How did the green revolution change agriculture


Overview of the Changes

  • Greater use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
  • Enhanced irrigation facilities.
  • Introduction of High-Yielding Variety (HYV) Seeds.
  • Rise in multiple cropping, which lead to agricultural intensification.

The green revolution led to high productivity of crops through adapted measures, such as (1) increased area under farming, (2) double-cropping, which includes planting two crops rather than one, annually, (3) adoption of HYV of seeds, (4) highly increased use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides, (5) improved …Feb 22, 2021


What was the impact of the Green Revolution on agriculture?

 · How the Green Revolution Changed Food Production Forever. Potato farms in Aroostook County, Maine, in October 1940. For almost as long as humans have cultivated crops, they’ve selected seed from plants they deemed best, minimized competition from weeds, protected crops from pests, and irrigated as they were able.

How did the Green Revolution begin?

green revolution, great increase in production of food grains (especially wheat and rice) that resulted in large part from the introduction into developing countries of new, high-yielding varieties, beginning in the mid-20th century. Its early dramatic successes were in Mexico and the Indian subcontinent. The new varieties require large amounts of chemical fertilizers and …

How did the Third Agricultural Revolution change agriculture?

The introduction of Green Revolution in 1967-68 has resulted in phenomenal increase in the production of agricultural crops especially in food-grains. It was beneficial because it helped produce more food and prevented the starvation of many people. It also resulted in lower production costs and sale prices of produce.

What was the basis for the Agricultural Revolution?

the green revolution led to high productivity of crops through adapted measures, such as (1) increased area under farming, (2) double-cropping, which includes planting two crops rather than one, annually, (3) adoption of hyv of seeds, (4) highly increased use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides, (5) improved irrigation facilities, and (6) …


How is the Green Revolution transforming agriculture?

The new varieties were much more responsive to fertilizers and irrigation, and many farmers doubled or tripled their yields. Borlaug’s seeds also grew faster and were insensitive to daylight length, enabling more crops to be grown each year on the same piece of land.

Why is the Green Revolution important to agriculture?

Impact on Productivity and Food Prices. The rapid increase in agricultural output resulting from the GR came from an impressive increase in yields per hectare. Between 1960 and 2000, yields for all developing countries rose 208% for wheat, 109% for rice, 157% for maize, 78% for potatoes, and 36% for cassava (18).

How did the Green Revolution impact agriculture quizlet?

The Green Revolution was the rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology. The Green Revolution involved two main practices: new higher-yield seeds and expanded use of fertilizer. Higher-yield seeds were used to produce a higher-yield form of wheat.

What were the benefits of Green Revolution?

Advantages of Green Revolution It allows us to create more food than conventional methods of growing. In uncooperative conditions, it offers us with predictable yields. It allows a decline in food costs for the world economy. The deforestation problems on our planet have been minimized.

What was the impact of Green Revolution on the environment?

The increases achieved by the Green Revolution have created several environmental problems, viz. deforestation, waterlogging, salinity, alkalinity, soil erosion and decline and rise of the ground water table linked to brackish water, etc.

How did the Green Revolution contribute to world food production briefly discuss?

Benefits of the Green Revolution As a result of the Green Revolution and the introduction of chemical fertilizers, synthetic herbicides and pesticides, high-yield crops, and the method of multiple cropping, the agricultural industry was able to produce much larger quantities of food.

What is the Green Revolution and how did it affect the developing world?

The Green Revolution (a term used for rapid increases in wheat and rice yields in developing countries brought about by improved varieties combined with the expanded use of fertilizers and other chemical inputs) has had a dramatic impact on incomes and food supplies in many developing countries.

What was the overall result of the initiatives introduced during the Green Revolution in agriculture in the decades of the 1940s 1960s?

Because of its success in producing more agricultural products there, Green Revolution technologies spread worldwide in the 1950s and 1960s, significantly increasing the number of calories produced per acre of agriculture.

Who benefited the most from the Green Revolution?

Small farmers did lag behind large farmers in adopting Green Revolution technologies, yet many of them eventually did so. Many of these small-farm adopters benefited from increased production, greater employment opportunities, and higher wages in the agricultural and nonfarm sectors.

What is the relationship between the Green Revolution and industrial agriculture?

What is the relationship between the Green Revolution and industrial agriculture? The Green Revolution increased food production in less developed nations, while industrial agriculture increased food production in more developed nations.

What is Green Revolution short answer?

Definition of green revolution : the great increase in production of food grains (such as rice and wheat) due to the introduction of high-yielding varieties, to the use of pesticides, and to better management techniques.

What was the Green Revolution?

Preventing starvation of people in developing countries wasn’t the only outcome of the Green Revolution. “Green Revolution: Curse or Blessing?” states, “The Green Revolution…contributed to better nutrition by raising incomes and reducing prices, which permitted people to consume more calories and a more diversified diet. Big increases occurred in per capita consumption of vegetable oils, fruits, vegetables, and livestock products in Asia.”

How does agriculture help the poor?

Agriculture on smallholdings can be more productive when productivity is measured in pounds of food produced per acre rather than dollars spent per pound of food produced. The type of farming implemented on these farms is usually less capital-intensive, though labor inputs are high when compared to industrial agriculture. That may not be bad, as it creates jobs. The FAO report says, “Agricultural growth is particularly effective in reducing hunger and malnutrition. Most of the extreme poor depend on agriculture and related activities for a significant part of their livelihoods. Agricultural growth involving smallholders, especially women, will be most effective in reducing extreme poverty and hunger when it increases returns to labour and generates employment for the poor.” (Emphasis added.)

Can small farms increase food production?

But there’s hope for increased food production without cutting down forests to create new farmland or using ever larger amounts of nonrenewable resources, and that hope rests squarely in small farms. According to “The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2012,” a report from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, “Many of the development success stories of the past 20-40 years were based on smallholder production… During this time, smallholders were also typically more efficient than large-scale farmers. Looking ahead, smallholder production is likely to be more efficient for labour-intensive products such as vegetables.”

Can farmers use less chemicals?

Some organizations and research indicate s that there’s simply no turning back to a time when farmers used fewer chemicals., a website of the U.S. Farmers & Ranchers Alliance, said, “If tools like insecticides, herbicides, fertilizers were not available, entire crops could be wiped out and the stability of our food supply would be destroyed.”

What was used to kill insects in the 1800s?

Powders, such as pyrethrum made from chrysanthemum flowers, were used to kill insects prior to the 1860s, but about that time, farmers started using more toxic chemicals, such as arsenic, to protect crops from insects. According to the website, “Arsenic has a long history of use both as an insecticide and herbicide, and also as a medicine. Arsenic trioxide was used as a weed killer (herbicide) in the late 1800s, and lead arsenate, containing both lead and arsenic, was used as an insecticide, particularly in orchards, prior to the development of synthetic pesticides following WWII. Some of the first concerns about pesticide safety were raised over lead arsenate residue on fruit and in orchards.”

Why are manures important?

The benefits of manures and “fertilizers” were known long before the 20th century. Prior to more productive plant varieties demanding higher levels of nutrients to produce larger crops, farmers were looking for products to increase yields and revive tired soil—even if those nutrients came from resources that wouldn’t be quickly replenished.

Why did farmers use hybrids?

For many years, increases in agricultural productivity were slow. A better understanding of genetics and selective breeding led farmers to utilize the benefits of hybrid vigor and careful selection in the 20th century. Plants were crossed to create more productive varieties, but yield isn’t a matter of simply producing larger or more abundant grain and fruit. Yield is affected by disease resistance, drought tolerance and things such as strong stems to hold up ripe seed heads until harvest—and those are only a few of the characteristics for which plant breeders might select.

How did the Green Revolution affect the world?

According to a 2012 review in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the existing academic literature, the Green Revolution “contributed to widespread poverty reduction, averted hunger for millions of people, and avoided the conversion of thousands of hectares of land into agricultural cultivation.”

Why is the Green Revolution not so successful?

Reasons cited include widespread corruption, insecurity, a lack of infrastructure, and a general lack of will on the part of the governments. Yet environmental factors, such as the availability of water for irrigation, the high diversity in slope and soil types in one given area are also reasons why the Green Revolution is not so successful in Africa.

What were the innovations of the Green Revolution?

The novel technological development of the Green Revolution was the production of novel wheat cultivars. Agronomists bred cultivars of maize, wheat, and rice that are the generally referred to as HYVs or ” high-yielding varieties “. HYVs have higher nitrogen-absorbing potential than other varieties. Since cereals that absorbed extra nitrogen would typically lodge, or fall over before harvest, semi-dwarfing genes were bred into their genomes. A Japanese dwarf wheat cultivar Norin 10 developed by Japanese agronomist Gonjiro Inazuka, which was sent to Orville Vogel at Washington State University by Cecil Salmon, was instrumental in developing Green Revolution wheat cultivars. IR8, the first widely implemented HYV rice to be developed by IRRI, was created through a cross between an Indonesian variety named “Peta” and a Chinese variety named “Dee-geo-woo-gen”. In the 1960s, when a food crisis happened in Asia, the spread of HYV rice was aggravated intensely.

What were the two technologies used in the Green Revolution?

Two kinds of technologies were used in the Green Revolution and aim at cultivation and breeding area respectively. The technologies in cultivation are targeted at providing excellent growing conditions, which included modern irrigation projects, pesticides, and synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. The breeding technologies aimed at improving crop varieties developed through the conventional, science-based methods available at the time. These technologies included hybrids, combining modern genetics with selections.

What was the main goal of the Chinese government?

When the Chinese Communists came to power in 1949, the Chinese state came to play a major role in agricultural policy and scientific research. It sought to solve China’s food security issues, eliminating hunger and starvation, seeking to transform traditional cultivation of existing strains of rice and to apply new science and technology to agricultural production. Through agrarian reform over the 1950s, it eliminated absentee landlords and created collective farms, which could utilize mechanized cultivation. However, grain production did not increase significantly until the state began promoting state-supported agricultural research and investment in infrastructure. The development of strains of hybrid rice had long been a practice in Chinese agriculture, but in the 1960s, this ramped up through government supported agricultural science. Prominent in the development of productive hybrid rice was Yuan Longping, whose research hybridized wild strains of rice with existing strains. He has been dubbed “the father of hybrid rice,” and was considered a national hero in China. The Chinese government’s policies gave cultivators technical assistance, access to affordable HYVs, fertilizers, and pesticides, and developed infrastructure. Chinese rice production met the nation’s food security needs. In recent years, however, extensive use of ground water for irrigation has drawn down aquifers and extensive use of fertilizers has increased greenhouse gas emissions. China has not expanded the area of cultivable land, but the Green Revolution with high yields per hectare gave China the food security it sought.

What happened in the aftermath of the Mexican Revolution?

In the aftermath of the Mexican Revolution, the government had redistributed land to peasants in some parts of the country which had broken the back of the hacienda system. During the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas (1934-1940), land reform in Mexico reached its apex in the center and south of Mexico.

What was Mexico called during the Green Revolution?

Mexico has been called the ‘birthplace’ and ‘burial ground’ of the Green Revolution. It began with great promise and it has been argued that “during the twentieth century two ‘revolutions’ transformed rural Mexico: the Mexican Revolution (1910–1920) and the Green Revolution (1950–1970).”.

How did the Green Revolution affect agriculture?

Fertilizers and pesticid es polluted soil, air, and water far beyond the agricultural lands themselves, including the world’s oceans . The Green Revolution transformed not only the farming system, but local foodways and culture as farmers swapped traditional seeds and growing practices for the new varieties of corn, wheat,

What was the basis of the agricultural revolution?

In addition to plant genetics, the basis for this agricultural revolution was a package of interventions to supercharge crop productivity, based largely on American industrialized techniques that had made places like California a global agricultural leader. This included enriching soil by applying powerful chemical fertilizers and combating plant pathogens and pests with chemical pesticides. Coupled with modern irrigation methods and farm equipment, the techniques doubled and tripled yields.

What are the effects of chemical exposure on agriculture?

Many rural communities remain in poverty and suffer the effects of chemical exposure as pesticide-resistant crop pests and soil degradation demand ever stronger chemical inputs. The world now faces another looming food crisis.

What were the limitations of the Green Revolution?

By the late 1970s, the limitations of the Green Revolution were apparent. Many of its policies favored large landowners and producers, creating hardship for smallholders passed over for research opportunities and subsidies.

What did Borlaug’s crops do to the environment?

In addition, increased water consumption, soil degradation, and chemical runoff did significant environmental damage . Fertilizers and pesticides polluted soil, air, and water far beyond the agricultural lands themselves, including the world’s oceans .

Why is the Cerrado Savanna considered a wasteland?

In Brazil, the vast Cerrado savanna region had been regarded as a wasteland due to its acidic soil, but by fortifying the soil with lime, researchers discovered it could be quite productive for growing commodity crops.

What did China do with rice?

China undertook its own rice research and application of Green Revolution techniques on a massive scale to feed its growing population. Between the 1970s and 1990s, rice and wheat yields in Asia increased 50%. The poverty rate halved and nutrition improved even as the population more than doubled.

How did the Green Revolution affect agriculture?

It also resulted in lower production costs and sale prices of produce. Although it had several benefits, the Green Revolution also had some negative effects on soil fertility, the environment and society .

What was the Green Revolution?

The Green Revolution in India refers to a period when Indian agriculture was converted into an industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods and technology such as the use of high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, tractors, irrigation facilities, pesticides, and fertilizers.

When did India start the green revolution?

In India is started the green revolution in the year of 1960 and around. In the scheme, the goal is to produce enough food for us.

Should biotechnology be introduced in India?

Biotechnology based products need to be introduced in India which can provide large production. India can’t be sceptic about these products when whole world is reaping the benefits of biotechology

Did Shastri cut down his food intake?

The situation those days was so horrible that PM Shastri not only cut down his food intake, but also appealed to citizens to think over and save food grains.

Was there a famine in the 60s?

It is said that in the early 60s (i was a small boy then), there was severe famine, which did not raise much of eyebrows, as it was a regular feature in India. Thanks to the Rajya Sabha MP Swaminathan, whose brainchild GR is, who was basically a scientist, with Green Revolution today we are not only self sufficient but have the capacity to export too. Interestingly, this is despite tonnes of food grains devoured by rodents, rotting due to improper storage, etc.

Who introduced the dwarf variety of wheat and rice?

Norman E. Borlaug introduced the dwarf variety of wheat and rice by using dwarf gene called Norin 10 and dee-gee-woo gene. Which is helpful in increasing the yield of cereals grain and useful for Indian farmer by achieving their basic needs.

How did the Green Revolution affect the world?

Though the Green Revolution was successful in increasing the food production tremendously, it has faced criticism for starting an era of chemical farming. Some argue that the high input agriculture methodology triggered problems such as soil degradation, soil salinity, chemical pollution and differential socioeconomic impacts leading to instability (Davies, 2003; Evenson and Gollin, 2003). Another argument against the Green Revolution is that it has itself led to poverty. Critics argue that only the big farmers could access the costly technology introduced in the developing countries while the smaller farmers suffered and their economic condition further deteriorated and this widened the economic gap (Strauss, 2000). The supporters of the Green Revolution argue against these criticisms by stating that the Green Revolution actually reduced the poverty and helped the poor more than the rich because it was also associated with reduction in food prices as the production increased (Lipton, 2007). In spite of all the criticisms, Green Revolution is still a huge step undertaken by mankind in the direction of getting rid of hunger and food scarcity.

What were the main reasons for the Green Revolution?

Borlaug (1971) himself stated that the main reasons of success of these varieties, were their wide adaptation, short stature, high responsiveness to inputs and disease resistance.

What percentage of rice was planted with HYVs in 1978?

Area planted under HYVs of wheat in 1978-79 was 72.4 percent of the total area under wheat in Asia, while 30.4 percent of the total area under rice was planted with HYVs (Table 1) (Dalrymple, 1978).

How much land was irrigated in 1961?

The irrigated land area was 139 million ha in 1961, which increased to 210 million ha in 1980 and to 271 million ha in 2000. Worldwide fertilizer usage increased from 31 million tonnes in 1961 to 117 million tonnes in 1980 and to 137 million tonnes in 2000 (FAO, 2007).

When did wheat production increase in India?

He spread this successful model of wheat production technology to other developing nations like India and Pakistan in the mid-60s and as a result, between 1964 and 2001, the wheat production in India increased from 12 to 75 million tonnes while in Pakistan an increase from 4.5 to 22 million tonnes was achieved..

Which scientist predicted that the population would grow geometrically?

Thomas Malthus, in 1798, argued in his famous prediction that the population has the tendency to grow geometrically whereas the food production follows an arithmetic increase. This would lead to depletion of food resources as the population grew and consequently humanity would face famine.

How much has the production of cereals increased during the Green Revolution?

During the same period, the cereal production in developing countries has increased 2.7 times , compared to 2.3 times in developed countries.

Why was the Third Agricultural Revolution called the Green Revolution?

This time period received its name because of the emphasis on creating crops that yielded the most produce. Improvement in fertilizers and irrigation allowed crops to grow in climates previously too dry. Agricultural scientists like American researcher Norman Borlaug bred plants resistant to disease, produced more grain, and responded well to fertilizers. Industrial farms raised a single strain of highly productive plant. While these homogeneous crops increased yield, they were less disease-resistant and elevated the need for pesticides.

What were the main developments in agriculture during the agricultural revolution?

In China, humans used flood and fire control to create rice paddies beginning around 6,000 B .C. They domesticated water buffalos and yaks to eat their meat and milk and their hair and hide to make clothing. In Mexico, humans selectively bred a wild plant called teosinte to create maize or corn. The earliest known corn cob dates from 3,500 B.C. These same humans grew squash, which would become a staple food throughout the Americas. At the same time in the Andes Mountains of South America, humans grew potatoes.

How did agriculture change the world?

The innovations in agriculture radically changed how humans produced food. Crop rotation and livestock breeding resulted in higher yields, while new mechanical equipment required fewer workers. Because their work was no longer needed, people traveled to cities to find work. Some people were desperate for employment in factories or other city jobs. Their small family farms could not compete with larger, industrial farms, or modern farming equipment had rendered their labor obsolete. In contrast, the children of successful farmers could now leave their families to look for other employment without worrying about who would work on the farm. The surplus produce from industrial farms could be sold to city dwellers, which in turn allowed more people to have occupations other than farming.

How did the first agricultural revolution affect humans?

Humans changed from a nomadic species of hunter-gatherers to a sedentary or settled species of farmers and herders. Humans developed diverse cultures, which included intellectual pursuits such as religion and art. Finally, the transition from hunting to farming triggered genetic mutations. Scientists who test the DNA of humans from this time period have found genes associated with changes in eye and skin color, height, immunity to diseases, and the ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk.

Where did the early agricultural revolution take place?

Archeological sites in China yield evidence of early rice paddies, while sites in the Americas have tools for the cultivation of potatoes, corn, and squash. The Fertile Crescent of the Middle East contains the most evidence for the agricultural revolution. Archeological sites at Catalhoyuk, Abu Hureyra, and elsewhere reveal evidence of growing grain, cultivating fruit trees, and domesticating animals.

What are the three agricultural revolutions?

An agricultural revolution is when farming techniques drastically improve within a relatively short period of time. This leads to a greater production of food. Three agricultural revolutions have taken place in human history. The First Agricultural Revolution, or the Neolithic Revolution, began around 10,000 B.C. Humans shifted from being hunter-gathers to being subsistence farmers and herders. The Second Agricultural Revolution, or the British Agricultural Revolution, began around 300 years ago during the 18th century. Major changes to farming techniques included selectively breeding livestock and systematic crop rotation. The Third Agricultural Revolution, or the Green Revolution, took place during the 1940s, 50s, and 60s. Improvements to plant technology allowed for much greater crop yields.

Why did the seed drill revolution start?

This revolution started because of developments in technology, a shift towards industrialization, and the growth of cities. In the early 18th century, British inventor Jethro Tull perfected the seed drill, which allowed farmers to efficiently sew seeds in rows rather than scattering seeds by hand.

What was the farming revolution?

Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the ” Neolithic Revolution.”. Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements …

Why did people start farming?

In the Near East, for example, it’s thought that climatic changes at the end of the last ice age brought seasonal conditions that favored annual plants like wild cereals. Elsewhere, such as in East Asia, increased pressure on natural food resources may have forced people to find homegrown solutions. But whatever the reasons for its independent origins, farming sowed the seeds for the modern age.

What is the meaning of “agriculture”?

agriculture. Noun. the art and science of cultivating land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching). annual plant. Noun. plant with a life cycle of no more than one year, and often much less. barley. Noun. grass cultivated as a grain.

What mutation occurred during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe?

But at some point during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe, a mutation occurred for lactose tolerance that increased in frequency through natural selection thanks to the nourishing benefits of milk.

When was rice first grown?

The origins of rice and millet farming date to around 6,000 B.C.E. The world’s oldest known rice paddy fields, discovered in eastern China in 2007, reveal evidence of ancient cultivation techniques such as flood and fire control.

When did rice and millet farming start?

The origins of rice and millet farming date to around 6,000 B.C.E.

Where did the wild produce originate?

The wild progenitors of crops including wheat, barley and peas are traced to the Near East region. Cereals were grown in Syria as long as 9,000 years ago, while figs were cultivated even earlier; prehistoric seedless fruits discovered in the Jordan Valley suggest fig trees were being planted some 11,300 years ago. Though the transition from wild harvesting was gradual, the switch from a nomadic to a settled way of life is marked by the appearance of early Neolithic villages with homes equipped with grinding stones for processing grain.



Agricultural production and food security

According to a 2012 review in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the existing academic literature, the Green Revolution “contributed to widespread poverty reduction, averted hunger for millions of people, and avoided the conversion of thousands of hectares of land into agricultural cultivation.”


The term “Green Revolution” was first used by William S. Gaud, the administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), in a speech on 8 March 1968. He noted the spread of the new technologies as:
“These and other developments in the field of agriculture contain the makings of a new revolution. It is not a violent Red Revolution like that of the Soviets, nor i…

Norman Borlaug’s response to criticism

Borlaug dismissed certain claims of critics, but also cautioned, “There are no miracles in agricultural production. Nor is there such a thing as a miracle variety of wheat, rice, or maize which can serve as an elixir to cure all ills of a stagnant, traditional agriculture.”
Of environmental lobbyists, he said:
some of the environmental lobbyists of the Western nations are the salt of the earth, but many o…

Second Green Revolution

Although the Green Revolution has been able to improve agricultural output in some regions in the world, there was and is still room for improvement. As a result, many organizations continue to invent new ways to improve the techniques already used in the Green Revolution. Frequently quoted inventions are the System of Rice Intensification, marker-assisted selection, agroecology, and applying existing technologies to agricultural problems of the developing world. Current cha…

See also

• Arab Agricultural Revolution
• British Agricultural Revolution
• Columbian exchange
• Environmental impact of agriculture

Further reading

• Cotter, Joseph (2003). Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880–2002. Westport, CT: Prager
• Deb, Debal, “Restoring Rice Biodiversity”, Scientific American, vol. 321, no. 4 (October 2019), pp. 54–61.
• Harwood, Andrew (14 June 2013). “Development policy and history: lessons from the Green Revolution”.

External links

• Norman Borlaug talk transcript, 1996
• The Green Revolution in the Punjab, by Vandana Shiva
• Aftermath of the Green Revolution in Punjab, by Harsha Vadlamani
• Africa’s Turn: A New Green Revolution for the 21st Century, Rockefeller Foundation

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