How did the creation of collective farms affect soviet agriculture

collective farm: In the Soviet Union In the Soviet Union a policy of gradual and voluntary collectivization of agriculture was adopted in 1927 to encourage food production while freeing labor and capital for industrial development.

The Soviet leadership confidently expected that the replacement of individual peasant farms by collective ones would immediately increase the food supply for the urban population, the supply of raw materials for the processing industry, and agricultural exports via state-imposed quotas on individuals working on

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Answer

Why did the Soviet Union have so many collective farms?

These collective farms allowed for faster mechanization, and indeed, this period saw widespread use of farming machinery for the first time in many parts of the USSR, and a rapid recovery of agricultural outputs, which had been damaged by the Russian civil war.

What is collective farming and how did it start?

Collective farming was also implemented in kibbutzim in Israel, which began in 1909 as a unique combination of Zionism and socialism – known as Labor Zionism. The concept has faced occasional criticism as economically inefficient and over-reliant on subsidized credit. A lesser-known type of collective farm in Israel is moshav shitufi (lit.

Why was the Soviet agriculture so unproductive?

Despite immense land resources, extensive farm machinery and agrochemical industries, and a large rural workforce, Soviet agriculture was relatively unproductive. Output was hampered in many areas by the climate and poor worker productivity.

What was the collectivisation of Agriculture under Stalin?

Stalin’s rule saw the Collectivisation of Agriculture. This was the creation of State controlled farms. It saw mass migration and the persecution of the Kulak class. At the beginning of Stalin’s rule, Agriculture lagged behind other countries.


Did collectivisation improve Soviet agriculture?

At the same time, collectivisation brought substantial modernisation to traditional agriculture in the Soviet Union, and laid the basis for relatively high food production and consumption by the 1970s and 1980s.


Why did agricultural collective fail in the Soviet Union?

Despite immense land resources, extensive farm machinery and agrochemical industries, and a large rural workforce, Soviet agriculture was relatively unproductive. Output was hampered in many areas by the climate and poor worker productivity.


What happened to Soviet collective farms?

Russia passed laws in the 1990s aimed at dissolving the country’s 27,000 state and collective farms into shareholder societies, while additional legislation 15 years ago allowed the sale of agricultural lands for commercial purposes.


How did collectivization affect the Soviet Union?

Under collectivization the peasantry were forced to give up their individual farms and join large collective farms (kolkhozy). The process was ultimately undertaken in conjunction with the campaign to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly.


How successful was collective farming?

When peasants and kulaks resisted collective farming they were executed, shipped off to Siberia, or sent to work camps. How successful was the collective farming? Collective farming was vey successful, it produced almost twice the wheat then it had in 1928 before collective farming.


What is collective farming in the Soviet Union?

Under the Collective Farm Charter (1935), individual farmers were permitted to keep small garden plots and a few animals for domestic use, and to sell surplus production in local free markets. Collectivization in the Soviet Union was almost complete by 1938.


What are the disadvantages of collective farming?

Collective farming in and of itself is not bad….some of the disadvantages of mixed farming are listed below:decreased level of production as compared to monoculture.growth rate and optimal harvest date differ.inappropriate climatic condition.animals can be hazardous if they are not properly enclosed or tethered.More items…


What were the results of collectivization?

In many cases, the immediate effect of collectivization was the reduction of output and the cutting of the number of livestock in half. The subsequent recovery of the agricultural production was also impeded by the losses suffered by the Soviet Union during World War II and the severe drought of 1946.


When did collectivization become a large-scaled process?

Source: Arkady Shishkin/МАММ/ russiainphoto.ru. Collectivization became a large-scaled process in 1929, when Joseph Stalin’s article “The Year of the Great Break” was published.


What was the purpose of collectivization?

Source: Unknown author/The State Museum Of Political History Of Russia/ russiainphoto.ru. Collectivization entailed major reforms of the agricultural sector in the Soviet Union. Starting in 1927, collectivization was aimed at consolidating individual peasant landholdings and labor into collective farms, so called “kolkhozes.”.


What did Stalin do to modernize Russia?

Stalin confirmed the processes of collectivization and industrialization as the main means for modernizing the country. At the same time, he declared need to liquidate the class of affluent peasants known as “kulaks” (“fists” in Russian). Source: Arkady Shishkin/МАММ/ russiainphoto.ru.


How many people died in the Great Famine of 1932?

In 1932-1933, the country was struck by a great famine that killed about 8 million people, due in no small part to collectivization. Source: Arkady Shaikhet/МАММ/ russiainphoto.ru. Until the 1970s, a peasant at a kolkhoz – a so-called kolkhoznik – had no right to get a passport.


Was collectivization a doom and gloom?

Still, collectivization was not all doom and gloom. The bulk of the peasants, who didn’t suffer collectivization, moved to the towns and cities and became the drivers of the industrialization process. Source: Unknown author/S. Burasovsky’s personal archive/ russiainphoto.ru.


Why did Stalin want to have more farms?

Stalin wanted the Soviet Union to have more efficient farms. Agriculture needed to embrace modern technologies . Russia and the other Soviet states had historically produced less food than the country required. Using new farming methods and introducing a new system was needed to change this.


What was the purpose of the concept of collectivization?

With an aim of transforming agriculture so that it produced a surplus, the concept of Collectivisation was introduced. Collectivisation saw the creation of ‘collective’ farms. These, called kolkhozes, would replace smallholdings held by peasants with larger farms.


What did the Kulaks hate about Stalin?

The peasantry had several tiers of ‘class’. Some had a reasonably good lifestyle in the system that Stalin was wanting to replace. The Kulaks hated Stalin’s idea. It would deprive them of the life they were accustomed to. They would lose the benefits that they had enjoyed of being the better off farmers. On the one hand you had angry Kulaks who did not want change. On the other, Stalin who had ideological reasons for changing the workings of Agriculture and an acute need to reform the sector.


What did Stalin want from the Soviet Union?

Collectivisation of Farms under Stalin. Stalin wanted the Soviet Union to have more efficient farms. Agriculture needed to embrace modern technologies. Russia and the other Soviet states had historically produced less food than the country required. Using new farming methods and introducing a new system was needed to change this.


What happened in 1930?

This slowed down the growth of towns and caused a supply problem for the new industrial workforce. In 1930, Pravda Newspaper announced a change of policy. Collectivisation would no longer be optional. All farms would hand over their land, crops and livestock.


Did collectivisation improve Soviet agriculture?

At the same time, collectivisation brought substantial modernisation to traditional agriculture in the Soviet Union, and laid the basis for relatively high food production and consumption by the 1970s and 1980s.


Why did Stalin want Collectivise agriculture?

Stalin wanted the Soviet Union to have more efficient farms. Collectivisation saw the creation of ‘collective’ farms. These, called kolkhozes, would replace smallholdings held by peasants with larger farms. The idea here is to have large fields in which crops can be sown, grown and harvested using modern machinery.


Why did collective farming fail?

Blaming shortages on kulak sabotage, authorities favored urban areas and the army in distributing what supplies of food had been collected. The resulting loss of life is estimated as at least five million. To escape from starvation, large numbers of peasants abandoned collective farms for the cities.


How did collectivization affect peasants?

Collectivization profoundly traumatized the peasantry. The forcible confiscation of meat and bread led to mutinies among the peasants. They even preferred to slaughter their cattle than hand it over to the collective farms. Sometimes the Soviet government had to bring in the army to suppress uprisings.


Why did the kulaks resist collectivization?

Stalin and the CPSU blamed the prosperous peasants, referred to as ‘ kulaks ‘ (Russian: fist), who were organizing resistance to collectivization. Allegedly, many kulaks had been hoarding grain in order to speculate on higher prices, thereby sabotaging grain collection. Stalin resolved to eliminate them as a class.


Did the kulaks cause the famine?

The combination of the elimination of kulaks, collectivization, and other repressive policies contributed to mass starvation in many parts of Soviet Ukraine and the death of at least 7 to 10 million peasants in 1930–1937.


What was the purpose of collectivization Soviet agriculture?

Collectivization, policy adopted by the Soviet government, pursued most intensively between 1929 and 1933, to transform traditional agriculture in the Soviet Union and to reduce the economic power of the kulaks (prosperous peasants).


How did collective farming start?

Collective farming was introduced as government policy throughout Yugoslavia after World War II, by taking away land from wealthy pre-war owners and limiting possessions in private ownership first to 25, and later to 10 hectares. The large, state-owned farms were known as “Agricultural cooperatives” (“Zemljoradničke zadruge ” in Serbo-Croatian) and farmers working on them had to meet production quotas in order to satisfy the needs of the populace. This system was largely abolished in the 1950s. See: Law of 23 August 1945 with amendments until 1 December 1948.


How much of the Soviet agricultural production was private?

A Soviet article in March 1975 found that 27% of Soviet agricultural produce was produced by private farms despite the fact that they only consisted of less than 1% of arable land (approximately 20 million acres), making them roughly 40 times more efficient than collective farms.


How many cooperative farms are there in Vietnam?

Despite the reforms however, over 50% of all farms in Vietnam remain collective cooperatives (over 15,000 farming cooperatives in Vietnam), and almost all farmers being members of some kind of cooperative. The state also heavily encourages collective cooperative farming over private farming.


What happened in North Korea in the 1990s?

North Korea. Main article: Agriculture in North Korea. In the late 1990s, the collective farming system collapsed under a strain of droughts. Estimates of deaths due to starvation ranged into the millions, although the government did not allow outside observers to survey the extent of the famine.


What is the collective farm called in Germany?

Collective farms in the German Democratic Republic were typically called Landwirtschaftliche Produktionsgenossenschaft (LPG), and corresponded closely to the Soviet kolkhoz. East Germany also had a few state-owned farms which were equivalent to the Soviet sovkhoz, which were called the Volkseigenes Gut (VEG).


What is a small group of farming families living together on a jointly managed piece of land?

A small group of farming or herding families living together on a jointly managed piece of land is one of the most common living arrangements in all of human history as this has co-existed and competed with more individualistic forms of ownership as well as state ownership since the beginnings of agriculture.


What is collective farming?

Collective farming and communal farming are various types of “agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise”. There are two broad types of communal farms: Agricultural cooperatives, in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities as a collective, and state farms, …


Overview

Agriculture in the Soviet Union was mostly collectivized, with some limited cultivation of private plots. It is often viewed as one of the more inefficient sectors of the economy of the Soviet Union. A number of food taxes (prodrazverstka, prodnalog, and others) were introduced in the early Soviet period despite the Decree on Land that immediately followed the October Revolution. The forced collectivization and class war against (vaguely defined) “kulaks” under Stalinism greatly disr…


History

During the Russian Civil War, Joseph Stalin’s experience as political chief of various regions, carrying out the dictates of war communism, involved extracting grain from peasants, including extraction at gunpoint from those who were not supportive of the Bolshevik (Red) side of the war (such as Whites and Greens). After a grain crisis during 1928, Stalin established the USSR’s system of state and collective farms when he moved to replace the New Economic Policy (NEP) with coll…


Agricultural labour

Stalin’s campaign of forced collectivization relied on a hukou system to keep farmers tied to the land. The collectivization was a major factor explaining the sector’s poor performance. It has been referred to as a form of “neo-serfdom”, in which the Communist bureaucracy replaced the former landowners. In the new state and collective farms, outside directives failed to take local growing condi…


Efficiency or inefficiency of collective farming

The theme that the Soviet Union was not getting good enough results out of its farming sector, and that the top leadership needed to take significant actions to correct this, was a theme that permeated Soviet economics for the entire lifespan of the union. In the 1920s through 1940s, the first variation on the subject was that counter-revolutionary subversive wrecking need to be ferreted out and violently repressed. In the late 1950s through 1970s, the focus shifted to lack of technoc…


In popular culture

Soviet culture presented an agro-Romantic view of country life. After the fall of Soviet Union, it has been recreated tongue-in-cheek in the albums and videos of the Moldovan group Zdob şi Zdub.


Research

The Tsar’s Petrovskaya Agricultural Academy was taken over during the Revolution and renamed the Moscow Agricultural Institute. (Today known as the Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy.) One of its graduates was Nikolai Vavilov, who would go on to contribute greatly – albeit controversially during Stalin’s rule. Vavilov was greatly disliked by Lysenko but after his death was recognised as a hero to Soviet agricultural research and inde…


See also

• Agriculture in Russia
• Agriculture in the Russian Empire
• Bibliography of the Russian Revolution and Civil War § Peasants
• Bibliography of Stalinism and the Soviet Union § Agriculture and the peasantry


Further reading

• Davies, Robert, and Stephen Wheatcroft. The years of hunger: Soviet agriculture, 1931–1933 (Springer, 2016).
• Davies, Robert William, and Richard W. Davies. The socialist offensive: the collectivisation of Soviet agriculture, 1929-1930 (London: Macmillan, 1980).
• Figes, Orlando. The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin’s Russia. “Macmillan”. 2008

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