have limited national agricultural research capacity and can benefit from regional and international support. Low-income countries that have graduated to lower-middle and middle-income status, such as Ghana, Nigeria, and Kenya, confront new challenges associated with their agri-food system transformation, such as making agricultural growth inclusive, employing young people, increasing incidences of obesity and associated non-communicable diseases, and growing concerns of food quality and safety in more complex food supply chains.
What has IITA learned?
What IITA has learned is that science has a role not only in developing novelties but also in understanding selection and diffusion mechanisms, as well as in likely consequences of technology change. IITA has also learned that it is not sufficient to simply gain this knowledge to have an impact; it must also be put to use. This means working together with resource managers and policy makers so that they contribute to the findings, have ownership of them, and are thus more likely to use them.
Why did farmers not know the consequences of the novelties?
Farmers did not know the consequences because they were used to operating on the scale of their own fields, not to thinking about what might happen over millions of hectares. And the research and extension systems that were encouraging them to adopt did not know the consequences either. This has been a salutary lesson to the CGIAR: reductionist science that isolates problems and ignores contexts and scale issues can come horribly unstuck even in relatively simple ecosystems. It does not necessarily produce sustainable solutions.
What is the role of science in agriculture?
The main role of science in agriculture has been to help us generate novelties that allow us to produce more with less land and less effort. Results have been spectacular. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research ( CGIAR ), a grouping of 16 international agricultural research institutes, is best known for starting the Green Revolution of rice and wheat in Asia. In the thirty years from 1971 to 2000 the improved crop varieties produced by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center ( CIMMYT) have helped raise average rice and wheat yields by 2.3 and 1.65 times respectively, helping to feed an Asian population that grew by almost 70% in the same period.
What were the problems of the Green Revolution?
However, problems emerged when millions of rice farmers all moved from growing a number of their traditional varieties to just one or two genetically homogenous varieties. Some of the resistance that the breeders had given the improved varieties against pests and diseases broke down within 3 to 5 years leading to huge crop losses. In Indonesia, for example, a fifth of farmers lost their entire crop to brown plant hoppers in 1985 and 1986. Farmers in Thailand and the Philippines suffered a similar fate.
Why do we need to meet the Ecochallenge?
To meet the ecochallenge science needs to help contribute to a framework that guides our selection decisions so that we don’t all grow one rice variety or cut down the rainforest with devastating consequences for human development and the welfare of all species.
What is biotechnology?
Biotechnology is a suit of tools that allows plant breeders to introduce a greater array of novelty into their plant varieties, and select which work, much faster than they could using conventional plant breeding techniques. There is nothing inherently evil or Frankenstein-like about genetically modified plants.
Why are humans a force of nature?
The report, prepared by the United Nations, the World Bank and the World Resources Institute, shows that humans have become a major force of nature, largely because of the success of science-based technologies in extracting the earth’s resources without proper concern for the environmental consequences. Science, though, has a crucial role …
Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, Volume 2
Philip G. Pardey, … Vernon W. Ruttan, in Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, 2010
A Glimpse Ahead
Robert L. Zimdahl, in Agriculture’s Ethical Horizon (Second Edition), 2012
Agricultural R&D Policy and Long-Run Food Security
Julian M. Alston, … Philip G. Pardey, in Sustainable Economic Development, 2015
The growing role of the private sector in agricultural research and development world-wide
Raising investment in agricultural research and development (R&D) to raise productivity of the world’s farms, especially in developing countries, is thought to be essential for long-term global food security (Alston et al., 2009; Lobell et al., 2013 ).
How comparable are cross-country data on agricultural public expenditures?
Fig. 1 gives an overview of the basic elements of the scope of the data initiatives (alternately referred to as datasets, although several contain more than data). Placement in axes-space indicates the number of countries and years covered by the publicly available data in each dataset.
Food Security Governance in Latin America
Patricio Grassini, … Noemi Guindin-Garcia, in Global Food Security, 2017
What is the real challenge identified by PMSEIC?
But once we’ve done that, the real challenge identified by PMSEIC is getting our agricultural and food industries to adapt to this new production environment.
How can we be sustainable?
To be sustainable we need to grow our food in ways that are less resource intensive, while still satisfying the demands of an expanding global population. Again, we need to find ways to produce more, with less.
What is Australia’s aid program?
This is not just a supply and demand issue – Australia’s aid program is to be focused on health outcomes and agriculture (food security).
How many people will be in the world by 2050?
On top of these, the world’s population is predicted to increase to 9.2 billion by 2050, requiring an increase in global food production of 70 per cent .
What are Australian researchers already investigating?
Australian researchers are already investigating new ways to improve our resource management practices.
How much has the green revolution increased?
Since the introduction of the green revolution crops alone, global crop production has increased from 1.84 billion tonnes in 1960 to 4.38 billion tonnes in 2007. This is a 138% increase, stemming from only an 11% increase on the amount of agricultural land used .
What were the costs of the boom?
But with the boom came significant costs – including topsoil depletion, groundwater contamination, the decline of family farms, increasing costs of production, and in some places, the disintegration of economic and social conditions in rural communities.
How long ago was the first corn grown?
More people began to grow the mutated maize. Maize-like plants were probably grown about 9,000 years ago. The first corn was grown around 5,500 years ago .
What did maize look like?
Maize first began as a grass-like plant. At some point, the plant had a change in its genes. This made it look like the corn that we know today.
How many people are there in the world today?
The world’s population rocketed. Ten thousand years ago the world had about five million people. Today, there are more than seven billion people.
What is the meaning of “agriculture”?
agriculture. Noun. the art and science of cultivating land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching). annual plant. Noun. plant with a life cycle of no more than one year, and often much less. barley. Noun. grass cultivated as a grain.
When did corn come to America?
Corn reached North America about 5,000 years ago . This is also when potato growing started. It began in the mountains of South America. Farmed Animals. Cattle, goats, sheep, and pigs were soon farmed, too. This happened about 13,000 to 10,000 years ago. Animal farming started in the Fertile Crescent.
What is genetic mutation?
genetic mutation. Noun. change to the genetic structure of an organism. harvest. Noun. the gathering and collection of crops, including both plants and animals. hunter-gatherer. Noun. person who gets food by using a combination of hunting, fishing, and foraging.
What is the meaning of civilization?
civilization. Noun. complex way of life that developed as humans began to develop urban settlements. crop. Noun. agricultural produce. cultivate. Verb. to encourage the growth of something through work and attention.
Why are growth regulators used in lawns?
Growth regulators may also be used on golf courses and lawns to reduce the growth rate of grasses and thus cut down of the fre- quency of mowing.
How has immunization improved livestock?
Animal immunization—Historically, diseases have been devastating to livestock pro- duction enterprises. The introduction of vaccines and medicines has improved the health of livestock. Animal immunization, the process of giving animals resistance to disease through vaccination or inoculation, has reduced diseases. Animals in a disease-free envi- ronment can be raised at a much lower cost to producers, and the savings are passed on to consumers.
What is the purpose of cation of embryo transfer?
cation of embryo transfer allows the production of many offspring each year from one superior female.
How do computers help plant scientists?
In plant science, computers are used to help determine the optimal time for irrigation and the amount of water to be delivered to the crop. They are also used to determine fertility levels and to adjust application rates. Food scientists rely heavily on computers to analyze the chemistry of foods. Embryo transfer—.
What is embryo transfer?
Embryo transfer—. Whereas artificial insemina- tion capitalizes on the genetic attributes of the sire, embryo transfer focuses on the dam, or female parent. Typically, improving herds through the use of superior dams is slow because of the gestation period of the female.
Why is genetic engineering important?
tists believe that genetic engineering holds the key to greatly increasing food supplies for the world. Genetic engineering is a volatile public issue. It is likely that public debate will continue regarding genetic engineering research and application.
How do computers help in animal science?
In animal science, the selection of superior sires and dams can be made easily through computerized production records of progeny. Results of feed formulation data can be used to help determine the best mix of feed grains and sup- plements. In plant science, computers are used to help determine the optimal time for irrigation and the amount of water to be delivered to the crop. They are also used to determine fertility levels and to adjust application rates. Food scientists rely heavily on computers to analyze the chemistry of foods.
What was the Green Revolution?
Starting in the 1940s, the United States became involved in funding international agricultural research centers through the Rockefeller Foundation, the Ford Foundation, and later the US Agency for International Development (USAID). This investment in international scientific infrastructure, along with the spread of synthetic fertilizers, led to a growth in production of grains such as wheat and rice. This era was later dubbed the “Green Revolution.” Orchestrators of the Green Revolution focused on maximizing yields in targeted areas in order to increase aggregate food production. The Green Revolution also promoted commercialization of agriculture, which fit with America’s political goal of modernizing the global peasantry to promote democracy and economic growth. Production of maize, wheat, and rice increased in the areas targeted by the US-based organizations, and new “packages” of modern crop varieties, fertilizers, and irrigation were applied in geographically disparate regions, especially for wheat. Under certain conditions (typically those of larger farms), farmers increased their yields and incomes. Although the Green Revolution coincided with poverty reduction in parts of the world, a multitude of political, economic, and infrastructural changes were also occurring, and academic scholars continue to debate the extent to which agricultural innovation was responsible for reduced poverty.
Why should incentives be changed in research?
Within the international and national research systems, incentives must be changed to encourage product-development approaches to research that are place-based and participatory. If individual scientists are evaluated based primarily on the number of journal articles they produce or the rapidity with which they can develop new crop varieties, they have no incentive—in fact, given the time required, they have a fairly strong disincentive—to work in an iterative development process. Scientists should instead be given flexibility to champion promising technologies through the development process, participating in the ways that advance that process, rather than solely focusing on advancing a research agenda, with any benefit to the client a secondary concern at best. Our research in India found that scientists wanted to work more with farmers but lacked permission from their employers, resources, or incentives to do so.
Why was the Green Revolution so successful?
This was in part because research organizations directly targeted “successful” farmers to test new technologies, with the idea that best practices would trickle down to poorer farmers. But this often didn’t happen.
What is iterative process in agriculture?
Within an iterative process of product development, prototypes are tested under a variety of conditions (including by clients) and the product is altered based on the findings to better address the conditions of actual use. Users are part of the innovation process. Moreover, understanding the economic and social implications of the product’s introduction is critical to its success in solving the problem. In the linear approach to agricultural research, new technologies are usually evaluated by only a few factors—yield improvements, disease resistance, and maybe cost. But many more factors go into a client’s decision to use a technology. For example, what are the alternatives and how is this product different? Is the market for selling this product well developed? Does the product exacerbate gender inequity by differentially increasing women’s labor over men’s? These questions are made explicit through the product development process. In contrast, under the current system of research (with its focus on short-term adoption), consideration of user needs and socioeconomic factors conflicts with the researchers’ incentives.
How did the Green Revolution affect agriculture?
In the decades following the introduction of Green Revolution technologies, numerous studies made it clear that new agricultural technologies had mostly benefited wealthier farmers with large landholdings who had access to irrigation, fertilizers, and markets . But small farms were, and today remain, an important part of the food system, the economy, and the social organization of much of the world. Worldwide, 80% of farms are smaller than two hectares (five acres). In low- and lower-middle income nations, these account for up to 40% of total agricultural land; farms smaller than five hectares make up about 90% of the agricultural land. In India today, agriculture accounts for 25% of the nation’s gross domestic product and 60% of employment; in sub-Saharan Africa the numbers are higher still. And in many areas of the world, the average size of farms is actually decreasing.
Why is agriculture research a linear model?
Linear research processes are ill-suited to tackling the problems of food security and poverty reduction that are the stated justification for this billion-dollar research endeavor, but the structure and incentives of research institutions reinforce the linear model. A shift in perspective that treats agricultural technologies as products being designed for clients , instead of “best practices” determined for passive or idealized beneficiaries, would promote a more inclusive process leading to technologies better suited to address the complex socioeconomic problems at which they are aimed.
What crops were grown in the US?
Production of maize, wheat, and rice increased in the areas targeted by the US-based organizations, and new “packages” of modern crop varieties, fertilizers, and irrigation were applied in geographically disparate regions, especially for wheat.
What is the New Rivers vision?
The New Rivers vision is indeed on a mission of educational sustainability in line with goal number four of the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations (SDGS).
What should the family of the bride take cognizance of?
Family of the bride should take cognizance of the fact that their daughter deserves some comfort in her new home. It is high time the traditional institutions worked through their subjects in the various communities to create awareness on the dangers of high bride price in our society.
What is ADP in agriculture?
Lastly, the Agricultural Development programme (ADP), is research oriented. It is one of the duties to teach their staff the latest research in agriculture. These staff would pass on these to the local farmers practically, to boost food production after the floods.
Why is it important to know the bride price?
It is important because it validates marriage to give a woman respectable status in the society as a wife. The importance of bride price can never be over-emphasised.
What is crop rotation?
Culturally, crop rotation is adopted, burning remains after harvesting, regular weeding of the soil, proper spacing of crops using of high yielding and resistant varieties and practicing of irrigation during dry season are adopted. The use of chemical control is the result of research.
Why are eroplanes used?
In advanced countries and few of the developing nations a eroplanes are used for spraying particularly, when locust are seen to be devastating hundreds of hectres of farmland. Good roads that are tarred help in the evacuation of foodstuffs from the hinterland to the urban areas or others areas where they are needed.
How many birds could a lecturer own?
A lecturer in American university could, in addition to his leading job own and supervise a poultry complex of about 5,000 birds or more. In the same vein, two farmers could supply the pork needed for a town of 25,000 population. Farmer get attached to banks and get financed to large agricultural ventures.